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News Reporting and Writing

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  • Edition: 12th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2016-10-07
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
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Prepare yourself for a career as a reporter no matter the medium as News Reporting and Writing takes you through the essentias of reporting and writing, giving you a foundation fin the profession whether you end up working in print or digital media.

Author Biography

BRIAN S. BROOKS came to the Missouri School of Journalism in 1974 after working in Vietnam as an information officer (for which he received a bronze star) and as a reporter, copy editor and night city editor at the Memphis (Tenn.) Press-Scimitar. He served as news editor and then as editor of the Columbia Missourian before becoming director of the Journalism Network in 1989. Along with faculty member Phill Brooks, he was responsible for bringing a $15 million grant from IBM Corporation to the School of Journalism from 1989 to 1997. While on sabbatical from 1997 to 1999, Brooks was editor of The Stars and Stripes, the U.S. military newspaper in Europe. He directed that newspaper’s coverage of the Bosnia mission, the U.S. entry into Kosovo and the bombing of Belgrade. For this work, he was awarded the Department of Defense Civilian Distinguished Service Medal. For more than 30 years, Brooks has served as deputy director or director of the Dow Jones Newspaper Fund editing internship program at Missouri. Students from schools nationwide are trained at the summer workshop for careers as newspaper copy editors. Brooks was chairman of the school’s editorial department from 1999 until January 2003, when he became associate dean for undergraduate studies and administration. That same year he was named Outstanding Faculty Member on campus by the MU Greek system. He was inducted into the Missouri Press Association’s Newspaper Hall of Fame in 2009. Brooks holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the Missouri School of Journalism.

GEORGE KENNEDY worked for 10 years at daily newspapers in Delaware and Florida before joining the Missouri School of Journalism faculty in 1974. At Missouri, Kennedy has served as chairman of the Editorial Department and as associate dean. Many recent alumni know him best as managing editor of the school’s teaching newspaper, the Columbia Missourian — a position he held for almost 12 years. Kennedy’s academic interests center on journalistic practice and the future of the profession. He has been a Fulbright lecturer in New Zealand and a visiting professor in Slovakia and Spain. His most recent articles have appeared in The American Editor and Columbia Journalism Review, and he has co-authored three textbooks in reporting and writing. Kennedy holds a bachelor’s degree and a doctorate from Missouri and a master’s degree from the University of Pennsylvania.

DARYL MOEN is the former editor of three daily newspapers and author or co-author of four journalism textbooks. He has redesigned 18 newspapers and given more than 200 seminars on writing and design in the U.S. and abroad.  Daryl has taught newspaper design, reporting, beginning and advanced editing, advanced writing, editorial writing, graduate problems courses and directs graduate professional projects and theses.  As a teacher, Daryl attempted to lead students to answers rather than provide them. He believes that showing is more powerful than telling, that finding the "why" gives students the tools to adjust to changing conditions for the rest of their careers and that doing is more effective than listening.  As a faculty member in a professional school, Daryl worked closely with his students to make industry contacts and find jobs. He helped scores of students find not only their first jobs but also their second and third jobs, and encouraged them to use the Missouri alumni network to find jobs.

DON RANLY became head of the magazine sequence in 1976 (a position he held until 2004), just two years after he joined the Missouri School of Journalism faculty. Before making Missouri his home, Ranly worked for eight years in Wisconsin, Ohio and Indiana as a newspaper reporter, a magazine editor, a weekly columnist, a radio host and a television producer, director and host. Ranly’s broad experience is also reflected in his education: he has master’s degrees in journalism and speech from Marquette University, a certificate in film, radio and television from New York University, and a doctorate from the Missouri School of Journalism. During his 30 years of service at the school, he has conducted nearly 1,000 writing and editing seminars for press associations, corporations, associations and individual newspapers and magazines. He has also authored or co-authored five books and published several audiocassettes and videos on reporting, writing and grammar. In 1995, Ranly received a Mizzou Alumni Association Faculty-Alumni Award and was named the O.O. McIntyre Distinguished Professor of Journalism. Three years later, he won a University of Missouri Golden Chalk teaching award and co-authored Publication Editing (Kendall/Hunt). In 2002, he was named a Fellow of the International Association of Business Communicators; in 2003 he won one of the University of Missouri’s most prestigious teaching awards, the William T. Kemper Fellowship. In 2012 Ranly was named an "Icon of Education" by Ingram’s Kansas City Business Magazine.

