Performance Management

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-01-17
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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This text addresses the topic of performance management, a continuous process of identifying, measuring and developing the performance of individuals and teams and aligning performance with the strategic goals of the organization. Performance management systems are described as key tools to transform people's talent and motivation into a strategic organizational advantage, Topics include the design and implementation of individual and team performance management systems, performance management and organization- and unit-level goals and strategies, performance management and employee development, performance management and coaching and feedback, performance and rewards, the measurement of performance, and legal issues, Performance management is discussed as an integral part of all organizational units and not the domain of the HR function only, Numerous examples of how performance management systems are implemented in publicly-traded, private, government, domestic, and global organizations, including organizations outside of the United States, Over 30 integrative cases addressing the design and implementation of various aspects of performance management systems in a diverse set of organizations and industries, Scholarly and practitioner-oriented bibliographic sources from a broad set of disciplines including auditing, cognitive psychology, communication, education, human performance, human resources management, industrial and organizational psychology, information systems, international business, management, marketing, organizational behavior, public administration, social psychology, sociology, and strategy. Book jacket.

Author Biography

Dr. Herman Aguinis (http://www.cudenver.edu/~haguinis) is the Mehalchin Term Professor of Management in the Business School at the University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center. He has been a visiting scholar at universities in the People’s Republic of China (Beijing and Hong Kong), Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, Argentina, France, South Africa, and Spain. His teaching, research, and consulting activities are in the areas of human resources management, organizational behavior, and research methodology.
Dr. Aguinis wrote Applied Psychology in Human Resource Management (with Wayne F. Cascio, 6th ed., 2005, Prentice Hall) and Regression Analysis for Categorical Moderators (2004), and edited Test-Score Banding in Human Resource Selection (2004). In addition, he has written over 50 refereed journal articles in Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and elsewhere. Dr. Aguinis is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and the Association for Psychological Science. He served as Division Chair for the Research Methods Division of the Academy of Management and editor-in-chief for the journal Organizational Research Methods. He has delivered more than 150 presentations at professional conferences and consulted with organizations in the United States, Europe, and South America.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xvi
About the Authorp. xvi
Strategic and General Considerationsp. 1
Performance Management and Reward Systems in Contextp. 1
Definition of Performance Management (PM)p. 2
The Performance Management Contributionp. 4
Disadvantages/Dangers of Poorly Implemented PM Systemsp. 7
Definition of Reward Systemsp. 9
Base Payp. 10
Cost-of-Living Adjustments and Contingent Payp. 10
Short-Term Incentivesp. 10
Long-Term Incentivesp. 10
Income Protectionp. 11
Work/Life Focusp. 12
Allowancesp. 12
Relational Returnsp. 12
Aims and Role of PM Systemsp. 13
Strategic Purposep. 14
Administrative Purposep. 15
Informational Purposep. 15
Developmental Purposep. 15
Organizational Maintenance Purposep. 15
Documentational Purposep. 16
Characteristics of an Ideal PM Systemp. 17
Integration with Other Human Resources and Development Activitiesp. 21
Reality Check: Ideal Versus Actual Performance Management Systemp. 24
Performance Management at Network Solutions, Inc.p. 26
Performance Management Processp. 30
Prerequisitesp. 31
Performance Planningp. 38
Resultsp. 38
Behaviorsp. 39
Development Planp. 39
Performance Executionp. 40
Performance Assessmentp. 41
Performance Reviewp. 42
Performance Renewal and Recontractingp. 44
Job Analysis Exercisep. 47
Disrupted Links in the Performance Management Process at "Omega, Inc."p. 47
Performance Management at the University of Ghanap. 48
Performance Management and Strategic Planningp. 50
Definition and Purposes of Strategic Planningp. 51
Process of Linking Performance Management to the Strategic Planp. 52
Strategic Planningp. 54
Developing Strategic Plans at the Unit Levelp. 65
Job Descriptionsp. 66
Individual and Team Performancep. 67
Building Supportp. 69
