Patterns of World History Volume One: To 1600 with Sources

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  • Edition: 3rd
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  • Copyright: 2017-09-01
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Patterns of World History, Third Edition, offers a distinct framework for understanding the global past through the study of origins, interactions, and adaptations. Authors Peter von Sivers, Charles A. Desnoyers, and George B. Stow examine the full range of human ingenuity over time and space
in a comprehensive, evenhanded, and critical fashion.

The authors offer a distinct intellectual framework for the role of innovation and historical change through patterns of origins, interactions, and adaptations. Each small or large technical or cultural innovation originated in one geographical center or independently in several different centers.
As people in the centers interacted with their neighbors, the neighbors adapted to--and in many cases were transformed by--the innovations. By "adaptation" the authors include the entire spectrum of human responses, ranging from outright rejection to creative borrowing and, at times, forced
acceptance. Seeing patterns of various kinds in historical development brings to light connections and linkages among peoples, cultures, and regions that might not otherwise present themselves.

Such patterns can also reveal differences among cultures that other approaches to world history tend to neglect. For example, the differences between the civilizations of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres are generally highlighted in world history texts, but the broad commonalities of human groups
creating agriculturally-based cities and states in widely separated areas also show deep parallels in their patterns of origins, interactions, and adaptations. Such comparisons are at the center of Patterns of World History. This kind of analysis offers insights into how an individual innovation was
subsequently developed and diffused across time and space--that is, the patterns by which the new eventually becomes a necessity in daily lives. Through all of this we gain a deeper appreciation of the unfolding of global history from its origins in small, isolated areas to the vast networks of
global interconnectedness in our present world.

The authors' use of a broad-based understanding of continuity, change, and innovation allows them to restore culture in all its individual and institutionalized aspects--spiritual, artistic, intellectual, scientific--to its rightful place alongside technology, environment, politics, and
socioeconomic conditions. Understanding innovation in this way allows this text to help illuminate the full range of human ingenuity over time and space in a comprehensive, evenhanded, and open-ended fashion.

Author Biography

Peter von Sivers is Associate Professor of History at the University of Utah.

Charles A. Desnoyers is Professor of History and Director of Asian Studies at La Salle University.

George B. Stow is Professor of History and Director of the Graduate Program in History at La Salle University.

Table of Contents

Studying with Maps
Note on the Dates and Spellings
About the Authors

PART ONE: From Human Origins to Early Agricultural Centers, Prehistory-600 BCE

Chapter 1. The African Origins of Humanity, Prehistory-10,000 BCE
The Origins of Humanity
-Hominins: No Longer Chimpanzees but Not Yet Human
Human Adaptations: From Africa to Eurasia and Australia
-The African Origins of Human Culture
-Migration from South Asia to Australia
-Migration from Asia to Europe
The Ice Age Crisis and Human Migration to the Americas
-The Ice Age
Patterns Up Close: The Disappearance of Neanderthals
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 1
1.1--Shell bead jewelry from the Grotte des Pigeons, Taforalt, Morocco
1.2--Python-shaped ornamented rock found in the Rhino Cave, Botswana
1.3--Paintings in the Cave of Altamira, Santillana del Mar, Spain
1.4--Flax fibers found at the Dzudzuana Cave, Republic of Georgia, Caucasus Mountains

Against the Grain: The Hobbits of Flores Island

Chapter 2. Agrarian-Urban Centers of the Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean, 11,500-600 BCE
Agrarian Origins in the Fertile Crescent, ca. 11,500-1500 BCE
-Sedentary Foragers and Foraging Farmers
-The Origin of Urban Centers in Mesopotamia and Egypt
-Kingdoms in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Crete
Patterns Up Close: Babylonian Law Codes
Interactions among Multiethnic and Multireligious Empires, ca. 1500-600 BCE
-The Hittite and Assyrian Empires, 1600-600 BCE
-Small Kingdoms on the Imperial Margins, 1600-600 BCE
Religious Experience and Cultural Achievements
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 2
2.1--Law Code of Hammurabi
2.2--Babylonian Poem of the Righteous Sufferer
2.3--Advice from a royal scribe to his apprentice, Middle Kingdom Egypt, Twelfth Dynasty
2.4--Sketch of the palace complex at Knossos, Minoan Crete
2.5--The Great Hymn to the Aten

