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Party Politics in America,9780321414915

Party Politics in America

by
Edition:
12th
ISBN13:

9780321414915

ISBN10:
0321414918
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $81.60

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Summary

Party Politics in America analyzes three primary components of partiesparty organization, party in the electorate, party in governmentand the interaction of these components, especially during election campaigns. Originally written by Frank Sorauf and now AUTHORed by Majorie Hershey, the book integrates academic research with contemporary and historical examples to bring to life the fascinating story of how parties have helped to shape our political system.

Table of Contents

Foreword xvii
John H. Aldrich
Preface xxii
Part One Parties and Party Systems
1(44)
What Are Political Parties?
5(21)
A Three-Part Definition of Parties
6(4)
The Party Organization
8(1)
The Party in Government
8(1)
The Party in the Electorate
9(1)
What Parties Do
10(1)
Electing Candidates
10(1)
Educating (or Propagandizing) Citizens
10(1)
Governing
10(1)
The Effects of Party Activity
11(1)
How Do Parties Differ from Other Political Groups?
12(1)
Parties Are Paramount in Elections
12(1)
They Have a Full-time Commitment to Political Activity
12(1)
They Mobilize Large Numbers
12(1)
They Endure
12(1)
They Serve as Political Symbols
13(1)
How the American Parties Developed
13(4)
The Founding of American Parties
13(4)
The Emergence of a National Two-Party System
17(3)
The Golden Age of the Parties
18(1)
The Progressive Reforms and Beyond
19(1)
What Do the Parties Stand For?
20(2)
Parties Are Shaped by Their Environment
22(4)
Voters and Elections
22(1)
Political Institutions
23(1)
Laws Governing Parties
24(1)
Political Culture
24(1)
The Broader Environment
24(2)
The American Two-Party System
26(19)
The National Party System
27(1)
The 50 State Party Systems
28(3)
Measuring State Party Competition
28(1)
Limits on Competitiveness: Incumbency
29(1)
... and Other Reasons for Declining Competitiveness
30(1)
What Causes a Two-Party System?
31(4)
Institutional Forces
31(2)
``Dualist'' Theories
33(1)
Social Consensus Theories
34(1)
Party Self-Protection (The Best Defense Is a Good Offense)
34(1)
Exceptions to the Two-Party Pattern
35(7)
Nonpartisan Elections
35(1)
Pockets of One-Party Monopoly
36(1)
Third Parties
37(1)
Differences in Scope of Ideological Commitment
38(2)
Difference of Origins
40(1)
Differing Purposes
40(1)
What Difference Do They Make?
40(1)
The Rise of Independent Candidates
41(1)
Will the Two-Party System Continue?
42(3)
Part Two The Political Party as an Organization
45(54)
The State and Local Party Organizations
47(18)
What Is a ``Strong'' Party?
48(1)
The Legal Environment of the Parties
48(1)
Levels of Party Organization
49(3)
Local Party Committees
50(1)
State Central Committees
51(1)
The Legendary Party Machines
52(2)
How the Party Machines Developed
52(1)
How Machines Held on to Power
53(1)
Local Party Organizations Declined and Then Rebuilt
54(4)
Local Parties in the 1970s
55(1)
Local Parties Today: Richer and More Active
56(2)
The State Parties: Newfound Prosperity
58(5)
Traditional Weakness
58(1)
Increasing Strength in Recent Years
59(1)
Fund-raising
60(1)
Campaign Services
61(1)
Republican Advantage
61(1)
Allied Groups
61(1)
The Special Case of the South
62(1)
National Party Money
63(1)
Summing Up: How the State and Local Party Organizations Have Transformed
63(2)
The Parties' National Organizations
65(19)
The National Parties
66(2)
The National Committees
66(1)
National Party Officers
67(1)
Presidents and Their National Parties
68(1)
Other National Party Groups
68(3)
Congressional Campaign (``Hill'') Committees
68(1)
Women's and Youth Groups
69(1)
Democratic and Republican Governors' Associations
69(2)
Two Paths to Power
71(6)
The Service Party Path
71(1)
The Democrats' Procedural-Reform Path
72(1)
Both Parties Take the Service Path
73(2)
Rising to the Challenge of New Campaign Finance Rules
