9781119723905

Nutrition For Dummies

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781119723905

  • ISBN10:

    1119723906

  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2021-05-04
  • Publisher: For Dummies

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Summary

Updated with the latest available research and the new 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines

It's a scientific fact: You really are what you eat. Good nutrition is your meal-ticket to staying sleek, healthy, and strong—both physically and mentally. Nutrition For Dummies, 7th Edition is a complete guide that shows you how to maintain a healthy weight, promote health, and prevent chronic disease. This book gives you the know-how to put together a shopping list, prepare healthy foods, and easily cut calories. Along the way, there's up-to-the-minute guidance for building a nutritious diet at every stage of life from toddler time to your Golden Years. Enjoy!

Author Biography

Carol Ann Rinzler (New York, NY) is a veteran author of more than 20 books on food and health, including Nutrition For Dummies and Controlling Cholesterol For Dummies. She has contributed to The New York Times, Redbook, Family Circle, and is a former nutrition columnist for the New York Daily News.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

About This Book 1

Foolish Assumptions 2

Icons Used in This Book 3

Beyond the Book 3

Where to Go from Here 3

Part 1: Nutrition 101: The Basic Facts about Nutrition 5

Chapter 1: Nutrition Equals Life: Knowing What to Eat to Get What You Need 7

Discovering the First Principles of Nutrition 8

Breaking nutrients into two groups 9

Looking at essential nutrients 10

Protecting the Nutrients in Your Food 12

Knowing Your Nutritional Status 13

Fitting Food into the Medicine Chest 14

Finding Nutrition Facts 14

Nutrition people 14

Questions to ask about any study 15

Chapter 2: Digestion: The 24/7 Food Factory 21

Introducing the Digestive System 21

Digestion: One Step at a Time 23

Your brain, eyes, and nose 23

Your mouth 24

Your stomach 25

Your small intestine 25

Your large intestine 27

Chapter 3: How Much Nutrition Do You Need? 31

RDAs: Guidelines for Good Nutrition 31

Proteins, vitamins, and minerals: The essentials 32

Recommendations for carbohydrates, fats, dietary fiber, and alcohol 32

Different people, different needs 33

AIs: The Nutritional Numbers Formerly Known as ESADDIs 34

DRI: The Totally Complete Nutrition Guide 35

Chapter 4: Bigger But Not Better 41

The Obesity Epidemic 42

Observing the Obesity Map 42

Determining How Much You Should Weigh 44

Weight charts and tables 44

The BMI: Another way to rate your weight 46

Understanding What the Numbers Really Mean 48

Increasing the odds of accuracy 49

Seeing red flags on weight and health 49

Facing the Numbers When They Don’t Fit Your Body 50

Chapter 5: Calories: Powering Up the Body 53

Counting the Calories in Food 54

Empty calories 55

Every calorie counts 56

Determining How Many Calories You Need 57

Resting energy expenditure (REE) 57

Sex, glands, and chocolate cake 58

Energy for work 60

Calculating Your Daily Calorie Needs 61

Part 2: The Good Stuff in Your Food 63

Chapter 6: Protein Power 65

Understanding How Your Body Uses Proteins 65

Moving Proteins from Your Dinner Plate to Your Cells 67

Differentiating Dietary Proteins 68

Essential and nonessential proteins 68

Evaluating proteins 69

Figuring Out How Much Protein You Need 73

Calculating the correct amount 73

Dodging protein deficiency 74

Boosting your protein intake: Special considerations 74

Avoiding protein overload 75

Chapter 7: Facing Facts on Fat and Cholesterol 77

Discovering How Your Body Uses Fats 77

Understanding what fats do for you 78

Pulling energy from fat 78

Defining Fatty Acids and Their Relationship to Dietary Fat 80