Table of Contents



1 The Nature of News
Journalism and the News

           ► LaunchPad Solo: User Generated Content

Getting Information Today

               Hard News

               Soft News


Elements of a Good News Story









Convergence in Journalism

           ► LaunchPad Solo: Convergence and Essential Skills

The Role of Journalism

               Challenges to American Journalism

               ON THE JOB Journalists’ Responsibilities in a Democracy

Accuracy, Fairness and Bias

               Accuracy and Fairness

               Dealing with Bias

The Issue of Objectivity

What Is Not News

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


2   The Future of Journalism
Technology and Jobs in Journalism
The Impact of Digital Technology on Newspapers

             Sidebar: Delivering the News in New Ways

Newspapers: Still the Source of Most News

Other Legacy Media Are Affected, Too

New Models for Providing the News

          ► LaunchPad Solo: Internet Media Entrepreneurs: Newsy.com, with Jim Spencer

Embracing Citizen Journalism

          ► LaunchPad Solo: Newspapers Now: Balancing Citizen Journalism and Investigative Reporting

              When Citizen Journalism Fails

               Forms of Citizen Journalism       

Prospects for Journalism Grads

Sidebar: Engaging the Community

ON THE JOB The Lure of New Media

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


3 Interviewing
Preparing for the Interview

         Interviewing for the News Story

         Interviewing for the Profile

         ON THE JOB Getting the Tough Interview

         Interviewing for the Investigative Story

                            Gathering Information

                            Requesting an Interview

Doing an Audio or Video Interview

        ► LaunchPad Solo: Radio: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

Using the Telephone, Email, Instant Messaging or Skype for Interviews

Setting Up the Interview

Preparing Questions

          Researching Questions

          Phrasing Questions

          Open-Ended Questions

          Closed-Ended Questions

Establishing Rapport

          Interview Approaches

          Other Practical Considerations

Ensuring Accuracy and Fairness

          Using a Recorder

          Taking Notes

          Verifying Information


           Asking Follow-Up Questions

           Using Other Techniques

Ending the Interview

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


4   Handling Quotations and Attributions
What to Quote Directly

              Unique Material

                              Use Good Judgment in Selecting Quotes

                              Don’t Use Direct Quotes for Straight Facts

                              Use Quotes That Move the Story Forward

              Consider Using Dialogue to Tell Part of the Story

              The Unique Expression

              Important Quotes by Important People

Accuracy and Fairness in Direct Quotations

              ANNOTATED MODEL Using Quotes Effectively


          ►LaunchPad Solo: Computer Assisted Reporting

              Quoting from Email, Social Media, the Internet and Chat Rooms

              Using Someone Else’s Direct Quotations

              Practicing Prepublication Review

              ON THE JOB Reinventing a Career

Altering Quotations

              Paraphrasing Quotes

              Using Partial Quotes

              Capturing Dialect or Accent

              Mixing and Matching Questions and Answers

              Correcting Grammar in Quotes

                                          The Case for Correcting Grammar

                                          The Case Against Correcting Grammar

              Removing Redundancies

              Deleting Obscenity, Profanity and Vulgarity

              Avoiding Made-Up Quotes

Attributing Direct and Indirect Quotes

              ANNOTATED MODEL Using Attributions

              When to Attribute

              ANNOTATED MODEL Using Anonymous Sources

              How to Attribute

              BOX: He Said, She Said—Punctuating Direct Quotations

              Attributing Written Sources

Handling On- and Off-the-Record Information

              Problems with Anonymous Sources

              Disagreement About Terminology

              Background Interviews

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


5         Gathering and Verifying Information
Accurate Information: The Basis of a Good Story

          LaunchPad Solo: The Objectivity Myth

              The Discipline of Multiple Sources

              ANNOTATED MODEL Integrating Multiple Sources into a Story

              The Discipline of Verification

Online Sources of Information

              News Archives: The Place to Start

              Search Engines

