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9780073404578

Modern Digital Electronics

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780073404578

  • ISBN10:

    0073404578

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-08-21
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math

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Summary

Part of the McGraw-Hill Core Concepts Series, Modern Digital Electronics is an ideal textbook for a course on digital electronics at the undergraduate level. The text introduces digital systems and techniques through a bottom-up approach that allows users to start out with the basics of integrated circuits/circuit design and delve into topics such as digital design, flip flops, A/D and D/A. The book then moves on to explore elements of complex digital circuits with material like FPGAs, PLDs, PLAs, and more. Rich pedagogical features include review question with answers, a glossary of key terms, a large number of solved examples, and numerous practice problems. About the Core Concepts in Electrical Engineering Series:As advances in networking and communications bring the global academic community even closer together, it is essential that textbooks recognize and respond to this shift. It is in this spirit that we will publish textbooks in the McGraw-Hill Core Concepts in Electrical Engineering Series. The series will offer textbooks for the global electrical engineering curriculum that are reasonably priced, innovative, dynamic, and will cover fundamental subject areas studied by Electrical and Computer Engineering students. Written with a global perspective and presenting the latest in technological advances, these books will give students of all backgrounds a solid foundation in key engineering subjects.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xi
Fundamental Concept
1(20)
Introduction
1(2)
Digital Signals
3(1)
Basic Digital Circuits
4(2)
The And Operation
4(1)
The Or Operation
5(1)
The Not Operation
5(1)
Nand and Nor Operations
6(3)
The Nand Operation
6(1)
The Nor Operation
7(2)
Exclusive-Or Operation
9(1)
Boolean Algebra
9(3)
Examples of IC Gates
12(1)
Summary
13(8)
Glossary
14(2)
Review Questions
16(1)
Problems
17(4)
Number Systems and Codes
21(37)
Introduction
21(1)
Number Systems
22(1)
Binary Number System
22(4)
Binary-to-Decimal Conversion
23(1)
Decimal-to-Binary Conversion
24(2)
Signed Binary Numbers
26(4)
Sign-Magnitude Representation
26(1)
One's Complement Representation
27(1)
Two's Complement Representation
28(2)
Binary Arithmetic
30(2)
Binary Addition
30(1)
Binary Subtraction
31(1)
Binary Multiplication
32(1)
Binary Division
32(1)
Complement Arithmetic
32(2)
Subtraction Using 2's Complement
33(1)
Addition/Subtraction in 2's Complement Representation
33(1)
Octal Number System
34(4)
Octal-to-Decimal Conversion
34(1)
Decimal-to-Octal Conversion
35(1)
Octal-to-Binary Conversion
36(1)
Binary-to-Octal Conversion
36(1)
Octal Arithmetic
37(1)
Applications of Octal Number System
38(1)
Hexadecimal Number System
38(4)
Hexadecimal-to-Decimal Conversion
39(1)
Decimal-to-Hexadecimal Conversion
39(1)
Hexadecimal-to-Binary Conversion
40(1)
Binary-to-Hexadecimal Conversion
40(1)
Conversion from Hex-to-Octal and Vice-Versa
41(1)
Hexadecimal Arithmetic
42(1)
Codes
42(7)
Straight Binary Code
43(1)
Natural BCD Code
43(1)
Excess-3 Code
43(1)
Gray Code
44(1)
Octal Code
45(1)
Hexadecimal Code
45(1)
Alphanumeric Codes
46(3)
Error Detecting and Correcting Codes
49(5)
Error-detecting Codes
49(2)
Error-correcting Codes
51(3)
Summary
54(4)
Glossary
54(2)
Review Questions
56(1)
Problems
57(1)
Semiconductor Devices---Switching Mode Operation
58(31)
Introduction
59(1)
Semiconductors
60(1)
p-n Junction Diode
61(6)
Forward Bias
62(1)
Reverse Bias
63(1)
The Volt-Ampere Characteristic
