Organizational Communication : A Critical Approach

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-08-02
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc
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Organizational Communication: A Critical Approach is the first textbook in the field that is written from a critical perspective while providing a comprehensive survey of theory and research in organizational communication. The text familiarizes students with the field of organizational communication-historically, conceptually, and practically-and challenges them to reconsider their common sense understandings of work and organizations, preparing them for participation in 21st century organizational settings. Linking theory with practice, Mumby skillfully explores the significant role played by organizations and corporations in constructing our identities. The book thus provides important ways for students to critically reflect on their own relationships to work, consumption, and organizations.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
Developing a Critical Approach to Organizational Communicationp. 1
Introducing Organizational Communicationp. 3
Organizations as Communicative Structures of Controlp. 4
Defining "Organizational Communication"p. 6
Interdependencep. 6
Differentiation of Tasks and Functionsp. 7
Goal Orientationp. 8
Control Mechanismsp. 8
Direct Controlp. 9
Technological Controlp. 9
Critical Technologies 1.1: Defining Communication Technologyp. 11
Bureaucratic Controlp. 11
Ideological Controlp. 11
Disciplinary Controlp. 12
Communication Processesp. 14
Framing Theories of Organizational Communicationp. 15
Functionalism: The Discourse of Representationp. 17
Interpretivism: The Discourse of Understandingp. 18
Critical Case Study 1.1: A Conduit Model of Educationp. 19
Critical Theory: The Discourse of Suspicionp. 21
Postmodernism: The Discourse of Vulnerabilityp. 22
Feminism: The Discourse of Empowermentp. 24
Conclusionp. 27
Critical Applicationsp. 27
Key Termsp. 28
The Critical Approachp. 29
The Critical Approach: A Historyp. 30
Karl Marxp. 30
Marx's Key Issuesp. 31
Critiquing Marxp. 35
The Institute for Social Research (the Frankfurt School)p. 36
Critical Theory and the Critique of Capitalismp. 37
Critical Theory and the Critique of Enlightenment Thoughtp. 38
Critical Case Study 2.1: McDonaldizing "Fridays"p. 39
Critiquing the Frankfurt Schoolp. 39
Cultural Studiesp. 40
Understanding Organizational Communication From a Critical Perspectivep. 44
Organizations Are Socially Constructed Through Communication Processesp. 44
Critical Technologies 2.1: Mediating Everyday Lifep. 45
Organizations Are Political Sites of Power and Controlp. 46
Organizations Are Key Sites of Human Identity Formation in Modern Societyp. 47
Organizations Are Important Sites of Collective Decision Making and Democracyp. 48
Organizations Are Sites of Ethical Issues and Dilemmasp. 48
Conclusionp. 49
Critical Applicationsp. 50
Key Termsp. 51
Theories of Organizational Communication and the Modern Organizationp. 53
Scientific Management, Bureaucracy, and the Emergence of the Modern Organizationp. 55
The Emergence of the Modern Organizationp. 56
Time, Space, and the Mechanization of Travelp. 56
Time, Space, and the Industrial Workerp. 58
Critical Technologies 3.1: Timepieces and Punch Clocksp. 59
Scientific Management: "Tayloring" the Worker to the Jobp. 61
Taylor's Principles: The "One Best Way"p. 63
The Contributions of Frank and Lillian Gilbrethp. 65
A Critical Assessment of Scientific Managementp. 68
The Legacy of Scientific Managementp. 69
Bureaucratic Theory: Max Weber and Organizational Communicationp. 71
Weber's Types of Authorityp. 72
Charismatic Authorityp. 72
Traditional Authorityp. 74
Rational-Legal Authorityp. 74
Weber's Critique of Bureaucracy and the Process of "Rationalization"p. 75
The Legacy of Bureaucracyp. 76
Critical Case Study 3.1: Rationalizing Emotionsp. 77
Conclusion: A Critical Assessment of "Classic" Theories of Organizationp. 78
Critical Applicationsp. 80
Key Termsp. 80
The Human Relations Schoolp. 81
Placing the Human Relations Movement in Its Historical and Political Contextp. 82
Elton Mayo and the Hawthorne Studiesp. 84
The Hawthorne Studiesp. 85
The Illumination Studies (1924-1927)p. 85