75(2)
What Is the Impact of These Stronger National Parties?
77(6)
Effects on Candidates' Campaigns
77(2)
Effects on State and Local Parties
79(2)
Effects on the Presidency
81(1)
Effects on Congress
81(1)
Relationships within the National Party
81(2)
The Limits of Party Organization
83(1)
Party Activists
84(15)
What Draws People into Party Activity?
84(7)
Material Incentives
85(1)
Patronage
85(1)
Elected Office
86(1)
Preferments
87(1)
Solidary (Social) Incentives
87(1)
Purposive (Issue-Based) Incentives
88(2)
Mixed Incentives
90(1)
Professional and Amateurs
90(1)
How Do Parties Recruit Activists?
91(3)
Finding Volunteers: Is Anybody Home?
92(1)
Means, Motive, and Opportunity
93(1)
What Kinds of People Become Party Activists?
94(2)
People from ``Political Families''
94(1)
Better Educated and Wealthier Than Average
95(1)
Different Agendas
95(1)
More Extreme Views
96(1)
Party Activists and Democracy
96(3)
The Problem of Representation
97(1)
Amateurs and Pressure for Internal Party Democracy
97(1)
Activists and Party Strength
98(1)
Part Three The Political Party in the Electorate
99(56)
Party Identification
101(17)
How People Develop Party Identifications
102(2)
Childhood Influences
102(1)
Influences in Adulthood
103(1)
Patterns of Partisanship Over Time
104(3)
Has There Been a Decline in Partisanship?
106(1)
Party Identification and Political Views
107(1)
Party Identification and Voting
108(3)
Party Voting
108(2)
Party Versus Candidates and Issues
110(1)
Partisanship as a Two-Way Street
111(1)
Party Identification and Political Activity
111(1)
Party Identification and Attitudes Toward the Parties
112(1)
The Myth of the Independent
113(2)
Attitudinal Independents
114(1)
Behavioral Independents
114(1)
Are Independents a Likely Source of Support for Third-Party Candidates?
115(1)
Change in the Impact of Party ID
115(3)
A More Candidate-Centered Politics
115(1)
The Continuing Significance of Party
116(2)
Party Coalitions and Party Change
118(19)
The American Party Systems
119(4)
The First Party System
119(2)
The Second Party System
121(1)
The Third Party System
121(1)
The Fourth Party System
122(1)
The Fifth Party System
122(1)
The Social Bases of Party Coalitions
123(5)
Socioeconomic Status Divisions
123(2)
Sectional (Regional) Divisions
125(1)
Religious Divisions
126(1)
Racial Divisions
127(1)
Ethnic Divisions
127(1)
Gender Divisions
127(1)
Issues Are Central to the Parties' Coalitions
128(2)
The Development of the Sixth Party System
130(7)
Major Changes in the Parties' Supporting Coalitions
131(2)
From Democratic Majority to Party Parity
133(1)
How Can We Characterize These Changes: Realignment, Dealignment, or What?
134(1)
Problems with the Idea of Realignment
135(2)
Who Votes---and Why It Matters
137(18)
The Low Turnout in American Elections
138(1)
The Expanding Right to Vote
139(1)
Legal Barriers to Voting
140(1)
Citizenship
140(1)
Residence
140(1)
Registration
141(1)
The Special Case of Voting Rights for African Americans
141(3)
The Long Struggle for Voting Rights
141(1)
The Growth of Black Registration in the South
142(1)
From Voting Rights to Representation
143(1)
Getting Blacks' Votes Counted
144(1)
Political Influences on Turnout
144(2)
The Excitement of the Election
145(1)
Close Competition
145(1)
The Representativeness of the Party System
146(1)
Organized Efforts to Mobilize Voters
146(1)
Turnout: Individual Differences
146(4)
Socioeconomic Status
147(1)
Youth
148(1)
Gender and Race
149(1)
Social Connectedness
149(1)
Political Attitudes
149(1)
Personal Costs of Voting
150(1)
Why Isn't Voter Turnout Even Higher?
150(2)
The Puzzle of Low Turnouts
151(1)
What Could Stimulate More Participation?
151(1)
Why Do These Changes in Turnout Matter?
152(1)
Long-Range Effects
152(1)
Effects on Particular Elections
153(1)
The Challenge to the Parties
153(2)
Part Four Parties, Nominations, and Elections
155(90)
How Parties Choose Candidates
157(17)
How the Nomination Process Evolved
157(2)
Nominations by Caucus
158(1)
Nominations by Convention
158(1)