Focusing on the Fats in Food 82

Looking at the fatty acids in food 82

Identifying the foods with fats 84

Getting the right amount of fat 84

Considering Cholesterol and You 87

Cholesterol and heart disease 87

Lipoproteins 88

Diet and cholesterol 90

Chapter 8: Carbohydrates: A Complex Story 93

Checking Out Carbohydrates 93

Simple carbohydrates 94

Complex carbohydrates 94

Dietary fiber 94

Carbohydrates and Energy: A Biochemical Love Story 95

How glucose becomes energy 96

How pasta ends up on your hips when too many carbs pass your lips 97

Other ways your body uses carbohydrates 97

Finding the Carbohydrates You Need 98

Some people have problems with carbohydrates 98

Some people need extra carbohydrates 99

Dietary Fiber: The Non-Nutrient in Carbohydrate Foods 101

Defining the two kinds of dietary fiber 101

Getting dietary fiber from food 102

Determining how much fiber you need 102

Chapter 9: Alcohol: Another Form of Grape and Grain 109

Creating Alcohol Beverages 110

Fermented alcohol products 110

Distilled alcohol products 110

The foods used to make beverage alcohol 111

Checking How Much Alcohol Is in That Bottle 112

Following Alcohol through Your Body 112

Understanding How Alcohol Affects Your Health 114

The physical effects of excessive drinking 115

Alcoholism: An addiction disease 116

Who shouldn’t drink 117

Alcohol and age 118

Advice from the Sages: Moderation 119

Chapter 10: Validating Vitamins 121

Understanding What Vitamins Your Body Needs 121

Fat-soluble vitamins 123

Water-soluble vitamins 126

Discovering Where to Get Your Vitamins 131

Too Much or Too Little: Avoiding Two Ways to Go Wrong with Vitamins 131

Vitamin deficiencies 132

Vitamin megadoses 133

Acceptable Exceptions: Taking Extra Vitamins as Needed 135

I’m taking medication 135

I’m a smoker 135

I never eat animals 135

I’m pregnant 135

I’m breast-feeding 136

I’m approaching menopause 137

I have very light skin or very dark skin 137

Chapter 11: Making Mineral Magic 139

Getting the Minerals You Need 140

The major minerals 141

The trace elements 144

Knowing What’s Too Much and What’s Too Little 148

Avoiding mineral deficiency 148

Understanding the risks of overdoses 149

Figuring Out When You May Need More than the RDA 151

You’re a strict vegetarian 151

You live inland, away from the ocean 152

You’re a man 152

You’re a woman 152

You’re pregnant or nursing 152

Chapter 12: The Wonder of Water 155

Investigating the Many Ways Your Body Uses Water 156

Maintaining the Right Amount of Water in Your Body 156

The electrolytes’ primary job 158

Other tasks electrolytes perform 159

Getting the Water You Need 159

Evaluating Electrolytes 161

Sodium 162

Potassium and chloride 162

When you need more 162

Dehydration: When the Body Doesn’t Get Enough Water 164

First signs 165

Worsening problems 165

Really bad trouble 165

The crash 165

Chapter 13: Added Attractions: Supplements 167

Introducing Dietary Supplements 167

Examining Two Reasons to Use Dietary Supplements 169

When food isn’t enough 169

Using supplements as insurance 170

Exploring Supplement Safety: An Iffy Proposition 172

Choosing the Most Effective Supplements 174

Getting Nutrients from Food Rather Than Supplements 178

Part 3: Hunger, Health, and Habits 179

Chapter 14: Why You Eat When You Eat 181

Underlining the Difference between Hunger and Appetite 181

Refueling: The Cycle of Hunger and Satiety 183

Recognizing hunger 183

Identifying the hormones that say, “I’m hungry” and “I’m full” 183

Beating the four-hour hungries 185

The better way: Five or six small meals 185

Maintaining a healthy appetite 186

Responding to Your Environment on a Gut Level .187

Baby, it’s cold outside 187

Exercising more than your mouth 188

Taking medicine that changes your appetite 188

Revealing Unhealthy Relationships with Food 189

Obesity 189