              News Sites, Social Media and Content Aggregators

          ► LaunchPad Solo: Media Effects Research

              Commercial Database Services

              Government Databases

              Special-Interest Databases

              Custom Databases

              On the Job The Challenges of Editing for the Web

Traditional Sources of Information

              The Traditional Newsroom Library

              Other Traditional Sources

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


6        Using News Releases as Sources
The Importance of News Releases

Types of News Releases

            ► LaunchPad Solo: Filling the News Hole: Video News Releases

                Announcement Releases

                ON THE JOB Reading News Releases: Sweat the Small Print

                Cause-Promoting Releases

                 Image-Building Releases

Handling News Releases

                Rewriting an Announcement Release

                Rewriting a Cause-Promoting Release

                Rewriting an Image-Building Release

Rewriting a News Release — An Example

                Read the News Release Carefully

                Check for Accuracy and Fairness

                 Do Additional Research and Interviews

                 Get Back to the News Release Contact with Questions

                 Write the Story

                 ANNOTATED MODEL Integrating News Release Information

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


7             Reporting with Numbers

               Percentages and Percentage Change

                                     Populations, Samples and Margins of Error

                                      Percentage Change and Percentage Points

               Averages and Medians


Interest and Compounding



                Sales Taxes

                Income Taxes

                ON THE JOB Working with Numbers

                 Property Taxes


                  Budget Basics

                   Finding Stories in Budget Changes, Trends and Comparisons

Financial Reports

Mixing Numbers and Words

             ► LaunchPad Solo: Freedom of Information

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites



8             The Inverted Pyramid
Importance of the Inverted Pyramid Story

           ► LaunchPad Solo: Magazine Specialization Today

Finding the Lead

               Writing the Inverted Pyramid Lead

                Emphasizing Different News Values

                ANNOTATED MODEL A Sample Inverted Pyramid Story

                What, So What and What’s Next

Variations on the Inverted Pyramid Lead

                The "You" Lead

                The Immediate-Identification Lead

                The Delayed-Identification Lead

                The Summary Lead

                The Multiple-Element Lead

                ON THE JOB Inverted Pyramid — A Basic Tool

                 Danger Signals

                  Leads with Flair

Story Organization

                  The One-Subject Story

                  The Memo-Structure Story

                   ANNOTATED MODEL A Single-Subject Inverted Pyramid Story

                   ANNOTATED MODEL A Memo-Structure Story

                   The Multiple-Element Story

Writing a Story Across Media Platforms

                   Tweeting Breaking News

                   Initial Online Story

                   ANNOTATED MODEL The Classic Inverted Pyramid Story

                   Full Story with Ongoing Updates

Checking Accuracy and Attributions

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


9                Writing to Be Read
              ►LaunchPad Solo: Community Voices: Weekly Newspapers

Good Writing Begins with Good Reporting

                   ON THE JOB Setting the Hook in the Opening

Accurate, Specific Details

                   Use Concrete Examples

                   Show, Don’t Just Tell

                   Use Words Precisely


                   Decide on the Order of Elements

                   Select the Proper Sentence Structure

                   Use the Precise Conjunction

                   Use Transitions

                   ANNOTATED MODEL Using Transitions

Conciseness and Simplicity

                   Be Concise

                   ANNOTATED MODEL Editing for Conciseness

                   Keep It Simple

Correct and Effective Language

                   Figures of Speech

                   Careful Word Choice

                    Bias-Free Language

                    Correct Grammar and Punctuation

The Tools of Narration





Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


10              Alternatives to the Inverted Pyramid

                 Where to Start

                  A Sample Outline

                  The Nut Paragraph, Foreshadowing and the "To Be Sure"

