Methods for Teaching Science as Inquiry

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  • Edition: 10th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-03-24
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Inquiry-based teaching is central to the National Science Education Standards (NSES) and Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy, and research has proven that an inquiry approach to science teaching motivates and engages every type of student. Methods for Teaching Science as Inquiry provides a clear, easy-to-follow approach to inquiry, using the 5-E Learning Cycle model of instruction (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate). This book is derived from Teaching Science as Inquiry, which has become the leading book on the market!

Table of Contents

"Messing About in Science": An Introductionp. 1
Children, Science, and Inquiry: Some Preliminary Questionsp. 2
Constructive Learningp. 4
An Invitation to Inquiry Science: Leavesp. 5
Why Should Science Be Taught in Elementary School?p. 6
Learning to Think and Understandp. 6
Scientific Literacyp. 7
Science Education and Natural Concernsp. 7
Language Literacy and Mathematics Competencyp. 8
Early Science and the NCLB Legislationp. 8
U.S. Science Education: Where Have We Been, Where Are We Now, Where Are We Going?p. 10
Where Have We Been in Science Educationp. 10
Where Are We Now in Science Educationp. 10
Where Are We Going in Science Educationp. 11
What Shall We Teach in Science?p. 12
Conceptual Knowledge and Understanding in Sciencep. 13
Abilities to Carry Out Scientific Inquiryp. 17
Questions for Investigationsp. 18
An Invitation to Inquiry Science: Magnetic Interactionsp. 19
Understandings About the Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiryp. 21
Science and Technologyp. 23
Teachers and Inquiryp. 24
Summaryp. 25
Online Professional Developmentp. 26
Processes and Strategies for Inquiringp. 28
Processes of Sciencep. 29
Observingp. 30
Classifyingp. 32
Inferringp. 34
Measuringp. 35
Communicatingp. 36
Predictingp. 39
Hypothesizingp. 40
Experimentingp. 41
Types of Investigationsp. 43
Investigation Strategiesp. 43
Types of Investigationsp. 43
Investigating Mealworms: Descriptive, Classificatory, and Experimental Inquiriesp. 45
Mystery Powders: A Descriptive and Classificatory Investigationp. 47
Germinating Seeds and Growing Plants: A Descriptive and Experimental Inquiry Projectp. 51
Teachers, Children, and Inquiryp. 56
Summaryp. 57
Online Professional Developmentp. 57
Learning Science with Understandingp. 60
The New View of Learningp. 62
Constructing Knowledge with Understanding in Sciencep. 63
Levels of Understandingp. 64
Enhancing the Understanding of Sciencep. 64
Provide for Access to Prior Knowledgep. 64
Provide for Transfer of New Knowledgep. 65
Enhance Knowledge Organizationp. 66
Provide Scaffolding Supportp. 68
Build Learning Communitiesp. 69
Children's Alternative Conceptions and Science Learningp. 70
A Strategy for Conceptual Change: Moon Watchingp. 72
Development, Learning, and Science Teachingp. 75
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Developmentp. 75
Children's Theories of Floating and Sinkingp. 79
Developmentally Appropriate Sciencep. 79
Grade Placement of the Cartesian Diverp. 81
Summaryp. 83
Online Professional Developmentp. 84
Teaching Science for Understanding: The 5-E Model of Instructionp. 86
Inquiry Instructionp. 88
Features of Inquiry Instructionp. 88
Models of Instructionp. 90
The 5-E Model of Science Instructionp. 91
Phases of the 5-E Modelp. 91
Teaching Electrical Concepts Through the 5-E Model of Instructionp. 93
Using the 5-E Model to Sequence Science Activitiesp. 101
Guided Discovery, Textbook, and Direct Instruction Approaches to Teaching Sciencep. 102
Guided Discoveryp. 102
Direct Instructionp. 104
A Textbook Approach to Science Teachingp. 105
Research on the Effectiveness of Different Approaches to Science Instructionp. 106
Selecting Instructional Approaches for Teaching Sciencep. 107
Summaryp. 108
Online Professional Developmentp. 109
Planning and Managing Inquiry Instructionp. 110
Planning Science Lessonsp. 112
Select Science Content to Be Taught and Learnedp. 112
Write Appropriate Objectivesp. 114
Select and Design Lesson Activitiesp. 116
Design Assessment Experiencesp. 122
A Lesson Plan on Floating and Sinkingp. 122
Assessment and Evaluation Plan for the Floating and Sinking Lessonp. 124
Managing Inquiry Instruction and Learningp. 126
Grouping Students for Learningp. 127
Safety in the Science Classroomp. 128
Managing Classroom Behaviorp. 129
Implementing Learning Activitiesp. 131
Summaryp. 133
Online Professional Developmentp. 134
Assessing Science Learningp. 136
Assessment and Evaluationp. 138
Assessment and Inquiry Sciencep. 140
Key Question to Guide Assessment in Inquiry Sciencep. 140
Diagnostic, Formative, and Summative Assessmentp. 141
Diagnostic Assessmentp. 141
Formative Assessmentp. 141
Summative Assessmentp. 141
Informal, Traditional, and Performance Assessmentsp. 142
Informal Assessmentp. 142
Traditional Assessmentp. 142
Performance Assessmentp. 143
Fitting Assessment Methods to Learning Objectivesp. 144
Examples of Informal Assessmentsp. 147
Assessing Students' Conceptual Knowledge and Understandingp. 147
Examples of Performance Assessment Itemsp. 154
Using Performance Tasks to Assess Science Knowledgep. 154
Using Performance Tasks to Assess Science Understandingp. 154
