Neuroanatomy : Text and Atlas

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-03-27
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Medical
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TOP-RANKED BY STUDENTS-- CLEAR, VISUALLY COMPELLING, AND MEMORABLE Neuroanatomy: Text and Atlas approaches neuroanatomy from both functional and regional perspectives to provide an understanding of how the components of the central nervous system work together to sense the world around us, regulate body systems, and produce behavior. *Completely revised and updated to reflect advances in clinical neuroanatomy and neural science *Builds knowledge of the regional and functional organization of the spinal cord and brain, one system at a time *Provides thorough coverage of the sensory, motor, and integrative systems of the brain, together with cerebral vasculature *Promotes understanding of the complex details of neuroanatomy needed for astute interpretation of radiological images *Authoritative content enhanced by informative line illustrations, brain views produced by MRI and PET imaging technology and angiography, and myelin-stained histological sections *Comprehensive atlas provides key views of the surface anatomy of the central nervous system and photographs of myelin-stained sections in three anatomical planes *Includes features such as clinical topic boxes, chapter summaries, and a Glossary of key terms and structures

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xix
Acknowledgmentsp. xxi
Guide to Using This Bookp. xxiii
The Central Nervous Systemp. 1
Introduction to the Central Nervous Systemp. 3
Neurons and Glia Are the Two Principal Cellular Constituents of the Nervous Systemp. 4
The Nervous System Consists of Separate Peripheral and Central Componentsp. 6
The Spinal Cord Displays the Simplest Organization of All Seven Major Divisionsp. 8
The Brain Stem and Cerebellum Regulate Body Functions and Movementsp. 8
The Diencephalon Consists of the Thalamus and Hypothalamusp. 11
The Cerebral Hemispheres Have the Most Complex Three-Dimensional Configuration of All Central Nervous System Divisionsp. 11
Cavities Within the Central Nervous System Contain Cerebrospinal Fluidp. 18
The Central Nervous System Is Covered by Three Meningeal Layersp. 19
An Introduction to Neuroanatomical Termsp. 21
Summaryp. 25
Structural and Functional Organization of the Central Nervous Systemp. 27
The Dorsal Column--Medial Lemniscal System and Corticospinal Tract Have a Component at Each Level of the Neuraxisp. 28
The Modulatory Systems of the Brain Have Diffuse Connections and Use Different Neurotransmittersp. 29
Guidelines for Studying the Regional Anatomy and Interconnections of the Central Nervous Systemp. 32
The Spinal Cord Has a Central Cellular Region Surrounded by a Region That Contains Myelinated Axonsp. 32
Surface Features of the Brain Stem Mark Key Internal Structuresp. 34
The Internal Capsule Contains Ascending and Descending Axonsp. 41
Cerebral Cortex Neurons Are Organized Into Layersp. 42
The Cerebral Cortex Has an Input-Output Organizationp. 43
The Cytoarchitectonic Map of the Cerebral Cortex Is the Basis for a Map of Cortical Functionp. 44
Summaryp. 52
Development of the Central Nervous Systemp. 55
The Neurons and Glial Cells Derive From Cells of the Neural Platep. 55
The Neural Tube Forms Five Brain Vesicles and the Spinal Cordp. 57
The Spinal Cord and Brain Stem Have a Segmented Structurep. 59
The Location of Developing Spinal Cord and Brain Stem Nuclei Determine Their Functions and Connectionsp. 63
The Cerebellum Develops From the Rhombic Lipsp. 69
The Rostral Portion of the Neural Tube Gives Rise to the Diencephalon and Cerebral Hemispheresp. 69
Summaryp. 78
Vasculature of the Central Nervous System and the Cerebrospinal Fluidp. 81
Neural Tissue Depends on Continuous Arterial Blood Supplyp. 82
The Vertebral and Carotid Arteries Supply Blood to the Central Nervous Systemp. 83
The Spinal and Radicular Arteries Supply Blood to the Spinal Cordp. 85
