Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, Third Edition (Revised Reprint)

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2009-02-10
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, Third Edition provides a comprehensive overview of specific types of phase transformations, supplemented by practical case studies of engineering alloys. This new edition now addresses computer-aided calculation of phase diagrams, which has undergone major changes in recent years. It also expands treatment of bainite transformation, nucleation, metallic glasses, steel, and Scheil's additivity rule for appreciating transformations during continuous cooling. Adding new case studies, detailed examples, and exercises drawn from current applications, this text features an easy-to-follow style that integrates basic and advanced material, making it ideal for newcomers to the field.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Editionp. xiii
Preface to the Second Editionp. xv
Preface to the First Editionp. xvii
Authorsp. xix
Thermodynamics and Phase Diagramsp. 1
Equilibriump. 1
Single-Component Systemsp. 4
Gibbs Free Energy as a Function of Temperaturep. 4
Pressure Effectsp. 7
Driving Force for Solidificationp. 9
Binary Solutionsp. 11
Gibbs Free Energy of Binary Solutionsp. 11
Ideal Solutionsp. 13
Chemical Potentialp. 15
Regular Solutionsp. 17
Activityp. 21
Real Solutionsp. 23
Ordered Phasesp. 24
Intermediate Phasesp. 26
Equilibrium in Heterogeneous Systemsp. 28
Binary Phase Diagramsp. 31
Simple Phase Diagramp. 31
Systems with a Miscibility Gapp. 32
Ordered Alloysp. 33
Simple Eutectic Systemsp. 34
Phase Diagrams Containing Intermediate Phasesp. 34
Gibbs Phase Rulep. 34
Effect of Temperature on Solid Solubilityp. 39
Equilibrium Vacancy Concentrationp. 40
Influence of Interfaces on Equilibriump. 42
Ternary Equilibriump. 45
Additional Thermodynamic Relationships for Binary Solutionsp. 50
Computation of Phase Diagramsp. 52
Pure Stoichiometric Substancesp. 52
Solution Phasesp. 56
Substitutional Solutionsp. 56
Kinetics of Phase Transformationsp. 57
Exercisesp. 58
Referencesp. 60
Further Readingp. 61
Diffusionp. 63
Atomic Mechanisms of Diffusionp. 65
Interstitial Diffusionp. 67
Interstitial Diffusion as a Random Jump Processp. 67
Effect of Temperature-Thermal Activationp. 69
Steady-State Diffusionp. 72
Nonsteady-State Diffusionp. 72
Solutions to the Diffusion Equationp. 74
Homogenizationp. 74
Carburization of Steelp. 76
Substitutional Diffusionp. 78
Self-Diffusionp. 78
Vacancy Diffusionp. 83
Diffusion in Substitutional Alloysp. 84
Diffusion in Dilute Substitutional Alloysp. 92
Atomic Mobilityp. 93
Tracer Diffusion in Binary Alloysp. 95
Diffusion in Ternary Alloysp. 98
High-Diffusivity Pathsp. 100
Diffusion along Grain Boundaries and Free Surfacesp. 100
Diffusion along Dislocationsp. 103
Diffusion in Multiphase Binary Systemsp. 104
Exercisesp. 106
Referencesp. 109
Further Readingp. 110
Crystal Interfaces and Microstructurep. 111
Interfacial Free Energyp. 112
Solid/Vapor Interfacesp. 113
Boundaries in Single-Phase Solidsp. 117
Low-Angle and High-Angle Boundariesp. 118
Special High-Angle Grain Boundariesp. 121
Equilibrium in Polycrystalline Materialsp. 124
Thermally Activated Migration of Grain Boundariesp. 129
Kinetics of Grain Growthp. 137
Interphase Interfaces in Solidsp. 140
Interface Coherencep. 141
Fully Coherent Interfacesp. 141
Semicoherent Interfacesp. 143
Incoherent Interfacesp. 144
Complex Semicoherent Interfacesp. 145
Second-Phase Shape: Interfacial Energy Effectsp. 147
Fully Coherent Precipitatesp. 147
Partially Coherent Precipitatesp. 148
Incoherent Precipitatesp. 150
Precipitates on Grain Boundariesp. 151