                  The Ending

News Narrative

                  News Narrative with News Emphasis

                  ANNOTATED MODEL News Narrative with News Emphasis

                  News Narrative with Narrative Emphasis

Focus Structure

                  ANNOTATED MODEL News Narrative with Narrative Emphasis

                  Writing the Lead

                  Writing the Setup

                  The Transition and the Nut Paragraph


                  The "So What"

                  The "To Be Sure"

          ON THE JOB Tips for Writing

          Writing the Body

          Writing the Ending

Service Journalism

       ► LaunchPad Solo: Narrowcasting in Magazines

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


11           Writing for Digital Media

The Web as a Unique Media Form

Readers’ Expectations of the Digital Media

                 Readers Want the News Right Away

             ► LaunchPad Solo: Going Viral: Political Campaigns and Video

                  Readers Want to Have Their Say

                  Readers Want Multimedia Variety

                  Readers Want the News Upfront

                  Readers Want to Customize Content

                  The Big Story: An Alternative Approach

                  The Audience Is International

                   Structure Is All-Important

                   ANNOTATED MODEL Layering Content on the Web

                   ON THE JOB An Online Career

Guidelines for Writing for the Web

                  Think Immediacy

                  Save Readers Time

                  Provide Information That’s Quick and Easy to Get

                  Think Both Verbally and Visually

                  Cut Your Copy

                   Use Lots of Lists and Bullets

                   Write in Chunks

                    Use Links

                                                 Internal Connections

                                                 External Connections

                    Give Readers a Chance to Talk Back

Writing with Search Engines in Mind

Writing for Blogs

                    Wide-Ranging Subject Matter

               ► LaunchPad Solo: Net Neutrality

                     Professional Standards

The Roles of Social Media

                     Verifying Information

                     Reaching Readers

                     Writing Effectively and Correctly

                     Benefiting as a Journalist

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


12                Writing News for Radio and Television
                ► LaunchPad Solo: Going Visual: Video, Radio and the Web