The Relay Assembly Test Room (RATR) Studies (April 1927-February 1933)p. 86
The Interview Program (September 1928-January 1931)p. 86
The Bank Wiring Observation Room Study (November 1931-May 1932)p. 87
Implications of the Hawthorne Studiesp. 87
Critical Case Study 4.1: Reframing Happiness at Zapposp. 88
A Critique of the Hawthorne Studiesp. 90
Reexamining the Empirical Datap. 90
Critiquing the Ideology of the Hawthorne Researchersp. 91
The Wholly Negative Role of Conflictp. 91
Rational Manager Versus "Sentimental" Workerp. 91
Gender Bias in the Hawthorne Studiesp. 92
Summaryp. 92
Mary Parker Follett: Bridging Theory and Practicep. 92
Follett's Theory of Organizationp. 93
The Strange Case of the Disappearing Theoristp. 96
Human Resource Managementp. 97
Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Yp. 98
Critical Technologies 4.1: "Wilfing" Your Life Awayp. 100
Rensis Likert's Four Systems Approachp. 100
Critiquing Human Resource Managementp. 101
Conclusionp. 103
Critical Applicationsp. 104
Key Termsp. 104
Organizations as Communication Systemsp. 105
Situating the Systems Perspectivep. 106
The Principles of the Systems Perspectivep. 107
Interrelationship and Interdependence of Partsp. 108
Holismp. 108
Input, Transformation (Throughput), and Output of Energyp. 110
Negative Entropyp. 110
Equilibrium, Homeostasis, and Feedbackp. 111
Hierarchyp. 113
Goal Orientationp. 114
Equifinality and Multifinalityp. 114
Organizations as Systems of Communicationp. 115
Critical Technologies 5.1: Organizing Foodp. 116
Karl Weick and Organizational Sense Makingp. 118
Weick's Model of Organizing: Enactment, Selection, and Retentionp. 120
A Critical Perspective on Weickp. 124
Critical Case Study 5.1: Airlines and Equivocalityp. 124
Niklas Luhmann and the Autopoietic Organizationp. 126
A Critical Perspective on the Autopoietic Organizationp. 129
Conclusionp. 129
Critical Applicationsp. 130
Key Termsp. 131
Communication, Culture, and Organizingp. 133
The Emergence of the Cultural Approachp. 134
Two Perspectives on Organizational Culturep. 137
The Pragmatist Approach: Organizational Culture as a Variablep. 137
Critical Technologies 6.1: Communication Technology and Organizational Culturep. 140
The Purist Approach: Organizational Culture as a Root Metaphorp. 140
A Broader Conception of "Organization"p. 142
The Use of Interpretive, Ethnographic Methodsp. 142
The Study of Organizational Symbols, Talk, and Artifactsp. 144
Relevant Constructsp. 145
Factsp. 145
Practicesp. 146
Vocabularyp. 146
Metaphorsp. 147
Critical Case Study 6.1: Organizational Culture and Metaphorsp. 148
Rites and Ritualsp. 149
Organizational Storiesp. 149
Summarizing the Two Perspectivesp. 152
Conclusionp. 152
Critical Applicationsp. 153
Key Termsp. 154
Critical Perspectives on Organizational Communication and the New Workplacep. 155
Power and Resistance at Workp. 157
Perspectives on Power and Organizationsp. 158
Power as Social Influencep. 158
The One-Dimensional Model of Powerp. 160
The Two-Dimensional Model of Powerp. 161
The Three-Dimensional Model of Powerp. 162
Organizational Communication and Ideologyp. 163
Critical Case Study 7.1: Ideology and Storytellingp. 165
Ideology Represents Particular Group Interests as Universalp. 166
Ideology Obscures or Denies Contradictions in Societyp. 167
Ideology Functions to Reify Social Relationsp. 168
Examining Organizational Communication Through the Lens of Power and Ideologyp. 169
Organizational Communication and Corporate Colonizationp. 171
Engineering Culturep. 172
Resisting Corporate Colonizationp. 173
The Hidden Resistance of Flight Attendantsp. 174
Critical Technologies 7.1: Social Media as Resistancep. 177
Conclusionp. 178
Critical Applicationsp. 179
Key Termsp. 179
The Postmodern Workplace: Teams, Emotions, and No-Collar Workp. 181
Disciplinary Power and the Postmodern Organizationp. 182
The Postmodern Organization: From Fordism to Post-Fordismp. 183
The Fordist Organizationp. 184
The Post-Fordist Organizationp. 185
The Post-Fordist Organization: Teams, Emotions, and No-Collar Workp. 187
Teams at Workp. 187
Critiquing Work Teamsp. 190
Critical Technologies 8.1: Virtual Teamsp. 193
Emotions at Workp. 194
Critical Case Study 8.1: What Does Drinking Coffee Have to Do With Organizational Communication?p. 197