The Vertebral and Basilar Arteries Supply Blood to the Brain Stemp. 86
The Internal Carotid Artery Has Four Principal Portionsp. 86
The Anterior and Posterior Circulations Supply the Diencephalon and Cerebral Hemispheresp. 86
Cerebral Veins Drain Into the Dural Sinusesp. 92
The Blood-Brain Barrier Isolates the Chemical Environment of the Central Nervous System From That of the Rest of the Bodyp. 96
Cerebrospinal Fluid Serves Many Diverse Functionsp. 97
Summaryp. 102
Sensory Systemsp. 105
Spinal Somatic Sensory Systemsp. 107
Functional Anatomy of the Spinal Somatic Sensory Pathwaysp. 107
The Dorsal Column--Medial Lemniscal System and the Anterolateral System Mediate Different Somatic Sensationsp. 108
The Two Ascending Somatic Sensory Pathways Each Receive Inputs From Different Classes of Sensory Receptor Neuronsp. 109
The Somatic Sensory Pathways Have Different Relay Nuclei in the Spinal Cord and Brain Stemp. 109
The Two Ascending Somatic Sensory Pathways Decussate at Different Levels of the Neuraxisp. 109
The Dorsal Column--Medial Lemniscal and Anterolateral Systems Synapse in Different Brain Stem, Diencephalic, and Cortical Regionsp. 109
Regional Anatomy of the Spinal Somatic Sensory Pathwaysp. 111
The Peripheral Axon Terminals of Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Contain the Somatic Sensory Receptorp. 114
Dorsal Root Axons With Different Diameters Terminate in Different Central Nervous System Locationsp. 117
The Dorsal Columns Contain Ascending Branches of Mechanoreceptive Sensory Fibersp. 119
The Somatotopic Organization of the Dorsal Columns Is Revealed in Human Postmortem Specimensp. 119
The Decussation of the Dorsal Column--Medial Lemniscal System Is in the Caudal Medullap. 120
Vascular Lesions of the Medulla Differentially Affect Somatic Sensory Functionp. 124
Descending Pain Suppression Pathways Originate From the Brain Stemp. 124
Three Separate Nuclei in the Thalamus Process Somatic Sensory Informationp. 125
Several Areas of the Parietal Lobe Process Touch and Proprioceptive Informationp. 126
Limbic and Insular Areas Contain the Cortical Representations of Pain, Itch, and Temperature Sensationsp. 130
Summaryp. 131
Cranial Nerves and the Trigeminal and Viscerosensory Systemsp. 135
Cranial Nerves and Nucleip. 135
Important Differences Exist Between the Sensory and Motor Innervation of Cranial Structures and That of the Limbs and Trunkp. 137
There Are Seven Functional Categories of Cranial Nervesp. 137
Cranial Nerve Nuclei Are Organized Into Rostrocaudal Columnsp. 140
Functional Anatomy of the Trigeminal and Viscerosensory Systemsp. 140
Separate Trigeminal Pathways Mediate Touch and Pain and Temperature Sensesp. 143
The Viscerosensory System Originates from the Caudal Solitary Nucleusp. 145
Regional Anatomy of the Trigeminal and Viscerosensory Systemsp. 145
Separate Sensory Roots Innervate Different Parts of the Face and Mucous Membranes of the Headp. 145
The Key Components of the Trigeminal System Are Present at All Levels of the Brain Stemp. 146
The Caudal Solitary and Parabrachial Nuclei Are Key Brain Stem Viscerosensory Integrative Centersp. 155
The Ventral Posterior Nucleus Contains Separate Trigeminal and Spinal Subdivisions and Projects to the Postcentral Gyrusp. 155
The Thalamic Viscerosensory Relay Nucleus Projects to the Insular Cortexp. 157
Summaryp. 158
The Visual Systemp. 161
Functional Anatomy of the Visual Systemp. 161
Anatomically Separate Visual Pathways Mediate Perception and Ocular Reflex Functionp. 161
The Pathway to the Primary Visual Cortex Is Important for Perception of the Form, Color, and Motion of Visual Stimulip. 162
The Pathway to the Midbrain Is Important in Voluntary and Reflexive Control of the Eyesp. 162
Regional Anatomy of the Visual Systemp. 162
Optical Properties of the Eye Transform Visual Stimulip. 162
The Retina Contains Five Major Layersp. 165
Each Optic Nerve Contains All of the Axons of Ganglion Cells in the Ipsilateral Retinap. 169
The Superior Colliculus Is Important in Oculomotor Control and Orientationp. 169