64(1)
Zener Diode
64(1)
Transition Capacitance of a p-n Junction Diode
65(1)
Switching Characteristics of a Semiconductor Diode
65(2)
Schottky Diode
67(1)
Bipolar Junction Transistor
67(8)
Transistor Configurations
69(1)
Transistor as a Switch
70(1)
CE Transistor Switch
71(1)
Switching Speed of BJT
72(3)
Schottky Transistor
75(1)
Field-Effect Transistor
75(8)
Junction Field-Effect Transistor
75(2)
Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor
77(2)
FET Switches
79(3)
Complementary MOSFET (CMOS)
82(1)
Summary
83(6)
Glossary
83(1)
Review Questions
83(1)
Problems
84(5)
Digital Logic Families
89(49)
Introduction
89(1)
Bipolar Logic Families
89(1)
Unipolar Logic Families
90(1)
Characteristics of Digital ICs
90(3)
Speed of Operation
91(1)
Power Dissipation
91(1)
Figure of Merit
91(1)
Fan-Out
91(1)
Current and Voltage Parameters
91(1)
Noise Immunity
92(1)
Operating Temperature
92(1)
Power Supply Requirements
93(1)
Flexibilities Available
93(1)
Resistor-Transistor Logic (RTL)
93(3)
Logic Operation
93(1)
Loading Considerations
93(2)
Noise Margins
95(1)
Propagation Delay Time
95(1)
Current Source Logic
95(1)
Wired-Logic
95(1)
Direct-Coupled Transistor Logic (DCTL)
96(1)
Integrated-Injection Logic (I2L)
96(4)
I2L Inverter
97(1)
I2L Configuration
97(2)
Fabrication of I2L
99(1)
Diode--Transistor Logic (DTL)
100(3)
Operation of DTL Nand Gate
101(1)
Propagation Delays
102(1)
Current Sink Logic
102(1)
Wired-Logic
103(1)
Modified Integrated DTL NAND Gate
103(1)
High-Threshold Logic (HTL)
103(2)
Transistor-transistor Logic (TTL)
105(3)
Operation of TTL NAND Gate
105(1)
Active Pull-up
106(2)
Wired-And
108(1)
Open-Collector Output
108(1)
Unconnected Inputs
108(1)
Clamping Diodes
108(1)
Schottky TTL
108(1)
5400/7400 TTL Series
108(2)
Emitter-Coupled Logic (ECL)
110(4)
Fan-Out
113(1)
Wired-OR Logic
113(1)
Open-Emitter Outputs
114(1)
Unconnected Inputs
114(1)
ECL Families
114(1)
Interfacing ECL and TTL
114(1)
TTL-to-ECL Translator
114(1)
ECL-to-TTL Translator
115(1)
MOS Logic
115(4)
Mosfet Nand and Nor Gates
117(1)
Fan-Out
118(1)
Propagation Delay Time
118(1)
Power Dissipation
119(1)
Unconnected Inputs
119(1)
Cmos Logic
119(4)
Cmos Inverter
119(1)
Cmos Nand and Nor Gates
119(1)
Cmos Transmission Gate
120(1)
Noise Margin
120(1)
Unconnected Inputs
121(1)
Wired-Logic
121(1)
Open-Drain Outputs
122(1)
54C00/74C00 CMOS Series
122(1)
Interfacing CMOS and TTL
123(2)
CMOS Driving TTL
123(1)
TTL Driving CMOS
124(1)
Interfacing CMOS and ECL
125(1)
Tri-State Logic
126(2)
TSL Inverter
126(2)
Summary
128(10)
Glossary
129(4)
Review Questions
133(1)
Problems
134(4)
Combinational Logic Design
138(53)
Introduction
138(1)
Standard Representations for Logical Functions
139(7)
Karnaugh Map Representation of Logical Functions
146(4)
Representation of Truth Table on K-Map
148(1)
Representation of Standard SOP Form on K-Map
149(1)
Representation of Standard POS Form on K-Map
150(1)
Simplification of Logical Functions Using K-Map
150(5)
Grouping Two Adjacent Ones
151(1)
Grouping Four Adjacent Ones
152(2)
Grouping Eight Adjacent Ones
154(1)
Grouping 2, 4, and 8 Adjacent Zeros
155(1)
Minimization of Logical Functions Specified in Minterms/Maxterms or Truth Table
155(4)
Minimization of SOP Form
155(3)
Minimization of POS Form
158(1)
Minimization of Logical Functions not Specified in Minterms/Maxterms
159(2)
Don't-Care Conditions
161(2)
Design Examples
163(5)
Arithmetic Circuits
163(3)
BCD-to-7-Segment Decoder
166(2)
Ex-or And Ex-Nor Simplification of K-Maps
168(7)
Diagonal and Offset Adjacencies of Groups of Ones
171(4)
Five and Six-Variable K-maps
175(3)
Quine-McCluskey Minimization Technique
178(7)
Summary
185(6)
Glossary
186(1)
Review Questions
187(1)
Problems
187(4)
Combinational Logic Design Using MSI Circuits
191(46)
Introduction
191(1)
Multiplexers and Their Use in Combinational Logic Design