Against the Grain: Akhenaten the Transgressor

Chapter 3. Shifting Agrarian Centers in India, 3000-600 BCE
The Vanished Origins of Harappa, 3000-1500 BCE
-The Region and People
-Adapting to Urban Life in the Indus Valley
-The Collapse of the Cities
Interactions in Northern India, 1500-600 BCE
-The Vedic World, 1750-800 BCE
-Statecraft and the Ideology of Power, 800-600 BCE
Patterns Up Close:-The Caste System
Indian Society, Culture, and Religion, 1500-600 BCE
-Society and Family in Ancient India
-Cultural Interactions to 600 BCE
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 3
3.1--Hymns to Agni, from the Rig-Veda, Book 2
3.2--The Bhagavad Gita
3.3--The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
3.4--The Code of Manu
3.5--Image of Draupadi and the Pandava, from the Dashavatara Temple, Deogarh, India

Against the Grain: A Merchants' Empire?

Chapter 4. Agrarian Centers and the Mandate of Heaven in Ancient China, 5000-481 BCE
The Origins of Yellow River Cultures, 5000-1766 BCE
-Geography and Climate
-The Origins of Neolithic Cultures
-The Age of Myth and the Xia Dynasty, 2852-1766 BCE
The Interactions of Shang and Zhou History and Politics, 1766-481 BCE
-The Shang Dynasty, 1766-1122 BCE
-The Mandate of Heaven: The Zhou Dynasty to 481 BCE
Patterns Up Close: The Chinese Writing System
Economy, Society, and Family Adaptation in Ancient China
-Shang Society
-Interactions of Zhou Economy and Society
-Gender and the Family
Interactions of Religion, Culture, and Intellectual Life in Ancient China
-Oracle Bones and Early Chinese Writing
-Adaptations of Zhou Religion, Technology, and Culture
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 4
4.1--The Zuo Commentary (Zuozhuan)
4.2--Excerpts from The Book of Odes (Shijing)
4.3--The Book of Lord Shang (Shangjun Shu)
4.4--The Canon of Shun
4.5--Iron sword with jade handle, earliest cast-iron object (Western Zhou), from Henan Museum, Guo state, Sanmenxia city

Against the Grain: Women's Voices

Chapter 5: Origins Apart: The Americas and Oceania, 30,000-600 BCE
The Americas: Hunters and Foragers, 30,000-600 BCE
-The Environment
-Human Migrations
Agriculture, Villages, and Urban Life
-The Neolithic Revolution in the New World
-The Origins of Urban Life
Patterns Up Close: The Origin of Corn
-The First Mesoamerican Settlements
-Foraging and Farming Societies Outside the Andes and Mesoamerica
The Origins of Pacific Island Migrations
-Lapita and Cultural Origins
-Creating Polynesia
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 5
5.1--Quipú from the Caral-Supé Culture, Peru
5.2--Textile fragment from Chavín de Huántar, Peru
5.3--Burial Mound at L'Anse Amour, Labrador, Canada
5.4--Lapita Pot Shards, found in Vanuatu, Western Pacific

Against the Grain: Thor Heyerdahl

PART TWO: The Age of Empires and Visionaries, 600 BCE-600 CE

Chapter 6. Chiefdoms and Early States in Africa and the Americas, 600 BCE-600 CE
Agriculture and Early African Kingdoms
-Saharan Villages, Towns, and Kingdoms
-The Kingdom of Aksum
The Spread of Villages in Sub-Saharan Africa
-West African Savanna and Rain-Forest Agriculture
-The Spread of Village Life to East and South Africa
-Patterns of African History, 600 BCE-600 CE
Early States in Mesoamerica: Maya Kingdoms and Teotihuacán
-The Maya Kingdoms in Southern Mesoamerica
-The Kingdom of Teotihuacán in the Mexican Basin
Patterns Up Close: The Mayan Ball Game
The Andes: Moche and Nazca
-The Moche in Northern Peru
-Paracas and the Nazca in Southern Peru
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 6
6.1--Relief sculpture from Meroë, Sudan
6.2--Cosmas Indicopleustes (Cosmas the India-Voyager), Christian Topography
6.3--The market at Jenné-jeno, Mali
6.4--Limestone panel from a Mayan temple, Palenque