Nominations by Direct Primaries
158(1)
The Current Mix of Primaries and Conventions
159(1)
Types of Primaries
159(2)
Closed Primaries
160(1)
Open Primaries
160(1)
Blanket Primaries
160(1)
Why Does the Type of Primary Matter?
161(1)
How Candidates Qualify
162(1)
How Do Candidates Get on the Ballot?
162(1)
Runoffs: When Too Many Candidates Get on the Ballot
162(1)
What Parties Don't Like About Primaries
163(4)
Difficulties in Recruiting Candidates
163(1)
The Risk of Unattractive Nominees
164(1)
Divisive Primaries
164(2)
Problems in Holding Candidates Accountable
166(1)
The Party Organization Fights Back
167(1)
Persuading Candidates to Run (or Not to Run)
167(1)
Endorsing Candidates
167(1)
Providing Tangible Support
168(1)
Candidates and Voters in the Primaries
168(3)
Many Candidates Run Without Competition
169(1)
... And Voters Are in Short Supply
169(2)
The Impact of the Direct Primary
171(3)
Has It Made Elections More Democratic?
171(1)
How Badly Has It Harmed the Parties?
172(1)
Is the Primary Worth the Cost?
172(2)
Choosing the Presidential Nominees
174(21)
The Move to Presidential Primaries
174(4)
Turbulence in the Democratic Party
175(1)
Presidential Primaries Today
176(2)
Some States Use Party Caucuses
178(1)
The Race to Win Delegate Votes
178(5)
The ``Invisible Primary''
178(1)
Candidates' Strategic Choices
179(2)
Win Early or Die
181(1)
What Is the Party's Role?
181(2)
Voters' Choices in Presidential Nominations
183(2)
Who Votes?
183(1)
Are Primary Voters Typical?
183(1)
Do Voters Make Informed Choices?
184(1)
Do Primaries Produce Good Candidates?
184(1)
On to the National Conventions
185(3)
Roots of the Conventions
185(1)
What Conventions Do
185(1)
Approving the Platform
186(1)
Formalizing the Presidential Nomination
187(1)
Approving the Vice-Presidential Nominee
187(1)
Launching the Presidential Campaign
187(1)
Who Are the Delegates?
188(4)
Apportioning Delegates Among the States
188(1)
How Representative Are the Delegates?
188(1)
Demographics
188(1)
Political Experience
188(1)
Issues
189(2)
Amateurs or Professionals?
191(1)
Who Controls the Delegates?
191(1)
How Media Cover Conventions
192(1)
Do Conventions Still Have a Purpose?
193(1)
Should We Reform the Reforms?
193(2)
What Could Be Done?
193(2)
The General Election
195(21)
Elections: The Rules Affect the Results
196(5)
The Secret Ballot
196(1)
The Format of the Ballot
196(1)
The Order of Candidates' Names
196(1)
The Long Ballot
197(1)
Voting Systems
197(2)
Legislative Redistricting
199(2)
Campaign Strategy
201(1)
How Campaigning Has Changed
202(7)
Professional Consultants
202(1)
Sources of Information
203(1)
Computers
203(1)
Polls
203(1)
Methods of Persuasion: The Air War
204(1)
Television
204(1)
The Internet
205(1)
The Ground War: ``Under the Radar''
205(1)
Direct Mail
205(1)
E-Mail
206(1)
Canvassing and Phone Banks
206(1)
Negative Campaigning
207(1)
The 2002 and 2004 Campaigns
207(2)
Do Campaigns Make a Difference?
209(3)
The Argument That Campaigns Matter
210(1)
The Argument That They Don't
211(1)
Some Tentative Answers
211(1)
Candidate-Centered or Party-Centered Campaigns?
212(4)
Party Influence in Competitive Campaigns
213(1)
The Continuing Struggle Between Candidates and Party Organizations
213(3)
Financing the Campaigns
216(29)
How Much Money Is Spent on Campaigns?
217(6)
Presidential Campaigns
217(3)
Congressional Campaigns
220(3)
State and Local Campaigns
223(1)
What Is the Impact of Campaign Spending?
223(2)
Where Does the Money Come From?
225(5)
Individual Contributors
225(1)
Political Action Committees
226(2)
Parties
228(1)
The Candidates Themselves
229(1)
Public Funding
229(1)
Money in State and Local Campaigns
230(1)
Reform of the Campaign Finance Rules
230(3)
Contribution Limits
231(1)
Spending Limits
231(1)
Public Disclosure
232(1)
Public Funding of Presidential Campaigns
232(1)
The Loopholes That Ate the Reforms
233(5)
Independent Spending
233(1)
Soft Money
233(1)
Issue Advocacy Ads
234(3)
``527'' Advocacy Groups
237(1)
What Did the 1970s Reforms Accomplish?
238(5)
Intended and Unintended Effects