The Retinotopic Maps in Each Layer of the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Are Alignedp. 171
The Primary Visual Cortex Is the Target of Projections From the Lateral Geniculate Nucleusp. 173
The Magnocellular and Parvocellular Systems Have Differential Laminar Projections in the Primary Visual Cortexp. 173
The Primary Visual Cortex Has a Columnar Organizationp. 176
Higher-Order Visual Cortical Areas Analyze Distinct Aspects of Visual Stimulip. 180
The Visual Field Changes in Characteristic Ways After Damage to the Visual Systemp. 184
Summaryp. 187
The Auditory Systemp. 191
Functional Anatomy of the Auditory Systemp. 192
Parallel Ascending Auditory Pathways May Be Involved in Different Aspects of Hearingp. 192
Regional Anatomy of the Auditory Systemp. 194
The Auditory Sensory Organs Are Located Within the Membranous Labyrinthp. 194
The Topography of Connections Between Brain Stem Auditory Nuclei Provides Insight Into the Functions of Parallel Ascending Auditory Pathwaysp. 196
The Olivocochlear System May Regulate Hair Cell Sensitivityp. 198
Auditory Brain Stem Axons Ascend in the Lateral Lemniscusp. 199
The Inferior Colliculus Is Located in the Midbrain Tectump. 199
The Medial Geniculate Nucleus Contains a Division That Is Tonotopically Organizedp. 200
The Auditory Cortical Areas Are Located on the Superior Surface of the Temporal Lobep. 201
Summaryp. 204
Chemical Senses: Taste and Smellp. 207
The Gustatory System: Tastep. 208
The Ascending Gustatory Pathway Projects to the Ipsilateral Insular Cortexp. 208
Regional Anatomy of the Gustatory Systemp. 210
Branches of the Facial, Glossopharyngeal, and Vagus Nerves Innervate Different Parts of the Oral Cavityp. 210
The Solitary Nucleus Is the First Central Nervous System Relay for Tastep. 211
The Parvocellular Portion of the Ventral Posterior Medial Nucleus Relays Gustatory Information to the Insular Cortex and Operculump. 212
The Olfactory System: Smellp. 216
The Olfactory Projection to the Cerebral Cortex Does Not Relay in the Thalamusp. 216
Regional Anatomy of the Olfactory Systemp. 216
The Primary Olfactory Neurons Are Located in the Nasal Mucosap. 216
The Olfactory Bulb Is the First Central Nervous System Relay for Olfactory Inputp. 219
The Olfactory Bulb Projects to Structures on the Ventral Brain Surface Through the Olfactory Tractp. 219
The Primary Olfactory Cortex Receives a Direct Input From the Olfactory Bulbp. 219
Projections From the Olfactory Bulb to the Cortex Have a Parallel Organizationp. 222
Summaryp. 224
Motor Systemsp. 227
Descending Motor Pathways and the Motor Function of the Spinal Cordp. 229
Functional Anatomy of the Motor Systems and the Descending Motor Pathwaysp. 230
Diverse Central Nervous System Structures Comprise the Motor Systemsp. 230
Many Cortical Regions Are Recruited Into Action During Visually Guided Movementsp. 231
There Are Three Functional Classes of Descending Pathwaysp. 232
Multiple Parallel Motor Control Pathways Originate From the Cortex and Brain Stemp. 232
Motor Pathways of the Spinal Cord Have a Hierarchical Organizationp. 232
The Functional Organization of the Descending Pathways Parallels the Somatotopic Organization of the Motor Nuclei in the Ventral Hornp. 234
Regional Anatomy of the Motor Systems and the Descending Motor Pathwaysp. 235
The Cortical Motor Areas Are Located in the Frontal Lobep. 239
The Projection From Cortical Motor Regions Passes Through the Internal Capsule En Route to the Brain Stem and Spinal Cordp. 243
The Corticospinal Tract Courses in the Base of the Midbrainp. 247
Descending Cortical Fibers Separate Into Small Fascicles in the Ventral Ponsp. 247
The Pontine and Medullary Reticular Formation Gives Rise to the Reticulospinal Tractsp. 247
The Lateral Corticospinal Tract Decussates in the Caudal Medullap. 248
The Intermediate Zone and Ventral Horn of the Spinal Cord Receive Input From the Descending Pathwaysp. 248
Lesions of the Descending Cortical Pathway in the Brain and Spinal Cord Produce Flaccid Paralysis Followed by Spasticityp. 250