Doing "No-Collar" Workp. 198
Conclusionp. 202
Critical Applicationp. 203
Key Termsp. 203
Communicating Gender at Workp. 205
Feminist Perspectives on Organizational Communicationp. 207
Liberal Feminism: Creating a Level Playing Fieldp. 207
Radical Feminism: Constructing Alternative Organizational Formsp. 214
Critical Feminism: Viewing Organizations as Genderedp. 216
Critical Technologies 9.1: Gender, Technology, and Powerp. 221
Masculinity and Organizational Communicationp. 222
Critical Case Study 9.1: Why My Mom Isn't a Feministp. 226
Conclusionp. 227
Critical Applicationsp. 228
Key Termsp. 228
Communicating Difference at Workp. 229
Defining Differencep. 230
Race and Organizational Communicationp. 231
Putting Race and Organization in Historical Contextp. 231
Race and the Contemporary Workplacep. 233
Interrogating Whiteness and Organizational Communicationp. 237
Critical Case Study 10.1: Interrogating Mumby Family Whitenessp. 240
The Body, Sexuality, and Organizational Communicationp. 241
Instrumental Uses of the Body and Sexualityp. 241
Critical Technologies 10.1: Technologies of the Bodyp. 243
Critical Case Study 10.2: Sexing up the Corporate Experiencep. 244
Sexual Harassment in the Workplacep. 245
Resistant/Emancipatory Forms of Sexualityp. 247
Gay Workers and "Heteronormativity"p. 249
Conclusionp. 252
Critical Applicationsp. 253
Key Termsp. 254
Leadership Communication in the New Workplacep. 255
Traditional Perspectives on Leadershipp. 256
The Trait Approachp. 257
The Style Approachp. 259
The Situational Approachp. 261
Summaryp. 262
New Approaches to Leadershipp. 263
Leadership as Symbolic Actionp. 263
Transformational Leadershipp. 265
Followershipp. 266
Critical Case Study 11.1: Leadership Lessons From "Dancing Guy"p. 269
Critical Technologies 11.1: E-Leadershipp. 271
A Critical Communication Perspective on Leadershipp. 270
Leadership and Disciplinary Powerp. 272
Resistance Leadershipp. 273
Narrative Leadershipp. 274
Gender and Leadershipp. 275
Conclusionp. 277
Critical Applicationsp. 279
Key Termsp. 280
Branding and Consumptionp. 281
Brandingp. 283
Critical Case Study 12.1: Diamonds Are Forever?p. 286
Branding and Identityp. 290
Critical Case Study 12.2: When Brands Run Amokp. 292
Marketing, "Murketing," and Corporate Colonizationp. 293
Organizations, Branding, and the Entrepreneurial Selfp. 295
Critical Technologies 12.1: Do You Have Klout?p. 297
The Ethics of Brandingp. 298
Conclusionp. 301
Critical Applicationsp. 303
Key Termsp. 303
Organizational Communication, Globalization, and Democracyp. 305
Defining Globalizationp. 306
Spheres of Globalizationp. 308
Globalization and Economicsp. 308
Globalization and Politicsp. 311
Globalization and Resistancep. 313
Globalization and Culturep. 315
Critical Case Study 13.1: Culture Jamming Nikep. 316
The Globalization of Nothingp. 318
Gender, Work, and Globalizationp. 319
Critical Technologies 13.1: Work, Technology, and Globalization in the Call Centerp. 322
Communication and Organizational Democracyp. 323
Mason's Theory of Workplace Participatory Democracyp. 324
Stohl and Cheney's Paradoxes of Participationp. 326
Paradoxes of Structurep. 327
Paradoxes of Agencyp. 327
Paradoxes of Identityp. 327
Paradoxes of Powerp. 328
Deetz's Stakeholder Model of Organizational Democracyp. 328
Conclusionp. 331
Critical Applicationsp. 332
Key Termsp. 332
Communication, Meaningful Work, and Personal Identityp. 333
Meaningful Workp. 334
A Sense of Agencyp. 334
Enhances Belonging or Relationshipsp. 336
Creates Opportunities for Influencep. 336
Critical Technologies 14.1: How Does Communication Technology Affect Our Experience of Work?p. 337
Permits Use and Development of Talentsp. 338
Offers a Sense of Contribution to a Greater Goodp. 338
Provides Income Adequate for a Decent Livingp. 339
Managing Work Identity: Some Historical Contextp. 340
Creating and Managing Work Identitiesp. 343
Identity, Identification, and Disidentificationp. 344
Conformist Selvesp. 346
Dramaturgical Selvesp. 347
Resistant Selvesp. 348
No Collar, No Lifep. 351
Critical Case Study 14.1: A Tale of Two Countriesp. 352
Conclusionp. 353
Critical Applicationsp. 354
Key Termsp. 355
Glossaryp. 357
Referencesp. 367
Indexp. 387
About the Authorp. 411
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