Modern Welding Technology

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2004-11-10
  • Publisher: Pearson

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This well-respected, introductory welding book contains coverage of the latest codes, materials, and processes necessary to become proficient in an ever more complex industry. The technology of welding is growing and the book's focus on arc welding processes and the use of steel in construction reflect those changes-while continuing to provide a comprehensive coverage of basic principles and theory.Contains content on hybrid welding and stir friction welding; background concepts and basic welding techniques; the latest standards, codes, and specifications provided by the AWS; the most recent information on the use of high strength metals, laser welding, and arc and oxyacetylene welding; specifications for filler materials, electrodes, brazing fluxes, etc.; computer-aided welding processes; the latest information on the training of welding personnel; and welding power sources.For any welding-related occupations, especially welding inspectors, technicians, or engineers.

Table of Contents

Welding Backgroundp. 1
The Importance of Weldingp. 1
Welding Joins All Metalsp. 6
Historical Development of Weldingp. 8
The Welding Industryp. 12
The Future of Weldingp. 16
Fundamentals of Weldingp. 19
Welding Basicsp. 19
Welding Processes and Groupingp. 21
Methods of Applying Weldingp. 23
Welding Proceduresp. 25
Welding Physics and Chemistryp. 27
Welding Personnel, Training, and Certificationp. 31
The Work of the Welderp. 31
The Job Outlook for Weldersp. 33
Where Welders Workp. 33
Training Programs and Schoolsp. 36
Qualifying and Certifying Welding Personelp. 38
Safety and Health of Weldersp. 41
Personnel Protection and Safety Rulesp. 41
Electrical Shock Hazardp. 48
Arc Radiation Hazardp. 50
Air Contamination Hazardp. 53
Fire and Explosion Hazardp. 60
Compressed Gases Hazardp. 64
Weld Cleaning and Other Hazardsp. 65
Safety for Specific Welding Processes and Occupationsp. 66
Arc Welding with a Nonconsumable Electrodep. 68
The Nonconsumable Welding Arcp. 68
Gas Tungsten Arc Weldingp. 72
Plasma Arc Weldingp. 84
Carbon Arc Weldingp. 93
Stud Weldingp. 97
Other Nonconsumable Arc Welding Processesp. 102
Arc Welding with a Consumable Electrodep. 107
The Consumable Welding Arcp. 107
Metal Transfer across the Arcp. 114
Shielded Metal Arc Weldingp. 124
Gas Metal Arc Weldingp. 142
Flux-Cored Arc Weldingp. 153
Submerged Arc Weldingp. 165
Electroslag Weldingp. 177
Electrogas Weldingp. 187
Other Consumable Electrode Welding Processesp. 192
Arc Welding Variablesp. 193
Arc Welding Process Selectionp. 202
Gas Welding, Brazing, Soldering, and Solid-State Weldingp. 207
Oxyfuel Gas Weldingp. 207
Brazingp. 214
Solderingp. 223
Thermite Weldingp. 227
Solid-State Weldingp. 229
Miscellaneous Welding Processesp. 237
Resistance, Electron Beam, and Laser Beam Welding and Cuttingp. 240
Resistance Weldingp. 240
Electron Beam Weldingp. 254
Laser Beam Weldingp. 259
High Energy Beam Cuttingp. 263
Welding-Related Processesp. 270
Oxygen Cuttingp. 270
Arc and Plasma Cuttingp. 274
Water Jet Cuttingp. 280
Automatic Shape Cuttingp. 281
Thermal Sprayingp. 286
Adhesive Bondingp. 292
Joining Plasticsp. 293
Joining Composites and Ceramicsp. 297
Preheat and Postheat Treatmentp. 299
Mechanical Stress Reliefp. 302
Power Sources for Arc Weldingp. 305
Arc Welding Electricityp. 305
Welding Arc Requirementsp. 308
Types of Welding Machinesp. 314
Rotating Welding Machinesp. 315
Transformer Welding Machinesp. 320
Rectifier Welding Machinesp. 324
Inverter Welding Machinesp. 330
Selecting and Specifying a Power Sourcep. 335
Installing and Maintaining a Power Sourcep. 337
Other Welding Equipmentp. 340
Arc Welding Guns and Torchesp. 340
Electrode Feed Systemsp. 345
Welding Cables and Clampsp. 354
Auxiliary Welding Equipmentp. 358
Weld Monitoringp. 360
Mechanized, Automated, and Robotic Arc Weldingp. 365