Summaryp. 255
Cranial Nerve Motor Nuclei and Brain Stem Motor Functionsp. 259
Organization and Functional Anatomy of Cranial Motor Nucleip. 260
There Are Three Columns of Cranial Nerve Motor Nucleip. 260
The Cranial Motor Nuclei Are Controlled by the Cerebral Cortex and Diencephalonp. 260
Neurons in the Somatic Skeletal Motor Column Innervate the Tongue and Extraocular Musclesp. 260
The Branchiomeric Motor Column Innervates Skeletal Muscles That Develop From the Branchial Archesp. 263
The Autonomic Motor Column Contains Parasympathetic Preganglionic Neuronsp. 266
Regional Anatomy of Cranial Motor Nucleip. 269
Lesion of the Genu of the Internal Capsule Interrupts the Corticobulbar Tractp. 269
Parasympathetic Neurons in the Midbrain Regulate Pupil Sizep. 270
The Descending Cortical Fibers Break Up Into Small Fascicles in the Ponsp. 273
The Trigeminal Motor Nucleus Is Medial to the Main Trigeminal Sensory Nucleusp. 273
The Fibers of the Facial Nerve Have a Complex Trajectory Through the Ponsp. 273
The Glossopharyngeal Nerve Enters and Exits From the Rostral Medullap. 275
A Level Through the Midmedulla Reveals the Locations of Six Cranial Nerve Nucleip. 276
The Spinal Accessory Nucleus Is Located at the Junction of the Spinal Cord and Medullap. 277
Summaryp. 278
The Vestibular and Oculomotor Systemsp. 281
Functional Anatomy of the Vestibular Systemp. 282
An Ascending Pathway From the Vestibular Nuclei to the Thalamus Is Important for Perception and Orientationp. 282
The Vestibular Nuclei Have Functionally Distinct Efferent Projections for Axial Muscle Control and Perceptionp. 283
Functional Anatomy of the Oculomotor System and the Control of Gazep. 283
The Extraocular Motor Neurons Are Located in Three Cranial Nerve Motor Nucleip. 283
Voluntary Eye Movement Direction Is Controlled by Neurons in the Frontal Lobe and the Parietal-Temporal-Occipital Association Cortexp. 283
The Vestibuloocular Reflex Maintains Direction of Gaze During Head Movementp. 289
Regional Organization of the Vestibular and Oculomotor Systemsp. 289
Vestibular Nerve Fibers Project to the Vestibular Nuclei and the Cerebellump. 289
The Vestibular Nuclei Have Functionally Diverse Projectionsp. 289
The Extraocular Motor Nuclei Are Located in the Pons and Midbrainp. 293
Rostral Midbrain Neurons Organize Vertical Saccadesp. 295
Eye Movement Control Involves the Integrated Functions of Many Brain Stem Structuresp. 296
The Ventral Posterior Nucleus of the Thalamus Transmits Vestibular Information to the Parietal and Insular Cortical Areasp. 298
Multiple Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Function in Eye Movement Controlp. 298
Summaryp. 298
The Cerebellump. 301
Gross Anatomy of the Cerebellump. 301
Functional Anatomy of the Cerebellump. 304
All Three Functional Divisions of the Cerebellum Display a Similar Input-Output Organizationp. 304
Regional Anatomy of the Cerebellump. 311
The Intrinsic Circuitry of the Cerebellar Cortex Is Similar for the Different Functional Divisionsp. 312
Spinal Cord and Medullary Sections Reveal Nuclei and Paths Transmitting Somatic Sensory Information to the Cerebellump. 315
The Inferior Olivary Nucleus Is the Only Source of Climbing Fibersp. 318
The Vestibulocerebellum Receives Input From Primary and Secondary Vestibular Neuronsp. 318
The Pontine Nuclei Provide the Major Input to the Cerebrocerebellump. 318
The Deep Cerebellar Nuclei Are Located Within the White Matterp. 319
The Superior Cerebellar Peduncle Decussates in the Caudal Midbrainp. 319
The Ventrolateral Nucleus Relays Cerebellar Output to the Premotor and Primary Motor Cortical Areasp. 321
Summaryp. 324
The Basal Gangliap. 327
Functional Anatomy of the Basal Gangliap. 328
Separate Components of the Basal Ganglia Process Incoming Information and Mediate the Outputp. 328
Parallel Circuits Course Through the Basal Gangliap. 330
Knowledge of Basal Ganglia Connections and Neurotransmitters Provides Insight Into Their Function in Health and Diseasep. 330