239(1)
Effects on the Parties
239(1)
Another Try: The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)
240(2)
State Regulation and Financing
242(1)
Money in American Politics
243(2)
Part Five The Party in Government
245(72)
Parties in Congress and State Legislatures
248(22)
How the Parties Are Organized in Congress
249(6)
Changes in the Power of House Party Leaders
250(1)
The Revolt Against ``Czar'' Cannon
250(1)
Growing Party Coordination
250(1)
Policy Leadership
251(1)
The Gingrich Revolution
252(1)
... and Its Aftermath
253(1)
Parties in the ``Individualist'' Senate
253(1)
Parties in the State Legislatures
254(1)
Methods of Party Influence
255(2)
Carrots and Sticks
255(2)
Party Influence on Legislative Voting
257(10)
How Unified Is Each Legislative Party?
257(1)
Party Voting
257(3)
Party Support
260(2)
Greater Polarization of the Congressional Parties
262(1)
When Are the Parties Most Unified?
262(1)
Issues That Touch the Interests of the Legislative Parties
263(1)
The Executive's Proposals
263(2)
Policies Central to the Party System
265(1)
Does Party Competition Promote Party Unity?
266(1)
Comparing Party Power in Congress and State Legislatures
267(1)
Party Polarization and Cohesion
267(1)
Greater Interparty Competition
267(1)
No Competing Centers of Power
267(1)
Other Needed Resources
267(1)
Lesser Legislative Professionalism
268(1)
Styles of Individual Leaders
268(1)
The Power of Legislative Parties
268(2)
The Party in the Executive and the Courts
270(16)
President and Governor as Party Leaders
271(3)
The President as Campaigner-in-Chief
271(1)
The President as the ``Top of the Ticket''
272(1)
Coattail Effects
272(1)
Coattails Even Without the Coat
273(1)
President's Impact
274(1)
Party Leadership and Legislative Relations
274(2)
Legislative Support for Executives
274(1)
Divided Control of Government
275(1)
Party Influence in Executive Agencies
276(3)
Bureaucrats Have Constituents Too
276(1)
Holding Bureaucrats Accountable
277(1)
Changing Political Outlooks in the Federal Bureaucracy
278(1)
Traces of Party in the Courts
279(6)
Judicial Voting Along Party Lines
279(1)
What Causes Partisan Behavior on the Courts?
280(1)
Party and Judicial Appointments
281(1)
Federal Judges
281(2)
State Court Judges
283(2)
The Party Within the Executive and the Judge
285(1)
The Semi-Responsible Parties
286(17)
The Case for Responsible Party Government
287(1)
How Would Party Government (Responsible Parties) Work?
287(1)
The Case Against Party Government
288(3)
It Would Increase Conflict
288(1)
It Wouldn't Work in American Politics
289(1)
The Gingrich Experiment: A Temporarily Responsible Party
290(1)
Party Cohesion and Ideology
291(5)
Are the American Parties Ideological?
292(1)
Do They at Least Offer Clear Choices?
292(1)
But Internal Divisions Remain
293(3)
Ideology and the American Voter
296(4)
How Ideological Is the American Public?
296(2)
Differences Among Voters, Activists, and Candidates
298(2)
When Is Party Government Most Likely?
300(1)
When There Is Strong Presidential Leadership
300(1)
In Times of Crisis
300(1)
When the Parties' Supporting Coalitions Realign
300(1)
Party Government and Popular Control
301(2)
The Place of Parties in American Politics
303(14)
Parties and Their Environment
303(2)
The Nature of the Electorate
304(1)
Political Institutions and Rules
305(1)
Societal Forces
305(1)
Party Decline in the 1960s and 1970s
305(3)
The Parties in the Electorate
306(1)
Party Organizations
306(1)
The Party in Government
307(1)
Shifting Power Centers Within the Parties
308(1)
Party Renewal
308(3)
Change in the Parties' Electoral Coalitions
309(1)
The Rise of More Cohesive Parties in Government
310(1)
The New ``Service Parties''
311(1)
The Future of Party Politics in America
311(4)
A Changing Intermediary Role
311(1)
The Need for Strong Parties
312(2)
How to Make the Parties Stronger
314(1)
Conclusion: The Parties' Prospects
315(2)
Party Politics on the Internet 317(8)
Appendix 325(3)
Endnotes 328(25)
Index 353


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