9780190606268

Organizational Communication

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780190606268

  • ISBN10:

    0190606266

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2016-10-31
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Organizational Communication: A Lifespan Approach is a student-focused introduction to the field. Full of real-world stories, helpful and unique illustrations, and constant application of theory, this text engages students and shows them how to apply concepts, theories, and perspectives in every chapter.

Organizational Communication helps students understand their communication as participants in organizations throughout their lifetimes. It begins with how pre-career experiences influence our expectations for organizational experiences and ends with organizational exits, including retirement. This approach provides a seamless integration of theory and application while helping students at any stage of life reflect on past experiences, prepare for new endeavors and roles, and understand vital organizational theories and perspectives in new and concrete ways.

Author Biography


Michael W. Kramer is Professor and Chair of the Department of Communication at the University of Oklahoma.
Ryan S. Bisel is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Oklahoma.

Table of Contents


CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Defining Communication
Information Transfer
Shared Meaning
Transactional Meaning Creation
Box 1.1: Applying the Three Definitions of Communication
Working Definition
Defining Organizations
A Legal Definition of Organizations
A Communicative Definition of Organizations
A Social Definition of Organizations
A Social Definition of Organizations
The Complexity of Defining Communication in Organizations
Strategic Ambiguity
Ethical Issue 1.1: Strategic Ambiguity
Nonverbal Communication
Box 1.2: Applying the Three Nonverbal Criteria
Communication Challenge 1.1: Office Design
Perspectives on Organizational Communication
A Post-Positivist Perspective
An Interpretive Perspective
A Critical Perspective
Box 1.3: Applying the Three Organizational Perspectives
Other Perspectives
Application to Different Types of Organizations
Preview of the Book
Summary
Assignments

CHAPTER 2. SOCIALIZATION
Anticipatory Role Socialization
Family
Education
Communication Challenge 2.1: Realistic Expectations
Peers
Previous Experience
Communication Challenge 2.2: Comparing Workplaces
Media
Application
The "Real Job" Colloquialism
Ethical Issue 2.1: Deconstructing Our Labels
Anticipatory Role Socialization for Volunteers
Summary of Anticipatory Role Socialization
Anticipatory Organizational Socialization
Person-Job Fit
Recruitment
Selection Process
--Résumés and Cover Letters
--Screening Interviews
Communication Challenge 2.3: Improving Interviews
Follow-up or Second Interviews
Ethical Issue 2.2: Inappropriate Interview Questions
Realistic Job Previews
Communication Challenge 2.4: The New Technology of the Job Search
Anticipatory Organizational Socialization for Volunteers
Summary
Assignments

CHAPTER 3. ORGANIZATIONAL ENCOUNTER
Uncertainty Management Theory
Newcomer Socialization through Orientation and Training
Socialization Strategy Outcomes
Ethical Issue 3.1: Mixed Messages
Newcomers and Communication Exchange
Information Seeking
Information Sources
Communication Challenge 3.1: Trusted Colleague
Information Giving
Communication Exchange
Encounter Outcomes
Boundary Passages
--Functional boundaries
--Hierarchical boundaries
Ethical Issue 3.2: Vocabulary of Hierarchy
--Inclusionary boundaries
Differences between Expectations and Experiences
General Newcomer Adaptation
Newcomers in Volunteer Organizations
Summary
Assignments

CHAPTER 4. COMMUNICATION AND MANAGEMENT THEORY
Classical Management Theory
Context
Frederick Taylor's Classical Management Theory
Henri Fayol's General Management Theory
Communication Challenge 4.1: Communication and Span of Control
Weber's Bureaucratic Theory
Douglas McGregor's Theory X
Classical Management Today
Human Relations Management
Context
Hawthorne Studies
Communication Challenge 4.2: Are happy workers productive workers?
Human Relations Management Today
Ethical Issue 4.1: Humans as Resources
Human Resource Management
Context
Some Roots of Human Resources Management: McGregor's Theory Y
Principles of Human Resource Management
Human Resource Management Today
Communication Challenge 4.3: Motivation at Despair, Inc.
Teamwork or Theory Z Management
Context
Ethical Issue 4.2: Top-Level Management and Organizing for the Short-Term?
Principles of Teamwork
Teamwork and Concertive Control
Ethical Issue 4.3: Is Control Ethical?
Teamwork Management Today
Management Approaches to Volunteers
Communication Challenge 4.4: Communicating to Reduce Volunteer Turnover
Box 4.1: Applying the Three Organizational Perspectives to Management Theory
Summary
Assignments