Regional Anatomy of the Basal Gangliap. 334
The Anterior Limb of the Internal Capsule Separates the Head of the Caudate Nucleus From the Putamenp. 334
Cell Bridges Link the Caudate Nucleus and the Putamenp. 338
The External Segment of the Globus Pallidus and the Ventral Pallidum Are Separated by the Anterior Commissurep. 341
The Ansa Lenticularis and the Lenticular Fasciculus Are Output Paths of the Internal Segment of the Globus Pallidusp. 342
Lesion of the Subthalamic Region Produces Hemiballismp. 343
The Substantia Nigra Contains Two Anatomical Divisionsp. 343
The Vascular Supply of the Basal Ganglia Is Provided by the Middle Cerebral Arteryp. 346
Summaryp. 347
Integrative Systemsp. 349
The Hypothalamus and Regulation of Endocrine and Visceral Functionsp. 351
Functional Anatomy of the Neuroendocrine Systemsp. 353
The Hypothalamus Is Divided Into Three Functionally Distinct Mediolateral Zonesp. 353
Separate Parvocellular and Magnocellular Neurosecretory Systems Regulate Hormone Release From the Anterior and Posterior Lobes of the Pituitaryp. 355
Functional Anatomy of Autonomic Nervous System Controlp. 358
The Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions of the Authonomic Nervous System Originate From Different Central Nervous System Locationsp. 358
Hypothalamic Nuclei Coordinate Integrated Responses to Body and Environmental Stimuli via Local Circuits and Descending Visceral Motor Pathwaysp. 359
Regional Anatomy of the Hypothalamusp. 363
The Preoptic Area Influences Release of Reproductive Hormones From the Anterior Pituitaryp. 363
The Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei Comprise the Magnocellular Neurosecretory Systemp. 364
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Is the Master Clock for Circadian Rhythmsp. 366
Parvocellular Neurosecretory Neurons Project to the Median Eminencep. 366
The Posterior Hypothalamus Contains the Mammillary Bodiesp. 367
Neurons in the Lateral Hypothalamic Area Can Have Widespread Effects on Cortical Neuron Functionp. 367
Descending Autonomic Fibers Course in the Periaqueductal Gray Matter and in the Lateral Tegmentump. 370
Nuclei in the Pons Are Important for Bladder Controlp. 370
Dorsolateral Brain Stem Lesions Interrupt Descending Sympathetic Fibersp. 372
Preganglionic Neurons Are Located in the Lateral Intermediate Zone of the Spinal Cordp. 374
Summaryp. 374
The Limbic System and Cerebral Circuits for Emotions, Learning, and Memoryp. 377
Anatomical and Functional Overview of Neural Systems for Emotions, Learning, and Memoryp. 378
The Limbic Association Cortex Is Located on the Medial Surface of the Frontal, Parietal, and Temporal Lobesp. 381
The Hippocampal Formation Plays a Role in Memory Consolidationp. 382
The Amygdala Contains Three Major Functional Divisionsp. 386
Connections Exist Between Components of the Limbic System and the Effector Systemsp. 388
All Major Neurotransmitter Regulatory Systems Have Projections to the Limbic Systemp. 389
Regional Anatomy of Neural Systems for Emotions, Learning, and Memoryp. 392
The Nucleus Accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle Comprise Part of the Basal Forebrainp. 393
Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Systems Have Diffuse Limbic and Neocortical Projectionsp. 393
The Cingulum Courses Beneath the Cingulate and Parahippocampal Gyrip. 394
The Three Nuclear Divisions of the Amygdala Are Revealed in Coronal Sectionp. 395
The Hippocampal Formation Is Located in the Floor of the Inferior Horn of the Lateral Ventriclep. 397
A Sagittal Cut Through the Mammillary Bodies Reveals the Fornix and Mammillothalamic Tractp. 401
Nuclei in the Brain Stem Link Telencephalic and Diencephalic Limbic Structures With the Autonomic Nervous System and the Spinal Cordp. 403
Summaryp. 403
Atlasp. 407
Surface Topography of the Central Nervous Systemp. 409
Myelin-Stained Sections Through the Central Nervous Systemp. 425
Glossaryp. 489
Indexp. 511
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