Anorexia nervosa 190

Bulimia nervosa 190

Binge eating disorder 191

Chapter 15: Why You Like the Foods You Like 193

Tackling Taste: How Your Brain and Tongue Work Together 193

The five basic flavors 194

Your health and your taste buds 195

Tricking your taste buds 197

Determining Deliciousness 197

Listening to your body 197

Loving the food you’re with: Geography and taste 198

Taking offense to food and flavors 200

Changing the Menu: Adapting to Exotic Foods 201

Learning to like unusual foods 202

Stirring the stew: The culinary benefits of immigration 202

Chapter 16: Building Your New and Improved Healthful Diet 207

Discovering the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 207

Finding What’s New in the 2020–2025 Edition 209

Factor in the fats 212

Subtract the added sugar 213

Get adequate essential nutrients 214

Go fish for good food 214

Bring on the veggies 214

Get up and go 215

Do the Guidelines Work? 218

Chapter 17: Choosing Wisely with Pyramids, Plates, and Patterns 221

Checking Out Basic Diet Pictures 221

The original USDA Food Guide Pyramid 222

From pyramid to plate: The evolution of the Food Guide 222

An assortment of pyramids and plates 224

Tracking Food Patterns 226

Understanding the Nutrition Facts Label 227

Getting the facts 228

Relying on labels: Health claims 230

Navigating the highs and lows 232

Listing other stuff 235

Using Pyramids, Plates, Patterns, and Labels to Choose Healthful Foods 235

Chapter 18: Eating Smart When Eating Out 237

Reading a Restaurant Menu 237

Apportion the portions 238

Ask for proof .239

Editing Your Menu Choices 239

Start simple 239

Elevate appetizers to entrees 240

Skip the fat on the bread 240

Undress the veggies 240

Minimize the main dish 241

Sideline sauces 242

Satisfy your sweet tooth 242

Writing Rules for Chain Restaurants 243

Exploring the Healthful Side of Fast Food 245

Choosing wisely at the drive-through 245

Finding a guilt-free, 300-calorie snack solution 246

Managing the Mechanical Menu 247

Part 4: Food Processing 249

Chapter 19: Praising Food Processing 251

Preserving Food: Five Methods of Processing 252

Temperature control 253

Removing the water 254

Controlling the air flow 254

Chemical warfare 255

Irradiation 255

Improving Food’s Appeal and Nutritional Value 256

Intensifying flavor and aroma 256

Adding nutrients 256

Combining benefits 257

Faking It: Food Substitutes 257

Alternative foods No 1: Fat replacers 258

Alternative foods No 2: Substitute sweeteners 261

A Last Word: Follow That Bird 264

Chapter 20: Healthful and Delicious Heat 265

Exploring Different Methods of Cooking 266

Cooking with fire 266

Cooking with electromagnetic waves 267

Understanding How Cooking Alters Food 267

Changing food’s texture 267

Enhancing flavor and aroma 270

Shading the color palette 271

Picking the Right Cooking Materials 272

Aluminum 273

Copper 273

Ceramics 274

Enamelware 274

Glass 274

Iron 275

Nonstick 275

Stainless steel 275

Plastic and paper 276

Protecting the Nutrients in Cooked Foods 276

Maintaining minerals 277

Keeping those volatile vitamins 277

Keeping Food Safe by Cooking 278

Naming the bad guys 279

Heating to the appropriate temperature 280

Chapter 21: How Freezing, Canning, Drying, and Zapping Protect Your Food 283

Cold Comfort: Chilling and Freezing 283

How freezing affects the texture of food 286

Thawing frozen food 287

Refreezing frozen food 287

Canned Food: Keeping Out Contaminants 288

Dried Food: No Life without Water 289

How drying affects food’s nutritional value 289

When dried fruit may be hazardous to your health 290

Irradiation: A Hot Topic 291

Chapter 22: Better Eating through Chemistry 295

Nature’s Beneficial Chemistry 295

Antioxidants 296

Hormonelike compounds .296

Sulfur compounds 297

Exploring the Natural and Synthetic Nature of Food Additives 298

