Mushrooms as Functional Foods

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-09-16
  • Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

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Mushrooms as Functional Foods provides up-to-date information on the chemistry and biology, cultivation, nutritional and medicinal value, and use of mushrooms in the modern functional foods industry. It covers physiology and genetics and highlights applications for functional food, such as sclerotia, and medicinal uses. It discusses the classification, identification, and commercial collection of truffles, morels, and newly cultivated species and covers regulatory issues. An insert has color photographs of various types of mushrooms. This is the definitive reference for food scientists, pharmaceutical scientists working with mushrooms, mycologists, students, and others.

Author Biography

PETER C.K. CHEUNG, PhD, is the Director of Studies for the Food and Nutritional Sciences Programme in the Department of Biology at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Professor Cheung is the author or coauthor of more than 150 publications (including journal articles, patents, technical papers, and conference abstracts). He is a current member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms and a member of the advisory committee of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry and a member of the board of Journal of Food Composition and Analysis.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
Contributorsp. xxi
Overview of Mushroom Cultivation and Utilization as Functional Foodsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
What Are Mushrooms?p. 3
Definition of a Mushroomp. 3
Ecological Classification of Mushroomsp. 4
Identification of Mushroomsp. 4
Concept of Mushroom Biology and Applied Mushroom Biologyp. 6
Mushroom Biologyp. 6
Applied Mushroom Biologyp. 7
Impact of Applied Mushroom Biologyp. 9
Nongreen Revolutionp. 9
Mushroom Bioremediationp. 11
Mushroom Cultivationp. 11
Major Phases of Mushroom Cultivationp. 12
Cultivation of Several Selected Mushroomsp. 13
Cultivation of it Agaricusp. 14
Cultivation of Lentinula edodesp. 14
Cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-cajup. 17
Cultivation of Volvariellap. 17
Cultivation of Agaricus brasiliensisp. 18
Cultivation of Ganoderma lucidump. 19
Utilization of Mushroom Germplasmp. 20
World Mushroom Productionp. 21
Mushroom Biotechnologyp. 23
Nutritional and Medicinal Value of Mushroomsp. 23
Nutriceuticals and Dietary Supplementsp. 24
Development of World Mushroom Industry Movementsp. 25
International Movement for Edible Mushroomsp. 26
International Movement for Medicinal Mushroomsp. 27
International Movement for Wild Mushroomsp. 27
Concluding Remarksp. 28
Referencesp. 29
Molecular Analysis and Genomic Studies of Shiitake Mushroom Lentinula edodesp. 35
Introductionp. 35
Isolation of Genesp. 36
Growthp. 36
Substrate-Utilizing Genesp. 36
Developmentp. 37
Mating-Type Genesp. 38
Genes Differentially Expressed in Dikaryotic Myceliump. 38
Genes for Initial Fruiting Bodies/Primordium Formationp. 38
Genes for Mature Fruiting Bodies Formationp. 44
Physiological Processes in Lentinula edodesp. 47
Signal Transductionp. 47
Energy Productionp. 47
Structural Proteins in Developmentp. 48
Molecular Geneticsp. 48
Generation of Markersp. 49
Typing/Fingerprintingp. 50
Genetic Mappingp. 50
Functional Genomic Approaches for Gene Expression Analysisp. 50
Differential Display: RAP-PCRp. 51
cDNA Representation Difference Analysisp. 52
SAGE and LongSAGEp. 52
SAGE Profiles: Mycelium to Primordiump. 53
SAGE Profiles: Fruiting Bodiesp. 53
cDNA Microarrayp. 53
Expressed Sequence Tagp. 54
Yeast Two-Hybrid Systemp. 54
Sequencing-by-Synthesis Approach (454 Life Science)p. 54
Transcriptional Regulationp. 55
Transcriptional Factorsp. 55
Promoter Analysisp. 55
Transformationp. 56
Transformation Methodsp. 56
PEG-Mediated Transformationp. 56
Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Integrationp. 57
Othersp. 58
Lentinula edodes Genes Used in Transformationp. 58
Process Analysisp. 59
Postharvest Studiesp. 59