191(5)
Multiplexer
191(1)
Combinational Logic Design Using Multiplexers
192(4)
Multiplexer Tree
196(1)
Demultiplexers/Decoders and Their Use in Combinational Logic Design
196(5)
Demultiplexer
196(3)
Demultiplexer Tree
199(2)
Adders and Their Use as Subtracters
201(4)
Adder with Look-Ahead Carry
202(1)
Cascading of Adders
203(2)
Subtraction Using Adder
205(1)
BCD Arithmetic
205(4)
BCD Adder
206(1)
BCD Subtractor
206(3)
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
209(3)
Digital Comparators
212(3)
Parity Generators/Checkers
215(2)
Code Converters
217(9)
BCD-to-Binary Converter
218(4)
Binary-to-BCD Converter
222(4)
Priority Encoders
226(2)
Decimal-to-BCD Encoder
226(1)
Octal-to-Binary Encoder
227(1)
Decoder/Drivers for Display Devices
228(5)
BCD-to-Decimal Decoder/Driver
228(1)
BCD-to-7-Segment Decoder/Driver
229(4)
Summary
233(4)
Glossary
233(1)
Review Questions
234(1)
Problems
234(3)
Flip-Flops
237(30)
Introduction
237(2)
A 1-Bit Memory Cell
239(1)
Clocked S-R Flip-Flop
240(3)
Preset and Clear
241(2)
J-K Flip-Flop
243(3)
The Race-Around Condition
244(1)
The Master-Slave J-K Flip-Flop
245(1)
D-Type Flip-Flop
246(1)
T-Type Flip-Flop
247(1)
Excitation Table of Flip-Flop
248(1)
Clocked Flip-Flop Design
249(3)
Conversion From One Type of Flip-Flop to Another Type
250(2)
Edge-Triggered Flip-Flops
252(3)
Applications of Flip-Flops
255(4)
Bounce-Elimination Switch
255(1)
Registers
256(1)
Counters
257(1)
Random-Access Memory
258(1)
Summary
259(8)
Glossary
260(2)
Review Questions
262(1)
Problems
262(5)
Sequential Logic Design
267(68)
Introduction
267(1)
Registers
268(4)
Shift Register
269(3)
Applications of Shift Registers
272(4)
Delay Line
272(1)
Serial-to-Parallel Converter
272(1)
Parallel-to-Serial Converter
272(1)
Ring Counter
273(1)
Twisted-Ring Counter
273(1)
Sequence Generator
274(2)
Ripple or Asynchronous Counters
276(11)
UP/DOWN Counters
279(1)
Modulus of the Counter
280(1)
54/74 Series Asynchronous Counter ICs
281(6)
Synchronous Counters
287(15)
Synchronous Counter Design
288(4)
Lock Out
292(1)
54/74 Series Synchronous Counter ICs
292(10)
Clocked Sequential Circuit Design
302(4)
Asynchronous Sequential Circuits
306(21)
Asynchronus versus Synchronous Sequential Circuits
306(1)
Applications of Asynchronous Sequential Circuits
306(2)
Asynchronous Sequential Machine Modes
308(1)
Analysis of Asynchronous Sequential Machines
309(12)
Asynchronous Sequential Circuit Design
321(6)
Summary
327(8)
Glossary
328(2)
Review Questions
330(1)
Problems
330(5)
Timing Circuits
335(31)
Introduction
335(1)
Applications of Logic Gates in Timing Circuits
336(2)
Free-Running Multivibrator
336(1)
Monostable Multivibrator
337(1)
OP AMP and its Applications in Timing Circuits
338(11)
OP AMP Comparator
339(3)
Regenerative Comparator (Schmitt Trigger)
342(3)
Astable (or Free-Running) Multivibrator
345(2)
Monostable Multivibrator
347(2)
Schmitt Trigger ICs
349(1)
Schmitt Trigger Square-Wave Generator
349(1)
Monostable Multivibrator ICs
350(8)
74121 Monostable Multivibrator
350(2)
Retriggerable Monostable Multivibrators (74122 and 74123)
352(2)
Non-retriggerable Monostable Multivibrator with Clear (74221)
354(3)
Astable Multivibrator Using One-Shots
357(1)
555 Timer
358(4)
Monostable Multivibrator
359(1)
Astable Multivibrator
360(2)
Summary
362(4)
Glossary
362(1)
Review Questions
363(1)
Problems
364(2)
A/D and D/A Converters
366(35)
Introduction
366(1)
Digital-to-Analog Converters
367(11)
Weighted-Resistor D/A Converter
368(4)
R-2R Ladder D/A Converter
372(4)
Specifications for D/A Converters
376(2)
An Example of D/A Converter IC
378(4)
Digital Input Codes
379(1)
Analog Output
380(1)
Calibration
380(2)
Sample-And-Hold
382(1)
Sample-and-Hold Circuit
382(1)
Analog-to-Digital Converters
383(12)
Quantization and Encoding
383(2)
