Occupied America A History of Chicanos

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-01-21
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Occupied Americais an engaging and comprehensive overview of Chicano history. Passionately written and extensively researched, the book presents coverage of the roles of race and gender in forming Mexican American identity.

Author Biography

Rodolfo F. Acuña, the founding chair of Chicano Studies at then San Fernando Valley State -- the largest Chicano Studies Department in the United States with 30 tenured professors -- has authored 19 books, three of which received the Gustavus Myers Award for the Outstanding Book on Race Relations in North America.  Acuña has received the Distinguished Scholar Award, National Association for Chicano Studies, the Emil Freed Award for Community Service, Southern California Social Science Library, the Founder's Award for Community Service from the Liberty Hill Foundation among others.  Black Issues In Higher Education selected Acuña one of the “100 Most Influential Educators of the 20th Century. Among his best-known books are Sometimes There is No Other Side: Essays on Truth and Objectivity (Notre Dame, 1998); Anything But Mexican: Chicanos in Contemporary Los Angeles. (Verso Press, 1996), US Latinos: An Inquiry (Greenwood Press, 2003), Community Under Siege (UCLA, 1984), The Sonoran Strongman (University of Arizona, 1974). His most recent works include Corridors of Migration (Greenwood Press, 2008). In the Trenches of Academe is in progress.  Acuña has also written three children’s books and has another book in production and authored more than 160 academic and public articles in addition to over 140 book reviews. As an activist scholar he has been a leading voice in the Mexican American community.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1   Not Just Pyramids, Explorers, and Heroes

The Cradles of Civilizations

    The Corn People: An Overview

    The Olmeca 1500 bc—500 bc

The Maya

    Maya Hieroglyphic Writing

    Maya Society

    The Decline of Mayan Civilization


    Urbanism and Trade

    Los Tolteca

Other Corn Civilizations

    The Tarasco

    The Azteca

    Los Norteños

Conclusion: The World System in 1519


Chapter 2   The Occupation of Middle America

What Drove the Conquest

    Africa Begins at the Pyrenees

The Spanish Conquest

    Faith Versus Rationality

    The Spanish Invasion of the Mexica

    The Colonization of Native Mesoamerica

    Smallpox and Other Plagues

    The Conquest of Race and Labor in Mesoamerica

Women in Colonial Mesoamerica

    The Changing Roles of Women

    The Assimilation of Native Women

    Al Norte: God, Gold, Glory, Silver, and Slaves

    The Decline of the Indigenous Population

The Changing Order

    The Bonanzas

    Forced Labor

The Northern Corridor

    The Decline of the Native Population

The Colonization of Texas

    El Paso del Norte

    The Tlaxcalán and the Castas

    The Importance of San Antonio and Links to the Rio Bravo

The Occupation of Alta California: Paradise Lost

    Los Indios

    The Missions: Myth and Reality

Conclusion: On the Eve of the Mexican War of Independence


Chapter 3   Legacy of Hate: The Conquest of Mexico’s Northwest

What’s the Evidence?

Mexican Independence from Spain

Background to the Invasion of Texas

    Broken Promises

    Follow the Money: The Land Companies and Trade

    Wanna-Be Sam Adamses

    The Point of No Return

The Invasion of Texas

    The Pretext: Myths of the Alamo

    The Defense of the Mexican Homeland

    Mexicans Win the Battles but Lose the War

The Invasion of Mexico

    The Manufactured War

    An Unwarranted Aggression

The Pretext for Conquest

    Religious Justifications for War

    History as Propaganda

    Peacemakers Expose the Violence of War

    The San Patricio Battalion

    The War Crimes

    Mexicans on the Front Lines

    The Prosecution of the War

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    The Controversy

    The Deception

    The Honorable Man





Chapter 4   Remember the Alamo: The Colonization of Texas

The Years Between 1836 and 1845

    Crossing the Northwest Texas Mexican Border

    The Mexican Corridor

    Control of the Corridor

    Trade Wars and the Rise of Juan Cortina

    Enter “Cheno” Cortina

    The Civil War

The Transformation

    Hang’em High!

    The Historian as an Agent of Social Control

    Controlling the Mexicans

    Politics of Race and Gender


    The People’s Revolt

    The Ballad of Gregorio Cortez

    Boss Rule The Railroad and the Advent of Industrial Capitalism

Mexico Comes to Texas

    Reform Politics and Mexicans

    The Growth of the Mexican Population

    The Growth of Racist Nativism

    Mexican Resistance



Chapter 5   Freedom in a Cage: The Colonization of New Mexico

On the Frontier

    The Santa Fe Trail: The Trojan Horse

    Anti-American Sentiment

The Euro-American Invasion

    The Taos Revolt: The Myth of the Bloodless Conquest

    Inventing Whiteness

The Transition

    The Illusion of Inclusion

    Gringos and Ricos

    How Was It Done?