Stress Responsesp. 59
Studies of Temperature Stress in Mushroomsp. 59
Studies of Molecular Chaperones in Fungip. 59
Lignocellulose Degradationp. 60
Meiosisp. 60
Conclusionp. 61
Referencesp. 61
Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Mushroomsp. 71
Introductionp. 71
Wild and Cultivated Edible Mushroomsp. 72
Production of Cultivated Mushroomsp. 72
Nutritional Compositionp. 73
Conventional Edible Mushroomsp. 73
Moisturep. 73
Protein and Amino Acidsp. 74
Fatp. 75
Ash and Mineralsp. 75
Vitaminsp. 76
Dietary Fiberp. 77
Carbohydratesp. 78
Energyp. 78
Other Componentsp. 78
Newly Cultivated/Nonconventional Mushroomsp. 79
Nutritional Evaluationp. 80
General Aspectsp. 80
Biological Methods for Nutritional Evaluationp. 80
Mushroom Protein Qualityp. 87
Health Benefits of Edible Mushroomsp. 89
General Aspectsp. 89
Antioxidants in Mushroomsp. 89
Bioactive Components and Their Antioxidative Activitiesp. 89
Characterization of Mushroom Phenolic Antioxidantsp. 91
Biosynthesis of Phenolic Compounds from Mushrooms or Fungip. 93
Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Mushroomsp. 94
Hypoglycemic Effect of Mushroomsp. 97
Conclusionp. 99
Referencesp. 99
Sclerotia: Emerging Functional Food Derived from Mushroomsp. 111
Introductionp. 111
Concepts of Mushroom Sclerotiap. 112
Ontogeny of Sclerotiap. 112
Morphological Aspectsp. 112
Physiological Aspectsp. 114
Translocationp. 114
Exudationp. 115
Structure of Sclerotiap. 115
Rindp. 115
Cortexp. 116
Medullap. 117
Cultivation of Mushroom Sclerotiap. 117
Sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fries) Singerp. 118
Sclerotia of Polyporus rhinocerus Cookep. 119
Sclerotia of Wolfiporia cocos (Schw.) Ryv. Et Gilbn [Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf]p. 120
Biochemical, Nutritional, and Technological Characteristics of Mushroom Sclerotiap. 121
Biochemical Components of Mushroom Sclerotiap. 121
Cell Wallsp. 121
Extracellular Matrixp. 122
Cytoplasmic Reservesp. 122
Nutritional Evaluation of Mushroom Sclerotiap. 123
Proximate Compositionp. 123
Sclerotial Dietary Fiberp. 124
Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Mushroom Sclerotial DFp. 126
Biopharmacological Values of Mushroom Sclerotia ofp. 128
In Vitro Mineral Binding Capacityp. 128
In Vitro Fermentabilityp. 129
In Vivo Ca and Mg Absorptionp. 131
Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Activitiesp. 132
Conclusionp. 134
Referencesp. 134
Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of Mushroom Polysaccharidesp. 147
Introductionp. 147
Antitumor Polysaccharides from Mushrooms (Higher Fungi)p. 149
Mechanisms of Antitumor Action of Mushroom Polysaccharidesp. 153
Antiproliferation of Cancer Cells and Induction of Apoptosisp. 153
Immunomodulationp. 161
Effects of Mushroom Polysaccharides on Macrophages and Spleen Cellsp. 163
Effects of Mushroom Polysaccharides on NK Cellsp. 167
Effects of Mushroom Polysaccharides on DCsp. 168
Effects of Mushroom Polysaccharides on Hematopoietic Stem Cellsp. 170
Antimetastasisp. 171
Antiangiogenesisp. 172
Structure and Antitumor Activity Relationship of Polysaccharidesp. 173
Effect of Molecular Massp. 174
Impact of Branching Configurationp. 174
Relationship of Antitumor Activity and Conformationp. 175
Improvement of Antitumor Activity by Chemical Modificationsp. 176
Conclusionsp. 178
Referencesp. 179
Regulatory Issues of Mushrooms as Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements: Safety and Efficacyp. 199
Introductionp. 199
Legal and Regulatory Issues of Introducing and Controlling Dietary Supplements from Medicinal Mushrooms in Different Countriesp. 202
World Health Organization Guidelinesp. 202
Codex Alimentariusp. 202
United Statesp. 203
European Unionp. 208
Canadap. 210
Australia and New Zealandp. 212
Japanp. 213
Israelp. 215
Safety and Diversity of Dietary Supplement Types from Culinary-Medicinal Mushroomsp. 216
Submerged Culturing as Best Technique for Obtaining Consistent and Safe Mushroom Productsp. 220
Experiences of Seven Countries in Consolidating Their Food Safety Systemsp. 220
Summaryp. 221
Referencesp. 221
Indexp. 227
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