Automation of Weldingp. 365
Arc Motion Devicesp. 368
Work Motion Devicesp. 374
Standardized Automatic Arc Welding Machinesp. 379
Dedicated Automatic Arc Welding Equipmentp. 385
Flexible Automation of Weldingp. 389
Arc Welding Robotsp. 395
Controls for Automatic Arc Weldingp. 406
Sensors and Adaptive Controlp. 411
Tooling and Fixturesp. 417
Electrodes and Filler Metalsp. 421
Types of Welding Consumablesp. 421
Covered Electrodesp. 424
Solid Electrode Wiresp. 429
Cored Electrode Wiresp. 431
Packaging of Electrode Wiresp. 432
Welding Fluxesp. 436
Other Welding Materialsp. 437
Gases Used in Weldingp. 440
Shielding Gasesp. 440
Fuel Gases for Welding and Cuttingp. 445
Atmosphere Gasesp. 449
Gas Containers and Apparatusesp. 450
Metals and Their Weldabilityp. 458
Properties of Metalsp. 458
Metal Specifications and Steel Classificationsp. 467
Identification of Metalsp. 472
Heat and Weldingp. 476
Welding Metallurgyp. 480
Weldability of Metalsp. 491
Welding Steelsp. 495
Welding Carbon and Low-Alloy Steelsp. 495
Welding Alloy Steelsp. 498
Welding Stainless Steelsp. 503
Welding Ultrahigh-Strength Steelsp. 511
Welding Nonferrous Metalsp. 516
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloysp. 516
Copper and Copper-Base Alloysp. 527
Magnesium-Base Alloysp. 531
Nickel-Base Alloysp. 535
Reactive and Refractory Metalsp. 537
Other Nonferrous Metalsp. 544
Welding Special and Dissimilar Metalsp. 547
Cast Iron and Other Ironsp. 547
Tool Steelsp. 551
Reinforcing Bassp. 554
Coated Steelsp. 557
Other Metalsp. 559
Clad Metalsp. 561
Dissimilar Metalsp. 564
Design for Weldingp. 568
Advantage of Welded Constructionp. 568
Weldment Design Factorsp. 570
Welding Positions and Weld Accessibilityp. 575
Design of Weld Joint and Weldsp. 579
Influence of Specifications on Designp. 590
Design Conversion to Weldmentsp. 591
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)p. 595
Weldment Redesign to Reduce Costp. 597
Welding Symbolsp. 599
Cost of Weldingp. 605
Weldment Cost Elementsp. 605
Weld Metal Required for Jointsp. 606
Filler Metal and Materials Requiredp. 611
Time and Labor Requiredp. 615
Power and Overhead Costsp. 616
Weld Cost Formulas and Examplesp. 617
Quality Control and Evaluation of Weldsp. 621
Quality Control Programp. 621
Destructive Testingp. 623
Visual Inspectionp. 628
Nondestructive Testingp. 631
Corrective Actions for Weld Defectsp. 638
Workmanship Specimens and Standardsp. 648
Nondestructive Examination Symbolsp. 654
Welding Specifications, Procedures, and Qualificationsp. 657
Weld Reliabilityp. 657
Welding Codes and Specificationsp. 658
Welding Procedures and Qualifying Themp. 661
Standard Welding Procedure Specifications (SWPS)p. 669
Qualifying and Certifying Weldersp. 667
Welding Problems and Solutionsp. 683
Arc Blowp. 683
Welding Distortion and Warpagep. 686
Heat Forming and Straighteningp. 694
Weld Stresses and Crackingp. 697
In-Service Crackingp. 700
Welding-Paintingp. 704
Failure Analysis, Repair Welding, and Surfacingp. 707
Weld Failure Analysisp. 707
Developing a Rework Procedurep. 713
Making the Repair Weldp. 715
Rebuilding and Overlay Weldingp. 719
Surfacing for Wear Resistancep. 721
Surfacing for Corrosion Resistancep. 727
Other Surfacing Applicationsp. 728
Welding Pipe and Tubingp. 730
Tubular Productsp. 730
Pipe and Tube Weldingp. 735
Manual and Semiautomatic Pipe Weldingp. 742
Mechanized Pipe and Tube Weldingp. 743
Automated Pipe Weldingp. 748
Tube to Sheet Weldingp. 750
Special Welding Applicationsp. 754
Arc Spot Weldingp. 754
Sheet Metal Weldingp. 759
One-Side Weldingp. 762
Narrow Gap Weldingp. 764
Underwater Weldingp. 767
Welding in Spacep. 771
Microjoiningp. 773
Appendiesp. 775
Glossary of Welding Termsp. 775
Organizations Involved with Weldingp. 779
Computer Software Programsp. 781
Information Sources Using a Computerp. 782
Conversion Informationp. 784
Weights and Measuresp. 787
Indexp. 791
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.