    The Santa Fe Ring and the Land Grab

    The Lincoln County War


    The Americanization of the Catholic Church

The New Mexican Diaspora

    The Marketplace

    New Mexico in Colorado

The Resistance

    Barb Wire, Irrigation and the Railroad

    The Village People Defend Their Land

    More Illusions of Inclusion

The End of the Frontier

    The Growth of Industrial Mining

    Changes in Society

    Federal Encroachment



Chapter 6   Sonora Invaded: The Occupation of Arizona

The Frontier

    The Gadsden Purchase

    The War with Sonora

    Filibustering Expeditions into Sonora

Mexicans in Early Arizona

    The War of the Races

The Race Question

    Marrying Up!

    The Alliance of Elites

    The War Against the Apache

    The Fate of the “Friendly Indian”

    The Land-Grab Grant

The Transformation of Arizona

    From Adobe to Copper

    Border Conflicts

The Pull Factor

The Industrialization of Arizona

    The Importance of Mining

    The Expansion of Capital

    Industrial Mining

    The 1890s: The De-Skilling of Mine Work

    The Impact of Industrialization on Mexicans

    Mutual Aid Societies

    The Mexican Middle Class

    Small Favors to Women

    Miners Organize: The Emergence of Trade Unions

It’s the Water



Chapter 7   California Lost: Image and Reality

The Myth That Has Become Legend

The Mexican Period

    The Class Gap

    Women in the Transformation of California

The Bear Flag

    John C. Fremont and the Bear Flag

    U.S. Invasion of California

    Gold Transforms California

    The Gold Rush Creates a Template

    Complicity of the Californios

    Legalized Theft: The Foreign Miners’ Tax

Decline of the Californios

    The Locusts

    Taxation Without Representation

    Marrying White

    Legalizing Racism

    Legitimization of Violence

    The Mexican Prostitute

    The American Dream, The Lugos Trial

The Disillusionment

    El Clamor Público

    Class Divisions

Social Banditry

    I am Joaquin!

Mexicans in a Changing Society

    Becoming a Minority

    The Church’s Role


    The Exclusion of the Other






Chapter 8   Immigration, Labor, and Generational Change


    Ideas Cross Borders

    Justice Knows No Borders

    Industrial Bonanzas

    The Nurturing of Ideas

    The Mexican Diaspora

    It Is all about Making a Buck

    Forging a Community

    The Mexican Revolution

    Bullets Across The Border

    Hysteria Across the Border

    In Defense of the Community

    A Changing Society

    Mexican Workers Under Siege

    The Hysteria: The Plan of San Diego

World War I: The Shift

    Shifts in Political Consciousness

    Mexican Responses to Industrial Transformation

    The Failure of American Brotherhood

The Westward Movement of King Cotton



Chapter 9   The 1920s: The Effects of World War I

Americanization: A Study of Extremes

    Protestant Churches and Americanization of the Mexican

    Catholic Churches React to Americanization

    Nationalism Versus Americanization

    Mexicans and Mexican Americans

The Influence of World War I on Becoming Mexican American

    The League of United Latin American Citizens

The Move to the Cities

    San Antonio’s West Side

    Los Angeles: “Where Only the Weeds Grow”