Nutrient additives 298

Color additives 299

Flavor additives 301

Preservatives 302

Other additives in food 302

Determining the Safety of Food Additives 303

Defining toxins 303

Explaining carcinogens 303

Listing allergens 305

Beyond Additives: Foods Nature Never Made 306

Part 5: Food and Medicine 309

Chapter 23: When Food Fights Back 311

Diagnosing Food Allergies 312

Understanding how an allergic reaction occurs 312

Investigating two kinds of allergic reactions 314

Identifying food allergies 314

Coping with Food Allergies 315

Reading the food ingredient label 315

Avoiding unusual interactions 317

Practicing pragmatic protection 319

Recognizing Other Body Reactions to Food 319

Chapter 24: Brain Food 321

Nourishing the Developing Brain 321

Fats and the fetal brain 322

Fish and the teenage brain 322

Determining how much DHA a body needs 323

Avoiding malicious mercury 323

Protecting the Adult Brain 325

Introducing the natural enemies of thought and memory 326

Dieting to keep your brain in shape 327

Choosing foods that boost the brain 327

Minding your mind diet 328

Altering the Emotional Brain 329

Recognizing mood malfunctions 330

Seeing how food can affect your mood 331

Using food to manage mood 335

Healing the Injured Brain 336

The 5, 7, 2, 4, 100, 200 solution 337

Protein possibilities 338

The (eventual) official word 338

Eating to Benefit Your Brain and Your Body 339

Chapter 25: Food and Drug Interactions 341

Following Food and Drug Interactions 342

Listing the Reactions of Drugs and Certain Foods 343

Discovering Drug Interactions with Nutrients 345

Using Food to Improve a Drug’s Performance 346

Chapter 26: Using Food as Medicine 349

Defining Food as Medicine 349

Naming Diets with Absolutely, Positively Beneficial Medical Effects 350

Using Food to Prevent Disease 351

Battling deficiency diseases 352

Reviewing the evidence on anticancer diets 352

DASHing to healthy blood pressure 354

Conquering the common cold 355

Eating for a Better Body (And Brain) 356

The Last Word on Food versus Medicine 357

Part 6: The Part of Tens 359

Chapter 27: Ten Reliable Food and Nutrition Websites 361

U.S Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Composition Website 362

U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 362

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) 363

The American Heart Association (AHA) 363

American Cancer Society (ACS) 364

Food Allergy Research & Education (FARE) 364

Mayo Clinic 364

Science Daily .365

WebMD 365

Food Safety News 365

Chapter 28: Ten Northern Nutrition Rules 367

Be Mindful of Your Eating Habits 367

Cook More Often 368

Enjoy Your Food 368

Eat Meals with Others 368

Eat Plenty of Vegetables and Fruits, Whole Grain Foods, and Protein Foods 368

Limit Highly Processed Foods 369

Make Water Your Drink of Choice 369

Use Food Labels 369

Be Aware That Food Marketing Can Influence Your Choices 369

Check the Guidelines for Updates 369

Chapter 29: Ten Superstar Foods 371

Avocado 371

Bananas 372

Beans 372

Celery 373

Cheese 373

Chocolate 373

Nuts 374

Sardines 375

White Tea 375

Whole Grains 376

Chapter 30: Ten Ways Coffee (and Tea) Make Life Better 377

Coffee Lights Up Your Brain 378

Coffee Chases the Blues 378

Coffee Powers Endurance Exercise 379

Coffee Is Cholesterol-Safe 379

Coffee Lowers Your Risk of Stroke 379

Coffee Lowers Your Risk of Some Cancers 380

Coffee May Ward Off Type 2 Diabetes 380

Coffee Doesn’t Keep Everyone Awake 381

Coffee Lowers a Man’s Risk of ED 381

Coffee Drinkers Live Longer 381

Chapter 31: Ten Terrific Foods Starting with the Letter P 383

Papaya 383

Pear 384

Peas 384

Pineapple 385

Plantain 386

Pork 386

Potato 387

Prawns 388

Prune 388

Pumpkin 389

Appendix: Glossary of Nutrition Terms 391

Index 401

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