What Radio and Television Do Best

Criteria for Selecting Radio and Television News


                       Information Rather Than Explanation

                       Audio or Visual Impact

                        Emphasis on People

Writing Radio and Television News

                         Characteristics of Radio and Television News Writing


                         ANNOTATED MODEL Use of Verb Tenses in a TV Story

                                      Conversational Style

                                      Tight Phrasing


                         Story Structure

                                       Writing the Radio and Television Lead

                                       Writing Lead-Ins and Wrap-Ups

                                       Writing to the Video

                        ON THE JOB Writing News for Radio, Television and More

Using Social Media in Radio and Television

                  ► LaunchPad Solo: Television Networks Evolve: Cable, Satellite, Broadband

                        Blending Online with On-Air

                         Guidelines for Using Social Media

                         ON THE JOB Be Ready to Meet the Challenge

Preparing Radio and Television News Copy


                        Names and Titles



                        Symbols and Numbers

                        Quotations and Attributions


Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites



13 Covering a Beat

Importance of Beat Reporting

            ► LaunchPad Solo: Agenda Setting & Gatekeeping

Principles for Reporters on a Beat

                Be Prepared

                              Reading for Background

                              Talking to Sources

               ON THE JOB His Beat: The White House

                Be Alert

                Be Persistent

                              Insisting on a Responsive Answer

                              Following Up on Slow Developments

                Be There

                Be Wary

Beat Reporting Across Media Platforms

                The Benefits and Challenges of Reporting Across Platforms

                 ANNOTATED MODEL A Crime Story Across Media Platforms

                 Using Social Media to Find Sources—and Audiences

             ►LaunchPad Solo: Newspapers and the Internet: Convergence

Covering the Most Important Local Beats

                 City and County Government

                 The Schools

                 Higher Education



                              Sports Reporting Is Beat Reporting

                              Developing Contacts

                              Digging for the Real Story

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


14         Speeches, News Conferences and Meetings
             ► LaunchPad Solo: What Makes Public Television "Public"?

Distinguishing Among Speeches, News Conferences and Meetings

Getting Ready to Cover the Story

                 Preparing for the Speech Story

                 Preparing for the News Conference Story

                 Preparing for the Meeting Story

Covering Speeches, News Conferences and Meetings

                 The Medium Matters

                 Getting the Content Correct

                 Describing the Participants

                 Being Observant

                 Arriving, Positioning Yourself and Staying On

Structuring and Writing Your Story

                 Writing the Speech Story

                 ANNOTATED MODEL Analyzing a Speech Story

                 Writing the News Conference Story

                 Writing the Meeting Story

                 ON THE JOB Speeches, News Conferences and Meetings

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


15     Other Types of Local Stories

Your Preparation

                 Preparing for the Crime Story

                 Preparing for Accident and Fire Stories

                 Preparing for the Court Story

Writing the Story

                 The Crime Story

                 ANNOTATED MODEL Comparison of a Breaking News Story and a Follow-Up Story

                 Accident and Fire Stories

                 The Court Story

                               Avoiding Libelous Statements

                 ON THE JOB "Every Story Is Important"

                               Types of Courts and Cases

Reporting a Case Step-by-Step— An Example

                 A Breaking-News Tweet

                 A Typical First Story

                 Follow-Up Story: First Court Appearance

                 Follow-Up Story: Preliminary Hearing

                 Follow-Up Story: Arraignment

                 Follow-Up Story: First Day of the Trial

                 Follow-Up Story: Trial Testimony

                 Follow-Up Story: Verdict

                 Sentencing and Appeals

Other Issues in Crime and Court Reporting

                 The Free Press/Fair Trial Controversy

                 Gag Orders and Closed Trials

                 Covering Sex Crimes

                                  Sex Crime Victims

                                  Sex Crime Offenders

                 Press-Bar Guidelines

                 Cameras in the Courtroom

                 Coverage of Minority Groups

             ► LaunchPad Solo: Fake News/Real News: A Fine Line

                  Coverage of Terrorism

                  Crime and Social Media

                  Issues of Taste and Ethics

                                     Reporting Details of a Crime

                                     Reporting Confessions and Prior Convictions

                                     Identifying Juveniles

Obituaries and Life Stories

                  Crafting a Lead

                  Building the Story

                  Writing Life Stories

                   Sources of Information

                                       The Mortuary Form

                                       The Newsroom Library

                                        Interviews with Family and Friends

                     Cause of Death

                     Private or Embarrassing Information

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


16             Business and Consumer News
The Growing Importance of Business Journalism

                 Specialized Business News

             ► LaunchPad Solo: The Money Behind the Media

                  Global Reach

                  Wide Range of Topics

How to Report Business Stories

                  Avoiding Jargon and Finding the "So What"