Parallel-Comparator A/D Converter
385(1)
Successive-Approximation A/D Converter
385(4)
Counting A/D Converter
389(1)
Dual-Slope A/D Converter
390(2)
A/D Converter Using Voltage-to-Frequency Conversion
392(1)
A/D Converter Using Voltage-to-Time Conversion
393(2)
Specifications of A/D Converters
395(1)
An Example of A/D Converter IC
395(2)
Operation
395(1)
Digital Output
395(1)
Analog Input
396(1)
Calibration
396(1)
Summary
397(4)
Glossary
398(1)
Review Questions
399(1)
Problems
399(2)
Semiconductor Memories
401(48)
Introduction
401(1)
Memory Organization and Operation
401(7)
Write Operation
403(2)
Read Operation
405(3)
Expanding Memory Size
408(2)
Expanding Word Size
408(1)
Expanding Word Capacity
408(2)
Classification and Characteristics of Memories
410(3)
Principle of Operation
410(2)
Physical Characteristics
412(1)
Mode of Access
413(1)
Fabrication Technology
413(1)
Sequential Memory
413(6)
Static Shift Register
414(1)
Dynamic Shift Register
414(5)
Read-Only Memory
419(7)
ROM Organization
421(2)
Programming Mechanisms
423(3)
ROM ICs
426(1)
Read and Write Memory
426(7)
Bipolar RAM Cell
428(2)
MOS RAMs
430(3)
RAM ICs
433(1)
Content Addressable Memory
433(7)
Operation of CAM
435(5)
Charge Coupled Device Memory
440(3)
Basic Concept of CCD
440(1)
Operation of CCD
441(1)
A Practical CCD Memory Device
442(1)
Summary
443(6)
Glossary
444(1)
Review Questions
445(1)
Problems
446(3)
Programmable Logic Devices
449(46)
Introduction
449(8)
ROM as a PLD
457(1)
Programmable Logic Array
457(8)
Input Buffer
452(1)
And Matrix
453(1)
OR Matrix
454(2)
Invert/Non-Invert Matrix
456(1)
Output Buffer
456(1)
Output through Flip-Flops and Buffers
457(1)
Programming the PLA
457(1)
Expanding PLA Capacity
457(1)
Applications of PLAs
458(7)
Available PLAs
465(1)
Programmable Array Logic
465(13)
Registered PALs
469(1)
Configurable PALs
469(3)
Generic Array Logic Devices
472(1)
Ex-Or PALs
473(2)
Available PALs
475(3)
Simple PLDs (SPLDs)
478(1)
Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLDs)
478(5)
Block Diagram
479(1)
Programming
480(1)
Packaging
481(1)
Available CPLDs
482(1)
Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)
483(8)
Logic Cell Array
484(5)
Actel ACT
489(1)
Antifuse
490(1)
Plessey ERA
490(1)
Summary
491(4)
Glossary
491(1)
Review Questions
492(1)
Problems
492(3)
Fundamentals of Microprocessors
495(50)
Introduction
495(1)
An Ideal Microprocessor
496(2)
The Data Bus
498(2)
The Address Bus
500(1)
The Control Bus
501(1)
Microprocessor Based System-Basic Operation
502(3)
Microprocessor Operation
505(1)
Microprocessor Architecture
506(2)
System Bus
506(1)
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
507(1)
Registers
507(1)
Program Counter (PC)
507(1)
Flags
507(1)
Timing and Control Unit
508(1)
Instruction set
508(2)
The 8085A Microprocessor
510(25)
Organization and Operation
510(5)
Programming
515(20)
The 8086 Microprocessor
535(3)
The 8086 Architecture
536(2)
Programming Languages
538(1)
Summary
539(6)
Glossary
540(2)
Review Questions
542(1)
Problems
543(2)
Computer-Aided Design of Digital Systems
545(24)
Introduction
545(1)
Computer Aided Design (CAD) Concepts
546(1)
CAD Tools
547(4)
Design Entry
548(1)
Initial Synthesis
549(1)
Functional Simulation
549(1)
Logic Synthesis and Optimization
549(2)
Physical Design
551(1)
Timing Simulation
551(1)
Summary
551(1)
Introduction to VHDL
551(14)
Entity
553(3)
Architecture
556(5)
Configuration Declaration
561(1)
Generic
562(1)
Data objects
562(1)
Examples of VHDL Codes
563(2)
Summary
565(4)
Glossary
565(2)
Review Questions
567(1)
Problems
568(1)
Appendix-A1 Reserved Words in VHDL 569(1)
A2 Symbols Defined in VHDL 570(1)
Appendix-B Bibliography 571(3)
Appendix-C Answers to Reviews Questions 574(5)
Appendix-D Answers to Selected Problems 579(24)
Index 603

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