    Mexicans in the Midwest and Points East

Mexican Labor in the 1920s

    Importance of the Sugar-Beet Industry

    Mexicans in the Northwest

    Mexicans in Texas

    Mexicans in the Midwest

    The Growth of California Agribusiness

Mexican Unions

Greasers Go Home

    Keeping America Blond and White



Chapter 10 Mexican American Communities in the Making: The Depression Years

The Great Depression: La Crisis

    Stresses and Strains During La Crisis

Life During the Great Depression

    The Importance of Being San Antonio

Nativist Deportations of the 1930s

    Repatriation Texas-Style

    The Fate of the Deportee in Mexico

Factories in the Fields

    Texas Farms

    Renting Mexicans

The Farm Workers’ Revolt

    The El Monte Strike

    The Tagus Ranch

    The San Joaquín Valley Cotton Strike

    The Imperial Valley, 1934

    CUCOM and Mexican Strikes

    The Congress of Industrial Organizations

    Rural Workers in the Lone Star State

    Colorado and the Manitos

The City

    Los Angeles Mexican Women Garment Workers

    San Antonio Mexicana Workers

    La Pasionaria, the Pecan Shellers’ Strike, and San Antonio

    Unionization in Los Angeles

    Labor in the Midwest: Chicago

The Mexican American Miners’ Revolt

The Mexican-Origin Community

    The Los Angeles Community

    The Mexican American Movement

    El Congreso de los Pueblos de Habla Español

    Fighting Segregation

    The Manitos

    Move to the Windy City: Chicago



Chapter 11 World War II: The Betrayal of Promises

Mexican Americans

    World War II and the Mexican

    The Case of Guy Gabaldón

    The Story of Company E: The All-Mexican Unit

    Racism at Home and Abroad

    Chicanas in the Military

    A Profile of Courage

    Finding Scapegoats

    The Sleepy Lagoon Trial

    Mutiny in the Streets of Los Angeles

    Mexicanas Break Barriers

    Rosita the Riveter

    The Federal Employment Practices Commission

    Cold War Politics of Control

    The Communists Are Coming

Postwar Opportunities

    Toward a Civil Rights Agenda

    The American G.I. Forum

    Controlling Mexicans

    The Return of Farm Labor Militancy

    Renting Mexicans



Chapter 12 “Happy Days”: Chicano Communities Under Siege

The Cold War

    The Korean War: Historical Amnesia

    Keeping America American

    Militarization of the Immigration and Naturalization Service

The Diaspora: An American Odyssey

    The Cities

    El Paso: In Search of a Home

Seduced by the Game

    New Mexico: The Illusion of It All

    Los Angeles

    San Antonio

    El Paso

Civil Rights

    The “Salt of the Earth”

    Toward Equality


    National Spanish-Speaking Council

The Struggle to Preserve the Barrios

    The FHA Mortgage-Loan and the G.I. Bill

    Urban Renewal: The Day of the Bulldozer

    The Dodgers and Chávez Ravine

    Gentrification in the Midwest

Conclusion: The Importance of 1959 241


Chapter 13 Goodbye America: The Chicano in the 1960s

The Early 1960s


    Harvest of Shame

High Hopes: Illusions of the Sleeping Giant

    San Antonio

    Los Angeles

    Organizing in Chicago

The Building of a Civil Rights Coalition

    Viva Johnson

    Building the Great Society

    The Walkout

Bilingual Ed

    The Black—White Syndrome

The Illusion Fades

    Impact of the War on Poverty

Magnetization of the Border

    The Immigration Act of 1965

    Mexican American Reaction to the Memories of Nativism

    The Road to Delano

    Echoes of Delano

The Road to Brown Power

    The Making of a Movement

    The Formation of Core Groups

    The East L.A. Walkouts

    Chicana/o Student Militancy Spreads

    The Brown Berets

    Tlatelolco, Mexico

    “Wild Tribes of … the Inner Mountains of Mexico”

    Gringos and Tejanos

    The Land Struggle

    The Crusade for Justice

    El Grito del Norte

    Other Voices

The Chicano Youth Movement Gains Steam

    Where Is God?

    Violence at Home

    Chicanas/os Under Siege

    The Provocateurs



Chapter 14 The 1970s and 1980s: Redefining the 1960s

Redefining Racism

    Government Legitimizes Racism

The Politics of Cynicism: Nixon’s Hispanic Strategy

    Dismantling the War on Poverty

Chicano Power

    La Raza Unida Party

    Failure to Build a National Third Party

    The Last Days of La Raza Unida

Inequality from Within

    Chicana Voices

    Inevitable Factions

    The Birth of Chicano Studies


The Road to Delano

The Farah Strike: The Breaking of Labor

Sin Fronteras

    Nativism Is Racism

    Centro de Acción Social Autonóma-Hermandad de General de Trabajadores

    Get the Mexican Bandits

    The Media Perpetuates Racist Nativism

    Getting Away with Terrorism

    In Defense of the Foreign Born

The Growth of the Chicano Middle Class

    Chicanos as Commodities

    Redefinition of the Political Middle

    Political Gains

Education: The Stairway to the American Dream

    Education Equality

    Importance of the EOPs

    Competing Ideologies

    The “Pochoization” of the Vocabulary

    The Myth of a Color-Blind Society

    Legacy Admits

Why Progressive Organizations Fail

    Violence as an Instrument of Control

    The Final Year of the Decade



Chapter 15 Becoming a National Minority: 1980—2001

The Decade of the Hispanic

The Central American Wave: Immigration 1980s

The Mexican Wave: Immigration 1980s

    Reaction to the Little Brown Brothers

    The Militarization of the Border

Mexican American Labor

The Movement for Inclusion: The Politicos

The Glass Ceiling

    Immigrant Women Workers

    ?Gobernar es Poblar?

The North American Free Trade Agreement

“Don’t Mourn, Organize!”

    The Political Refugees from Central America

    Forging Communities

    Believers: Chicana/o Studies

    The Renaissance in Chicana/Chicano Thought and Arts

    Hate Is Tax Deductible

The National Scene: Census 2000

    Political Roundup: 2000

    Some Things Never Change: Police Brutality



Chapter 16   Losing Fear:  Decade of Struggle and Hope

The Question

Who Are Latinos? Where Do They Live?

Mexican Americans and 9/11

The Stairway to Heaven: Electoral Politics

Protection of the Foreign Born

How Else Can You Teach Them a Lesson?

Losing Their Fear


EPILOGUE   Is Antonio Banderas a Chicano?


The Map Room

Creating a Timeline

Book Notes



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