Welding continues to be the preferred method of joining metal parts. As welding becomes more digital, the technology becomes more complex, but its application as a process becomes simpler and more efficient. Worldwide, welding continues to grow, and that growth is dependent upon the growth of the steel and other metal industries. Since the last edition of Modern Welding Technology,much has changed in the world of welding. New processes have been born, and others have gotten married. There are now combinations of welding processes known as hybrid welding.Welding power sources have continued to get smaller, more efficient, lighter, and more controllable. Some welding processes have become more popular and others more refined. For example, the laser is more widely used, especially for cutting, and a new process, stir friction welding, is starting to be used to join aluminum for automotive and space applications. The need to improve weld quality and reduce welding costs continues to drive the welding industry. This is the highest priority because of improved materials and fabricating methods. Semiautomatic welding has largely replaced manual welding, and automatic and robotic welding are fording more applications in the industry. Adaptive control is rapidly becoming more widely used. More powerful computer controls and more rugged sensors are being used. All of this has helped take the human welder farther away from the arc and fumes and has helped clean up the welder''s environment. Throughout the world many new alloys are being developed. Metals compete with plastics, composites, ceramics, and any material that will serve the need. The end result is the most economical material for a given application. Many new steels and alloys are being welded today, including higher strength thermomechanically processed steels. Steels with lower carbon and lower impurity elements are available with high strengths based on the particular heat treatment. New steels for high-temperature applications have been developed. New grades of stainless steel that combat corrosion are appearing. New aluminums containing lithium and other elements are being utilized in the aircraft industry. Nonmetallic materials are advancing. Plastics have been greatly improved, and there are now composite beams available to build bridges. Ultimately, the most suitable material for the lowest price will be used for every application. The welding industry will determine the welding method. Welding education and training are changing. Today there is less emphasis on skill training for manual welding, but more emphasis on technology training. We must be able to select the proper application of welding to increase productivity. A more thorough understanding is needed. That is the purpose of this book. A major breakthrough has been accomplished by the joint American Welding Society (AWS) and the Welding Research Council program for providing the optimum way to make a quality weld. Standard welding procedures have been issued that show the preferred way to make a particular weld. As a result, welding costs should be greatly reduced because standard procedures save the expense of duplicating qualifying procedures and allow the portability of welding credentials. It is a great step forward. The American Welding Society continues to make welding-related occupations more professional. Through standardizing the qualification and certification of personnel, public confidence in welding will increase. AWS has become the welding authority in the United States and is providing ways to educate welding inspectors, teachers, technicians, and engineers. This is done through increased training, testing, and certification of knowledge, based on proficiency testing. The original concept of this book has been maintained, with emphasis on the arc welding processes and the use of steel for industrial and construction uses. The book still follows faithfully the standards, codes, and specifications provided by the AWS. It allows the reader to keep up-to-date as welding technical information and technology improvements advance. Truly, the industry is moving rapidly, and the welding process is improved and more productive.

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