Second-Phase Shape: Misfit Strain Effectsp. 152
Fully Coherent Precipitatesp. 152
Incoherent Inclusionsp. 155
Platelike Precipitatesp. 156
Coherency Lossp. 157
Glissile Interfacesp. 160
Solid/Liquid Interfacesp. 165
Interface Migrationp. 167
Diffusion-Controlled and Interface-Controlled Growthp. 170
Exercisesp. 176
Referencesp. 178
Further Readingp. 179
Solidificationp. 181
Nucleation in Pure Metalsp. 181
Homogeneous Nucleationp. 182
Homogeneous Nucleation Ratep. 186
Heterogeneous Nucleationp. 188
Nucleation of Meltingp. 192
Growth of a Pure Solidp. 193
Continuous Growthp. 193
Lateral Growthp. 194
Heat Flow and Interface Stabilityp. 197
Alloy Solidificationp. 200
Solidification of Single-Phase Alloysp. 200
Eutectic Solidificationp. 212
Off-Eutectic Alloysp. 218
Peritectic Solidificationp. 220
Solidification of Ingots and Castingsp. 221
Ingot Structurep. 222
Segregation in Ingots and Castingsp. 225
Continuous Castingp. 226
Solidification of Fusion Weldsp. 230
Solidification during Quenching from the Meltp. 235
Metallic Glassesp. 236
Thermodynamics and Kineticsp. 237
Case Studies of some Practical Castings and Weldsp. 239
Casting of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steelsp. 239
Casting of High-Speed Steelsp. 241
Exercisesp. 247
Referencesp. 249
Further Readingp. 249
Diffusional Transformations in Solidsp. 251
Homogeneous Nucleation in Solidsp. 253
Heterogeneous Nucleationp. 259
Rate of Heterogeneous Nucleationp. 263
Precipitate Growthp. 265
Growth behind Planar Incoherent Interfacesp. 266
Diffusion-Controlled Lengthening of Plates or Needlesp. 269
Thickening of Platelike Precipitatesp. 271
Overall Transformation Kinetics: TTT Diagramsp. 273
Precipitation in Age-Hardening Alloysp. 276
Precipitation in Aluminum-Copper Alloysp. 277
Precipitation in Aluminum-Silver Alloysp. 285
Quenched-In Vacanciesp. 286
Age Hardeningp. 288
Spinodal Decompositionp. 290
Particle Coarseningp. 295
Precipitation of Ferrite from Austenitep. 299
Case Study: Ferrite Nucleation and Growthp. 304
Cellular Precipitationp. 310
Eutectoid Transformationsp. 314
Pearlite Reaction in Fe-C Alloysp. 314
Bainite Transformationp. 319
Effect of Alloying Elements on Hardenabilityp. 327
Continuous Cooling Diagramsp. 332
Fibrous and Interphase Precipitation in Alloy Steelsp. 334
Rule of Scheilp. 336
Massive Transformationsp. 337
Ordering Transformationsp. 342
Case Studiesp. 349
Titanium Forging Alloysp. 349
Weldability of Low-Carbon and Microalloyed Rolled Steelsp. 353
Very Low-Carbon Bainitic Steel with High Strength and Toughnessp. 356
Very Fine Bainitep. 357
Exercisesp. 360
Referencesp. 362
Further Readingp. 364
Diffusionless Transformationsp. 367
Characteristics of Diffusionless Transformationsp. 368
Solid Solution of Carbon in Ironp. 371
Martensite Crystallographyp. 373
Bain Model of the fcc (???) bct Transformationp. 375
Comparison of Crystallographic Theory with Experimental Resultsp. 379
Theories of Martensite Nucleationp. 380
Formation of Coherent Nuclei of Martensitep. 381
Role of Dislocations in Martensite Nucleationp. 384
Dislocation Strain Energy Assisted Transformationp. 387
Martensite Growthp. 391
Growth of Lath Martensitep. 392
Plate Martensitep. 394
Stabilizationp. 397
Effect of External Stressesp. 397
Role of Grain Sizep. 397
Premartensite Phenomenap. 398
Tempering of Ferrous Martensitesp. 399
Case Studiesp. 408
Carbon and Low-Alloy Quenched and Tempered Steelsp. 408
Controlled Transformation Steelsp. 409
TRIP-Assisted Steelsp. 411
"Shape-Memory" Metal: Nitinolp. 415
Exercisesp. 417
Referencesp. 418
Further Readingp. 420
Solutions to Exercisesp. 421
Indexp. 491
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