CHAPTER 5. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS AND STRUCTURES
Traditional Communication Channels and Structures
Formal Downward Communication
Issues with Downward Communication
--Amount of Information
--Nature of Feedback
--Information Distribution
Formal Upward Communication
Issues with Upward Communication
Communication Challenge 5.1: Technology Application for Suggestions Boxes
--Lack of receptivity
Communication Challenge 5.2: Dealing with the Normal Alteration of Upward Communication
--Power Differentials
--Upward "Distortion"
Self-promotion or Ingratiation
Horizontal or Lateral Communication
Issues with Lateral Communication
--Competition
--Specialization
--Territoriality
--Lack of Incentive
Informal Communication
Issues with Informal Communication
Accuracy
Speed
Mid-Level Employee Participation
Ethical Issue 5.1. Gossip's Messiness
Accountability
The Competence Network
Integrative Communication Structures
--Committees
--Quality circles
--Project Teams
Limitations of Traditional Communication Channels Approach
Communication Networks
Collecting Network Data
Characteristics of Networks
Linkage Characteristics
Individual Roles
Communication Challenge 5.3: Reducing Employee Turnover by Cultivating Network Density
Group Level Characteristics
Organizational or System Level Characteristics
Impact of Communication Networks
Limitations of Network Analysis
Nonprofit Organizations and Volunteers
Summary
Assignments

CHAPTER 6. COMMUNICATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Defining Organizational Culture
Artifacts
Values
Assumptions
Interactions of Various Members
Structuration Theory and Culture
Communication Challenge 6.1: Communicating a New Value
Organizational Norms
Types of Norms
Communication Norms
Norm Development
Creating Conformity to Norms
Three Approaches to Crime
An Integrated Perspective
A Differentiated Perspective
A Fragmented Perspective
Box 6.1: Applying Martin's Three Perspectives on Organizational Culture
A Critique of Applying the Three Perspectives
Analyzing Organizational Culture
Script (or Narrative) Analysis
Ritual Analysis
Metaphor Analysis
Ethical Issue 6.1: Enron's Metaphors
Reflective Comment Analysis
Ethnography
A Comparison of Five Methods of Cultural Analysis
Box 6.2: Applying Three Research Perspectives to Organizational Culture
Summary
Assignments

CHAPTER 7. COMMUNICATION WITH ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERS
Supervisor-Subordinate Communication
Average Supervisor Communication Style
--Interaction Patterns
--Openness to Communication
--Upward Distortion
--Upward Influence
Communication Challenge 7.1: The Pelz Effect
--Semantic Information Distance
--Effective versus ineffective supervisors
--Feedback
Communication Challenge 7.2: "Living versus "Having" an Open-Door Policy
--Systemic Factors
Differentiated Supervisor Communication Style
--Partnership Relationships
--Overseer Relationships
--Middle-Group Relationships
--Relationship Development
Outcomes of Supervisor-Subordinate Communication
Summary of Supervisor-Subordinate Communication
Peer Communication
Peer Social Support
Types of Peer Communication Relationships
Outcomes of Peer Communication
Workplace Friendships
Summary of Peer and Friendship Relations
Interaction of Supervisor and Peer Communication
Summary of Supervisor-Peer Relationship Interaction
Mentor(ing) Communication
Communication Challenge 7.3: Mentoring Communication
Communication Challenge 7.4 Upside Down Mentoring?
Summary of Mentoring
Emotion Management in Interpersonal Interactions
The Nature of Emotions in Interactions
Ethical Issue 7.1: The Moral "Signaling" Function of Emotions
Types of Emotions
Emotion Management
Communication Challenge 7.5: Peer Communication and Emotion Management.
Volunteers and Interpersonal RElationships
Summary
Assignments