Evaluating Vision and Mission Statements at Harley-Davidsonp. 73
Dilbert's Mission Statement Generatorp. 74
Linking Individual with Unit and Organizational Prioritiesp. 74
System Implementationp. 77
Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approachp. 77
Defining Performancep. 78
Determinants of Performancep. 78
Implications for Addressing Performance Problemsp. 80
Factors Influencing Determinants of Performancep. 80
Performance Dimensionsp. 81
Approaches to Measuring Performancep. 83
Trait Approachp. 84
Behavior Approachp. 85
Results Approachp. 87
Diagnosing the Causes of Poor Performancep. 91
Differentiating Task from Contextual Performancep. 91
Choosing a Performance Measurement Approach at Paychex, Inc.p. 92
Measuring Results and Behaviorsp. 94
Measuring Resultsp. 95
Determining Accountabilitiesp. 95
Determining Objectivesp. 97
Determining Performance Standardsp. 98
Measuring Behaviorsp. 100
Comparative Systemsp. 103
Absolute Systemsp. 106
Accountabilities, Objectives, and Standardsp. 113
Evaluating Objectives and Standardsp. 114
Measuring Competencies at the Department of Transportationp. 114
Creating BARS-Based Graphic Rating Scales for Evaluating Business Student Performance in Team Projectsp. 115
Gathering Performance Informationp. 118
Appraisal Formsp. 119
Characteristics of Appraisal Formsp. 125
Determining Overall Ratingp. 128
Appraisal Period and Number of Meetingsp. 131
Who Should Provide Performance Information?p. 134
Supervisorsp. 134
Peersp. 135
Subordinatesp. 136
Selfp. 136
Customersp. 137
Disagreement Across Sources: Is This a Problem?p. 137
A Model of Rater Motivationp. 138
Preventing Rating Distortion Through Rater Training Programsp. 141
Evaluating the Appraisal Form Used by a Grocery Retailerp. 145
Judgmental and Mechanical Methods of Assigning Overall Performance Score at The Daily Planetp. 147
Minimizing Intentional and Unintentional Rating Errorsp. 149
Implementing a Performance Management Systemp. 153
Preparation: Communication, Appeals Process, Training Programs, and Pilot Testingp. 154
Communication Planp. 155
Appeals Processp. 159
Training Programs for the Acquisition of Required Skillsp. 161
Rater Error Trainingp. 162
Frame of Reference Trainingp. 165
Behavioral Observation Trainingp. 166
Self-Leadership Trainingp. 167
Pilot Testingp. 168
Ongoing Monitoring and Evaluationp. 170
Implementing a Performance Management Communication Plan at Accounting, Inc.p. 175
Implementing an Appeals Process at Accounting, Inc.p. 175
Evaluation of Performance Management System at Accounting, Inc.p. 176
Employee Developmentp. 179
Performance Management and Employee Developmentp. 179
Personal Developmental Plansp. 180
Developmental Plan Objectivesp. 180
Content of Developmental Planp. 183
Developmental Activitiesp. 184
Direct Supervisor's Rolep. 186
360-Degree Feedback Systemsp. 188
Advantages of 360-Degree Feedback Systemsp. 196
Risks of Implementing 360-Degree Feedback Systemsp. 198
Characteristics of a Good Systemp. 198
Developmental Plan Form at Old Dominion Universityp. 203
Evaluation of a 360-Degree Feedback System Demop. 203
Implementation of 360-Degree Feedback System at Ridge Intellectualp. 204
Performance Management Skillsp. 206
Coachingp. 207
Coaching Stylesp. 212
Coaching Processp. 213
Observation and Documentation of Developmental Behavior and Outcomesp. 215
Giving Feedbackp. 218
Performance Review Meetingsp. 226
Was Robert Eaton a Good Coach?p. 233
What Is Your Coaching Style?p. 234
Preventing Defensivenessp. 236
Reward Systems, Legal Issues, and Team Performance Managementp. 239
Reward Systems and Legal Issuesp. 239
Traditional and Contingent Pay Plansp. 240
Reasons for Introducing Contingent Pay Plansp. 241
Possible Problems Associated with Contingent Pay Plansp. 243
Selecting a Contingent Pay Planp. 245
Putting Pay in Contextp. 248
Pay Structuresp. 252
Job Evaluationp. 252
Broad Bandingp. 255
Performance Management and the Lawp. 255
Some Legal Principles Affecting Performance Managementp. 256
Laws Affecting Performance Managementp. 259
Making the Case for a CP Plan at Architects, Inc.p. 264
Selecting a CP Plan at Dow AgroSciencesp. 264
Possible Illegal Discrimination at Tractors, Inc.p. 265
Managing Team Performancep. 268
Definition and Importance of Teamsp. 268
Types of Teams and Implications for Performance Managementp. 270
Purposes and Challenges of Team Performance Managementp. 272
Including Team Performance in the Performance Management Systemp. 272
Prerequisitesp. 273
Performance Planningp. 275
Performance Executionp. 276
Performance Assessmentp. 276
Performance Reviewp. 278
Performance Renewal and Recontractingp. 279
Rewarding Team Performancep. 280
Not All Teams Are Created Equalp. 282
Team Performance Management at Duke University Health Systemsp. 283
Team-Based Rewards for the State of Georgiap. 285
Name Indexp. 288
Subject Indexp. 290
Author Indexp. 294
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