Against the Grain: Nazca Lines and Speculation

Chapter 7. Innovation and Adaptation in Western Eurasia: Persia, Greece, and Rome, 550 BCE-600 CE
Interactions between Persia and Greece
-The Origins of the Achaemenid Persian Empire
-Greek City-States in the Persian Shadow
-Alexander's Empire and Its Successor Kingdoms
Interactions between the Persian and Roman Empires
-Parthian Persia and Rome
-The Sasanid Persian and Late Roman Empires
Patterns Up Close: The Plague of Justinian
Adaptations to Monotheism and Monism in the Middle East
-Challenge to Polytheism: The Origins of Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and Greek Philosophy
-Toward Religious Communities and Philosophical Schools
The Beginnings of Science and the Cultures of Kings and Citizens
-The Sciences at the Library of Alexandria
-Royal Persian Culture and Arts
-Greek and Roman Civic Culture and Arts
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 7
7.1--The Cyrus Cylinder
7.2--Herodotus, Histories
7.3--1 Maccabees
7.4--Graffiti from the walls of Pompeii
7.5-The murder of the philosopher Hypatia, Alexandria, Egypt

Against the Grain: Women in Democratic Athens

Chapter 8. Empires and Visionaries in India, 600 BCE-600 CE
Patterns of State Formation in India: Republics, Kingdoms, and Empires
-The Road to Empire: The Mauryas
-The Classical Age: The Gupta Empire
-The Southern Kingdoms, ca. 300-600 CE
The Vedic Tradition and Its Visionary Reformers
-Reforming the Vedic Tradition
-The Maturity of Hinduism: From the Abstract to the Devotional
Stability amid Disorder: Economics, Family, and Society
-Tax and Spend: Economics and Society
-Caste, Family Life, and Gender
Patterns Up Close: The Global Trade of Indian Pepper
Strength in Numbers: Art, Literature, and Science
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 8
8.1--The Seven Pillar Edicts of King Ashoka
8.2--The Questions of King Milinda (The Milindapanha)
8.3--Bamiyan Buddhas, Afghanistan
8.4--Seated Buddha, from the Gandhara culture, Afghanistan-Pakistan
8.5--Kalidasa, The Cloud Messenger

Against the Grain: India's Ancient Republics

Chapter 9. China: Imperial Unification and Perfecting the Moral Order, 722 BCE-618 CE
-Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism
-The Qin Dynasty
-The Han Dynasty
Patterns Up Close: The Stirrup
The Domestic Economy: Society, Family, and Gender
-Industry and Commerce
-Gender Roles
Intellectual Trends, Aesthetics, Science, and Technology
-Confucianism, Education, and History during the Han
-Buddhism in China
-Intellectual Life
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 9
9.1--Analects (Lunyu) of Confucius
9.2--Book of Mencius (Mengzi)
9.3--Li Si, "Memorial on the Burning of Books," from the Shiji
9.4--Han Shu (History of the Former Han Dynasty)
9.5--Ban Zhao, Admonitions for Women (Nüjie)

Against the Grain: Yang Zhu and Mo Di

PART THREE: The Formation of Religious Civilizations, 600-1450 CE

Chapter 10. Islamic Civilization and Byzantium, 600-1300 CE
The Formation of Islamic Religious Civilization
-The Beginnings of Islam
-Islamic Theology, Law, and Politics
Eastern Christian Civilization in Byzantium
-Byzantium's Difficult Beginnings
-The Seljuk Invasion and the Crusades
Islamic and Eastern Christian Civilizations at Their Height
-State and Society in Mamluk Egypt
-Byzantine Provincial and Central Organization
-Commercial Relations from the Atlantic to the South China Sea
Religion, Sciences, and the Arts in Two Religious Civilizations
-Islamic Culture: Intellectual and Scientific Expressions
-Artistic Expressions in Islamic Civilization
-Learning and the Arts in Byzantium
Patterns Up Close: Byzantine Icons and Islamic Miniatures
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 10
10.1--Excerpts from the Quran, Sura 2 "The Cow"
10.2--Documents related to the iconoclasm controversy
10.3--Memoirs of Usamah Ibn Munqidh
10.4--A Jewish engagement contract from Fustat (Old Cairo)
10.5--The Alchemy of Happiness, by Abd al-Hamid al-Ghazali

Against the Grain: Did Ibn Taymiyya "Have a Screw Loose"?