CHAPTER 8: COMMUNICATION AND LEADERSHIP
MANAGERIAL OR GROUP LEADERSHIP
Managerial Leadership as Traits
Models of Management Styles
Situational Models of Managerial Leadership
Contingency Models of Managerial Leading
External Communication Focus of Managers
Dialectical Theory and Managerial Leadership
Communication Challenge 8.1: African-American Women Executives' Leadership Communication
Managerial Leadership and Volunteers
Summary of Managerial Leadership
ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Charismatic Leadership
Visionary Leadership
Transformational (versus Transactional) Leadership
Institutional Leadership
Framing Theory
Communication Challenge 8.2: Framing and Managerial Leadership
ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP OF VOLUNTEERS
Ethical Issue 8.1: Leaders' Moral Talk is Contagious (In A Good Way)
The Dark Side of Managerial and Organizational Leadership
COMPARING MANAGERIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP
SUMMARY
Assignments


CHAPTER 9 COMMUNICATION AND DECISION MAKING
A PRESCRIPTIVE MODEL OF DECISION MAKING
The Model
Communication Challenge 9.1: Improving Decision Making through Brainstorming
DESCRIPTIVE MODELS OF DECISION MAKING
Phase Models
ALTERNATIVE DESCRIPTIVE MODELS
The Spiral Model
Multiple Sequence Model
Communication Challenge 9.2: Leading Group Decisions
Vigilant Interaction Theory
ALTERNATIVE DECISION MAKING PROCESSES
Satisficing
Garbage Can Model
Retrospective Rationality
Ethical Issue 9.1: Retrospective Rationality
Faulty Decision Making
Groupthink
OTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF INEFFECTIVE DECISION MAKING
Communication Challenge 9.3: Avoiding Groupthink and Ineffective Decision Making Practices
DECISION MAKING IN VOLUNTEER ORGANIZATIONS
SUMMARY
Assignments

Chapter 10: Communication and Conflict
DefiniNG CONFLICT
TypOLOGiES of Conflict
Level of Conflicts
Intrapersonal conflict
Interpersonal conflicts
Intergroup conflicts
Inter-organizational conflicts
Content of Conflicts
Visibility of Conflicts
Application
Conflict AS DYSFUNCTIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL
Conflict Styles
BARGAINING AND NEGOTIATION IN CONFLICT
Ethical Issue 10.1: Ethical Bargaining
Managing Conflict through Third Parties
Communication AND CONFLICT with Abusive Coworkers
Workplace Bullying
Defining workplace bullying
Causes
Ethical Issue 10.2: Wanting to Belong and Participation in Social Bullying?
Effects of bullying
Coping with Bullying
Addressing Bullying
Sexual Harassment
Defining Sexual Harassment
Ethical Issue 10.3: Sender or Receiver Priority
Causes of Sexual Harassment
Effects of Sexual Harassment
Coping with Sexual Harassment
Addressing Sexual Harassment
Conflict in Nonprofit/Volunteer Settings
SUMMARY
Assignments

CHAPTER 11: COMMUNICATION, POWER, AND RESISTANCE
DEFINITIONS
Power and Influence
Ideology (or Ideologies)
Surface and Deep Structure Power
SURFACE LEVEL POWER
SURFACE LEVEL POWER
Types of Power
Communication Challenge 11.1: Increasing Personal Power
Reasons for Power Relationships
Power as Resource Dependency
Power as Social Exchange
Power and Personal Characteristics
DEEP STRUCTURE POWER
Communication Challenge 11.2: Muting Voices of the Mistreated
RESISTANCE TO POWER
Ethical Issue 11.1: Ethics and Decaf Resistance
Voice and Resistance
Ethical Issue 11.2: Boatrocking and Whistleblowing
POWER AND RESISTANCE IN NONPROFITS AND VOLUNTEERS
SUMMARY
Assignments