Assessing Multiple Objectives Through Performance Assessmentsp. 165
Examples of Traditional Assessment Itemsp. 168
Assessing Science Knowledge with Traditional Itemsp. 168
Assessing Understanding with Traditional Itemsp. 169
Assessing the Application of Science Processes and Inquiry Procedures with Traditional Itemsp. 173
Characteristics of Items on State Tests of Sciencep. 175
Science Standards and Statewide Testsp. 176
Using Released Tests to Help Students Prepare for State Testsp. 181
Summaryp. 182
Online Professional Developmentp. 182
Effective Questioningp. 184
Questioning: An Essential Tool for Teachersp. 185
Closed and Open-Ended Questionsp. 186
Questioning to Guide Inquiry Discussionsp. 187
Engage Using Questioning to Initiate Inquiryp. 188
Explore: Using Questioning to Guide Discussions of Observationsp. 189
Explain: Using Questioning to Guide Discussions of Explanationsp. 191
Elaborate: Questioning to Guide Discussions of Applications to New Situationsp. 193
Responding to Student Ideasp. 194
Accept Student Responsesp. 194
Extend Student Responsesp. 196
Probe Student Responsesp. 197
Questioning Strategies in the Classroom: Properties of Air in First Gradep. 198
Some Considerations in Questioningp. 201
Increase Your Wait-Timep. 201
Gradually Fade Your Questioning Supportp. 202
Listen to One Anotherp. 202
Consider Cultural Implications of Your Questionsp. 203
Remember, We All Need Strokes!p. 203
Summaryp. 204
Online Professional Developmentp. 204
Technology Tools and Resources for Inquiry Sciencep. 206
Educational Technologyp. 208
The Internet as a Technology Resource for Inquiry Sciencep. 210
Use Internet Images to Engage Students in Inquiry into Volcanoesp. 210
Use Archived Data on Whale Movements in 5-E Lessonsp. 210
Explore Space Through the Internetp. 212
Take a Virtual Field Tripp. 212
Visit Science Exhibits Onlinep. 213
Take a Factory Tour via the Internetp. 213
Use Commercialy Available Multimedia Packages to Enhance Science Inquiryp. 213
The Great Solar System Rescue: A Simulation for Science Classesp. 214
Take Your Case to Science Courtp. 214
Explore the Skies with Planetarium Programsp. 215
Use Virtual Laboratoriesp. 215
Use Instructional Software Packagesp. 216
Learn with Computer-Assisted Instruction Packagesp. 216
Explore the World with Global Information Systemsp. 216
Explore the Potential of Digital Cameras and Digital Microscopesp. 217
Contribute to and Use Computer Databasesp. 217
Contribute to and Use Regional Databasesp. 218
Participate in the GLOBE Projectp. 218
Collect Observational Data on Cloudsp. 219
Use Archived Data to Discover Weather Patternsp. 219
Use Computer-Based Laboratories to Collect and Process Datap. 220
Use Spreadsheets to Organize and Analyze Datap. 221
Communicate Through Multimedia Presentationsp. 222
Managing Educational Technology in the Science Classroomp. 223
Using Different Arrangements of Computers in Your Schoolp. 223
Selecting Science Software and Internet Sitesp. 225
Acceptable Use Policies for the Internetp. 227
Take the Plunge-Join the Information Agep. 228
Summaryp. 228
Online Professional Developmentp. 228
Connecting Science with Other Subjectsp. 230
Connecting Science and Mathematicsp. 232
Quantifying the Real Worldp. 233
Organizing and Interpreting Datap. 236
Using Patterns and Relationshipsp. 239
Operating on Numerical Datap. 240
Connecting Science and Literacyp. 243
Science and Readingp. 244
Writing in Sciencep. 247
Connecting Science and Social Studiesp. 247
Plan Lessons Around Science/Technology/Society Themesp. 248
Weather: A Science and Social Studies Lesson for Grade 3p. 248
A River Ran Wild: A Science and Social Studies Lesson for Grades 3-5p. 249
The Environment and Native American Culture: A Science/Social Studies Lesson for Upper Gradesp. 250
Summaryp. 250
Online Professional Developmentp. 251
Science for All Learnersp. 252
Students with Special Learning Needsp. 254
Common Standards, Common Assessments, Diverse Pathwaysp. 254
Making Modifications for Students with Special Learning Needsp. 255
Science for Students with Specific Learning Disabilitiesp. 255
Science for Students with Mental Retardationp. 262
Science for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disordersp. 262
Science for Students with Visual Impairmentsp. 263
Science for Students with Hearing Impairmentsp. 264
Science for Gifted and Talented Studentsp. 265
Make Real Inclusion a Goalp. 266
Stimulate Gifted Students by the Way You Teachp. 266
Science for Students from Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Backgroundsp. 267
English Language Learners and Inquiry Sciencep. 268
Sheltered Instruction and the 5-E Model of Inquiryp. 269
Students from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds and Inquiry Sciencep. 271
Summaryp. 271
Online Professional Developmentp. 272
Referencesp. 273
Appendixesp. AP-1
Safety Requirements and Suggestions for Elementary and Middle School Inquiry Activitiesp. AP-2
Measuring Tools, Measuring Skillsp. AP-4
Selected Sources of Science Supplies, Models, Living Things, Kits, and Softwarep. AP-9
Selected Science Education Periodicals for Teachers and Childrenp. AP-10
Professional Societies for Teachers of Science, Science Supervisors, and Science Educatorsp. AP-11
Contemporary Elementary Science Projects and Programsp. AP-12
Indexp. IN-1
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