Chapter 11. Innovation and Adaptation in the Western Christian World, 600-1450 CE
The Formation of Christian Europe, 600-1000
-Frankish Gaul and Latin Christianity
Recovery, Reform, and Innovation, 1000-1300
-The Political Recovery of Europe
-The Economic and Social Recovery of Europe
-Religious Reform and Expansion
Patterns Up Close: The Gothic Cathedral
-Intellectual and Cultural Developments
Crisis and Creativity, 1300-1415
-The Calamitous Fourteenth Century
-Signs of a New Era in the Fifteenth Century
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 11
11.1--Einhard's Life of Charlemagne
11.2--Feudal contracts and the swearing of fealty
11.3--Peter Abelard, The Story of My Misfortunes
11.4--Giovanni Boccaccio, The Decameron, "Putting the Devil Back in Hell"
11.5--Flagellants attempt to ward off the Black Death in Germany and in England

Against the Grain: The Cathar Heresy

Chapter 12. Contrasting Patterns in India, China, and Inner Asia, 600-1600 CE
India: The Clash of Cultures
-Buddhist and Hindu India after the Guptas
-Islam in India, 711-1398
-Toward the Mughal Era, 1398-1450
Interactions and Adaptations: From Buddhism to Neo-Confucian Synthesis in China
-Creating a Religious Civilization under the Tang
-The Song and the Mongol Super-Empire, 960-1368
Patterns Up Close: Gunpowder
-The Ming to 1450: The Quest for Stability
-Society, Family, and Gender
-Perceptions of Perfection: Intellectual, Scientific, and Cultural Life
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 12
12.1--The Chachnamah
12.2--Harsha Vardhana, The Lady of the Jewel Necklace
12.3--Poetry of the Tang Dynasty
12.4--Marco Polo, "Kubilai Khan at War"
12.5--Model of a Ming ship in the flotilla of Zheng He

Against the Grain: Empress Wu

Chapter 13. Religious Civilizations Interacting: Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, 550-1500 CE
Korea to 1450: Innovation from Above
-People and Place: The Korean Environment
-Conquest and Competition: History and Politics to 1598
-Economy, Society, and Family
-Religion, Culture, and Intellectual Life
Japan to 1450: Selective Interaction and Adaptation
-The Island Refuge
-Adaptation at Arm's Length: History and Politics
Patterns Up Close: Printing
-Economy, Society, and Family
-Religion, Culture, and Intellectual Life
Vietnam: Human Agency and State Building
-The Setting and Neolithic Cultures
-Economy, Society, and Family
-Religion, Culture, and Intellectual Life
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 13
13.1--Murasaki Shikibu, The Tale of Genji
13.2--Haedong kosung chon, on Buddhism in Korea
13.3--Nihongi (Chronicles of Japan)
13.4--P'i Jih-hsiu, "Three Poems of Shame"
13.5--Copper head of Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, Vietnam

Against the Grain: Zen and Bushido

Chapter 14. Patterns of State Formation in Africa, 600-1450 CE
Christians and Muslims in the Northeast
-Nubia in the Middle Nile Valley
-Ethiopia in the Eastern Highlands
Adaptation to Islam: City-States and Kingdoms in East and Southern Africa
-The Swahili City-States on the East African Coast
-Traditional Kingdoms in Southern and Central Africa
-Central African Chiefdoms and Kingdoms
Cultural Encounters: West African Traditions and Islam
-The Kingdom of Ancient Ghana
-The Empire of Mali
Patterns Up Close: The Sculptures of Ife
-Rain-Forest Kingdoms
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 14
14.1--The Fetha Nagast, Ethiopia
14.2--Ibn Battuta On Mali, from the Rihla
14.3--Golden Bracelets from the "Lost City"of Mapungubwe, South Africa
14.4--'Abd al-'Aziz al-Bakri, Description of West Africa
14.5--Walls and moats at Sungbo's Eredo, Nigeria