                  Putting Sources at Ease

                  Watching Out for Biases and Conflicts of Interest

                  ON THE JOB Translating Business into English

Where to Find Business Stories

                  Records and Reports

                                 Corporate Data

                                 Investment Data

                                 Financial Ratios

                                 Company Filings

                                 Trade Press


                                 Court Records

                                  Local Regulators

                                  Other Sources

                  Human Sources

                                  Company Executives

                                  Public Relations Sources

                                   Academic Experts

                                   Trade Associations

                                   Chamber of Commerce Officials

                                   Former Employees

                                    Labor Leaders

                                    Other Sources

                  Announcements and Meetings

                  Reporter Enterprise

Looking at the Numbers

Covering Consumer News

                  Where to Find Consumer News

                                    Government Agencies

                                    Consumer Groups

                                    Private Businesses

                   How to Report Consumer Stories

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites



17               Investigative and Data-driven Reporting
Investigative Reporting: An American Tradition

               ► LaunchPad Solo: Investigative Reporting Resources

The Process

                     Beginning the Investigation

                     Carrying Out the Investigation

                     Getting It Right

                     Writing the Story

                                    Selecting an Effective Story Structure and Lead

                                    Including Proof of the Story’s Credibility

                                    Striving for Clear, Simple Explanations

                      ON THE JOB Investigative Skills for All

                       Planning the Multimedia Aspects of the Story or Series

The Sources

                       Human Sources

                       Written Sources

                                    Public Records

                                    Nonpublic Records

                  ► LaunchPad Solo: Shield Laws and Non-Traditional Journalists

                                     Problems with Written Sources

Computer-Assisted Reporting

                  ►LaunchPad Solo:
The Power of Images: Amy Goodman on Emmett Till

                         ON THE JOB Driving Investigations with CAR

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


18                   Working in Public Relations
Public Relations: A Different Approach to News

                        Defining Public Relations

                        A Range of Interests

                        Objectivity and Public Relations Writing

                  ► LaunchPad Solo: Give and Take: Public Relations and Journalism

The Main Focus of Public Relations Writing

                        The Message

                        The Audience

                        ON THE JOB Know Why You Are Communicating

                        The Media

                                     Television, Radio and Newsstand Publications

                                     The Internet: An All-in-One Medium

                                     Social Media

                                     Internal Publications, Brochures and Billboards

Persuasive Writing

                        Your Attitude

                        Credibility and Trust

News Releases That Get Attention

                        Know What News Is and How to Write It

                        Know the Structure and Operations of Newsrooms

                        Know the People in the News Media and the Jobs They Hold

                        Know the Style of Writing That Fits the Medium

                        Know How to Distribute Information Online

Digital News Releases

                        ANNOTATED MODEL News Release Responding to a Crisis

                        ANNOTATED MODEL Social Media News Release

Some Final Advice

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


19                   Media Law

The First Amendment: Journalists’ Rights and Responsibilities


                       Identifying Libel

                       Libel Suit Defenses



                                    Fair Comment and Criticism

                                    The Actual Malice Test and Public Officials

                                    The Actual Malice Test and Public Figures

                       ON THE JOB The Keys to Avoiding Libel

                                    The Negligence Test and Private Citizens

                       Libel Remains a Danger

                       Libel and the Internet

Invasion of Privacy


                       Portraying in a "False Light"

                       Causing Unwanted Publicity Offensive to a Person of Ordinary Sensibilities

Protection of Sources and Notes

                  ► LaunchPad Solo: Bloggers & Legal Rights

Access to Courts

Copyright and Fair Use

Suggested Readings

Suggested Websites


20                     Ethics  
The Public Perception of Journalism Ethics

                   ► LaunchPad Solo: Journalism Ethics: What News Is Fit to Print?

                          Bloggers as Watchdogs

                          Journalism Codes of Ethics

Three Ethical Philosophies

                          The Ethics of Duty

                          The Ethics of Final Ends or Consequences

                          ON THE JOB Develop Your Ability to Identify Ethical Situations

                          Situation Ethics: The Ethics of Specific Acts

                                           No Moral Absolutes

                                           Love of Neighbor

                                           The Greatest Good for the Greatest Number

                                           Ayn Rand’s Rational Self-Interest

Resolving Ethical Issues

Ethical Problems for Journalists


                          Conflicts of Interest




                                            Checkbook Journalism

                          ON THE JOB Nurturing a Healthy Ethical Process in an Ever-Changing Environment

                                             Participation in the News

                          Advertising Pressure

                          Magazines and "New Financial Pillars"

                          Invasion of Privacy

                                             Crime Victims

                                             Juvenile Offenders

                                             Victims of Child Abuse and Their Families

                                             Sexual Orientation

                                             Public Figures

                                             Photos and Video

                          Withholding Information

                          Incorrect and Incomplete Information

Social Media Ethics
Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites

Appendix 1             20 Common Errors of Grammar and Punctuation
Appendix 2             Wire-Service Style Summary
Appendix 3             Society of Professional Journalists’ Code of Ethics
Annotated Models
Copy Editing and Proofreading Symbols

Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

The Used, Rental and eBook copies of this book are not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

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