Chapter 12: Communication and Work-NonWORK Issues
THE CHANGING WORKPLACE
General Causes of Work-Life Conflict
Time-based conflict
Strain-based conflict
Behavior-based conflict
Specific Causes of Work-Life Conflict
Social Norms that Increase Work-Life Conflict
Ethical Issue 12.1: To work or not to work, that is the question
Outcomes of Work-Life Conflict
Managing Work-Life Boundaries
Communication Challenge 12.1: Choosing Communication Media for Boundary-Management in Global Virtual Organizing
Ethical Issue 12.2: Segmenting Salaried Workers
Family-Friendly Work Policies
Positive Effects of Family-Friendly Policies
Problematic Issues of Family-Friendly Policies
Communication Challenge 12.2: Unintended Consequences of Family-Life Policies.
Career repercussions
Difficulty negotiating leave policies
Peer pressure against using the policy
Resistance to work-life integration
Work-Family-Third Place (Life Enrichment) Balance
Volunteer Roles
Types of Volunteering
Work-Family-Life Enrichment Balance
Ethical Issue 12.3: Disingenuous Volunteering?
SUMMARY
Assignments


CHAPTER 13: Communication and the Changing Work Environment: Technology, Diversity, and Globalization
SYSTEMS THEORY
DEFINING CHANGE
REACTIONS TO CHANGE
Diffusion of Innovation
Change and Emotion
Resistance
Communication Challenge 13.1: Resisting Changes or Change Communication
Communication and Change
Communication Challenge 13.2: Design a Ceremony
CHANGING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
Media Richness Theory
Changes in Communication Expectations
Changing How Meaning Is Established
Ethical Issue 13.1: Organizational Image versus Personal Social Media Use
Changing decision making expectations
Communication Challenge 13.3: Creating a Collaborative Organizational Policy of Internet Usage
Changing Interpersonal Communication Interactions
Ethical Issue 13.2: Using Social Media to Convey to Express Private Opinions
Summary of Changing Communication Technology
CULTURAL DIVERSITY: THE CHANGING WORKFORCE
Cultural Diversity and Communication
Cultural Diversity in the Workplace
Ethical Issue 13.3: Creating Teams
Influence of Diversity on Group and Organizational Effectiveness
Summary of Cultural Diversity
GLOBALIZATION
CHANGE AND NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND VOLUNTEERS
Changes in Funding and Collaboration
Changing Volunteers
Culturally Diverse Understandings of Volunteers
Globalization and Volunteers
SUMMARY
Assignments

Chapter 14: Communication DURING Career and Organizational Transitions
SENSEMAKING THEORY
INDIVIDUAL CAREER TRANSITIONS
COMMUNICATION AND PROMOTIONS
Ethical Issue 14.1: Promotion-Types and Bias
Promotion Selection Context
The Selection Process for Promotions
Promotion Process
Communication and Job Transfers
Communication and Domestic Job Transfers
Purposes of Domestic Job Transfers
The Process for Job Transfers
Communication and International Job Transfers
Communication and Career Plateaus
ORGANIZATIONAL TRANSITIONS
Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As)
The M&A Process
The Pre-Merger Phase
Communication Challenge 14.1: Rumors and Sensemaking
The In-Play Phase
Ethical Issue 14.2: Leading the Combining of Two Cultures
Reductions-in-Force or Layoffs
Pre-announcement Phase
Announcement Phase
Post-Layoff Phase
Individual and Organizational Transitions for Volunteers
SUMMARY
Assignments


Chapter 15: Communication during Organizational Exit
SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY
VOLUNTARY EXIT
Planned Exits
Shocks
Gradual Disenchantment
Mixed Reasons for Voluntary Turnover
Network Location
Career Opportunities
Career Changes Retirement
Retirement
The Voluntary Exit Process
The Preannouncement Phase
The Announcement Phase
The Exit Phase
Exit Interviews
Communication Challenge 15.1: Exit Interviews with College Interns
INVOLUNTARY EXIT
Immediate or Summary Dismissal
Ethical Issue 15.1: Fired Over Facebook
Progressive Discipline
Communication Challenge 15.2: The EAGR Approach to Giving Corrective Feedback
A THIRD FORM OF EXIT
EXIT AND VOLUNTEERS
SUMMARY
EPILOGUE
A Dark Side of Organizational Membership
Socialization and Individualization
CONCLUSION
Assignments

References
Credits
Index

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