Against the Grain: Sundiata's Rise to Power

Chapter 15. The Rise of Empires in the Americas, 600-1550 CE
The Legacy of Teotihuacán and the Toltecs in Mesoamerica
-Militarism in the Mexican Basin
-Late Maya States in Yucatán
The Legacy of Tiwanaku and Wari in the Andes
-The Expanding State of Tiwanaku
-The Expanding City-State of Wari
American Empires: Aztec and Inca Origins and Dominance
-The Aztec Empire of Mesoamerica
-The Inca Empire of the Andes
Imperial Society and Culture
-Imperial Capitals: Tenochtitlán and Cuzco
-Power and Its Cultural Expressions
Patterns Up Close: Human Sacrifice and Propaganda
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 15
15.1--The Temple of the Jaguars, Chichén Itzá
15.2--Skeletons in a Wari royal tomb site, El Castillo de Huarmey, Peru
15.3--Bernal Díaz, The Conquest of New Spain
15.4--Pedro Cieza de León on Incan roads
15.5--Garcilaso de la Vega, "The Walls and Gates of Cuzco"

Against the Grain: Amazon Rain Forest Civilizations

PART FOUR: Interactions across the Globe, 1450-1750

Chapter 16. Western European Overseas Expansion and the Ottoman-Habsburg Struggle, 1450-1650
The Muslim-Christian Competition in the East and West, 1450-1600
-Iberian Christian Expansion, 1415-1498
-Rise of the Ottomans and Struggle with the Habsburgs for Dominance, 1300-1609
Patterns Up Close: Shipbuilding
The Centralizing State: Origins and Interactions
-State Transformation, Money, and Firearms
Imperial Courts, Urban Festivities, and the Arts
-The Ottoman Empire: Palaces, Festivities, and the Arts
-The Spanish Habsburg Empire: Popular Festivities and the Arts
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 16
16.1--Christopher Columbus, The Book of Prophecies
16.2--Thomas the Eparch and Joshua Diplovatatzes, "The Fall of Constantinople"
16.3--Evliya Çelebi, "A Procession of Artisans at Istanbul"
16.4--Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, "The Court of Suleiman the Magnificent"
16.5--Janissary musket

Against the Grain: Tilting at Windmills

Chapter 17. The Renaissance, New Sciences, and Religious Wars in Europe, 1450-1750
Cultural Transformations: Renaissance, Baroque, and New Sciences
-The Renaissance and Baroque Arts
-The New Sciences
-The New Sciences and Their Social Impact
-The New Sciences: Philosophical Interpretations
Centralizing States and Religious Upheavals
-The Rise of Centralized Kingdoms
Patterns Up Close: Mapping the World
-The Protestant Reformation, State Churches, and Independent Congregations
-Religious Wars and Political Restoration
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 17
17.1--Examination of Lady Jane Grey, London
17.2--Sebastian Castellio, Concerning Whether Heretics Should Be Persecuted
17.3--Duc de Saint-Simon, "The Daily Habits of Louis XIV at Versailles"
17.4--Giorgio Vasari, The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti
17.5--Galileo Galilei, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina de' Medici

Against the Grain: The Digger Movement

Chapter 18. New Patterns in New Worlds: Colonialism and Indigenous Responses in the Americas, 1500-1800
The Colonial Americas: Europe's Warm-Weather Extension
-The Conquest of Mexico and Peru
-The Establishment of Colonial Institutions
The Making of American Societies: Origins and Transformations
-Exploitation of Mineral and Tropical Resources
Patterns Up Close: The Columbian Exchange
-Social Strata, Castes, and Ethnic Groups
-The Adaptation of the Americas to European Culture
Putting It All Together

Patterns of Evidence: Sources for Chapter 18
18.1--Hernán Cortés, Second Letter from Mexico to Emperor Charles V
18.2--Marina de San Miguel's Confessions before the Inquisition, Mexico City
18.3--Nahuatl Land Sale Documents, Mexico
18.4--The Jesuit Relations, French North America
18.5--The Salem Witch Trials, British North America

Against the Grain: Juana Inés de la Cruz

Further Resources
Source Index
Subject Index

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