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Philosophical Journey : A Field Manual for Explorers,9780767402187
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Philosophical Journey : A Field Manual for Explorers

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780767402187

ISBN10:
0767402189
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
12/24/1999
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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Summary

The Philosophical Journey is a topically organized text presented in an interactive format designed to get students' philosophical intuitions flowing. The book's guiding metaphor of "explorers on a journey" makes readers active participants in ongoing discoveries. The message of this book is that philosophy is a vital activity and way of thinking that can be practiced and developed.

Table of Contents

Preface v
Introduction to the Philosophical Journey: Where Are We Going and How Will We Get There?
1(59)
Overview of the Journey
2(12)
Philosophy and Aerobics
2(1)
Philosophy and Love
3(1)
Philosophy and Peanut Butter
4(1)
Philosophy and Colds
5(1)
What do Philosophers Study?
6(3)
Philosophy as a Journey
9(1)
Guideposts for your Journey
10(4)
Socrates and the Search for Wisdom
14(18)
Socrates's Life and Mission
16(1)
Apology
17(5)
Plato
Socrates's Method
22(2)
Republic
24(5)
Plato
What is the Practical Value of Philosophy?
29(1)
Socrates's Teachings
29(3)
Argument and Evidence: How do I Decide what to Believe?
32(28)
Evaluating Philosophical Claims and Theories
33(3)
The Nature of Arguments
36(3)
Deductive Arguments
39(7)
Inductive Arguments
46(2)
Informal Fallacies
48(6)
Learning More About Arguments and Evidence
54(1)
Review for Chapter 1
54(6)
The Search for Knowledge
60(190)
Overview of the Problem of Knowledge
61(11)
Scouting the Territory: What can I Know?
61(2)
Charting the Terrain of Knowledge: What are the Issues?
63(5)
Choosing a Path: What are My Options Concerning Knowledge?
68(2)
What Do I Think? Questionnaire on Knowledge, Doubt, Reason, and Experience
70(1)
Key to the Questionnaire on Knowledge
71(1)
Skepticism
72(23)
Leading Questions: Skepticism
72(1)
Surveying the Case for Skepticism
72(4)
Early Greek Skeptics
76(1)
Rene Descartes (1596--1650)
77(3)
Meditations on First Philosophy
80(3)
Rene Descartes
Meditations on First Philosophy
83(2)
Rene Descartes
David Hume (1711--1776)
85(1)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1)
86(3)
David Hume
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (2)
89(2)
David Hume
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (3)
91(1)
David Hume
A Treatise of Human Nature
92(1)
David Hume
Looking Through the Skeptic's Lens
93(1)
Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Skepticism
94(1)
Rationalism
95(21)
Leading Questions: Rationalism
95(1)
Surveying the Case for Rationalism
96(1)
The Three Anchor Points of Rationalism
97(2)
The Rationalists' Answers to the Three Epistemological Questions
99(1)
Socrates (c. 470--399 B. C.)
99(2)
Plato (c. 428--348 B. C.)
101(2)
Phaedo (1)
103(5)
Plato
Phaedo (2)
108(1)
Plato
Rene Descartes
109(1)
Meditations on First Philosophy
110(4)
Rene Descartes
Looking Through the Rationalist's Lens
114(1)
Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Rationalism
115(1)
Empiricism
116(26)
Leading Questions: Empiricism
116(1)
Surveying the Case for Empiricism
117(1)
The Three Anchor Points of Empiricism
117(2)
The Empiricists' Answers to the Three Epistemological Questions
119(1)
John Locke (1632--1704)
120(5)
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
125(2)
John Locke
George Berkeley (1685--1753)
127(2)
A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
129(7)
George Berkeley
David Hume
136(1)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
137(3)
David Hume
Summary of Rationalism and Empiricism
140(1)
Looking Through the Empiricist's Lens
140(1)
Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Empiricism
140(2)
Kantian Constructivism
142(17)
Leading Questions: Constructivism
142(1)
Surveying the Case for Kantian Constructivism
143(1)
Immanuel Kant (1724--1804)
143(2)
Critique of Pure Reason (1)
145(7)
Immanuel Kant
Critique of Pure Reason (2)
152(5)
Immanuel Kant
Looking Through Kant's Lens
157(1)
Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Kantian Constructivism
158(1)
Epistemological Relativism
159(23)
Leading Questions: Epistemological Relativism
159(1)
Surveying the Case for Relativism
160(9)
Ways of Worldmaking
169(7)
Nelson Goodman
The Teachings of Don Juan
176(3)
Carlos Castaneda
Preview of Coming Attractions
179(1)
Looking Through the Relativist's Lens
180(1)
Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Relativism
181(1)
Rethinking the Western Tradition: Existentialism
182(18)
Leading Questions: Existentialism
182(1)
Surveying the Case for Existentialism
183(1)
Søren Kierkegaard (1813--1855)
184(3)
Concluding Unscientific Postscript
187(2)
Søren Kierkegaard
The Journals
189(1)
Søren Kierkegaard
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844--1900)
190(3)
Beyond Good and Evil
193(5)
Friedrich Nietzsche
Looking Through the Existentialist's Lens
198(1)
Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Existentialism
199(1)
Rethinking the Western Tradition: Pragmatism
200(19)
Leading Questions: Pragmatism
200(1)
Surveying the Case for Pragmatism
201(11)
Pragmatism's Conception of Truth
212(5)
William James
Looking Through the Pragmatist's Lens
217(1)
Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Pragmatism
218(1)
Rethinking the Western Tradition: Feminist Epistemology
219(31)
Leading Questions: Feminist Epistemology
219(1)
Surveying the Case for Feminist Epistemology
220(3)
Women, Knowledge, and Reality
223(2)
Ann Garry
Marilyn Pearsall
Issues and Themes in Feminist Epistemology
225(8)
Feminist Epistemology and the Problem of Relativism
233(1)
What Can She Know?
234(1)
Lorraine Code
Looking Through the Lens of Feminist Epistemology
235(1)
Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Feminist Epistemology
236(2)
Review for Chapter 2
238(12)
The Search for Ultimate Reality
250(155)
Overview of Metaphysics
251(18)
Scouting the Territory: What is Reality?
251(1)
Charting the Terrain of Metaphysics: What are the Issues?
252(5)
Choosing a Path: What are my Options Concerning Metaphysics?
257(1)
Conceptual Tools: The Basics of Metaphysics
258(3)
Plato's Metaphysics
261(5)
Republic
266(3)
Plato
What Do I Think? Questionnaire on What is Most Real
269(1)
Overview: The Mind-Body Problem
269(10)
Scouting the Territory: What is the Mind? What is the Body?
269(1)
Tantalus
270(3)
Hugh Elliot
Charting the Terrain of the Mind-Body Problem: What are the Issues?
273(1)
Choosing a Path: What are my Options Concerning the Mind and the Body?
274(3)
What Do I Think? Questionnaire on Mind and Body
277(1)
Key to the Mind-Body Questionnaire
278(1)
Dualism
279(9)
Leading Questions: Dualism
279(1)
Surveying the Case for Dualism
280(1)
Descartes's Arguments for Mind-Body Dualism
280(2)
Discourse on the Method
282(1)
Rene Descartes
Meditations on First Philosophy (1)
283(2)
Rene Descartes
Meditations on First Philosophy (2)
285(2)
Rene Descartes
Looking Through the Dualist's Lens
287(1)
Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Dualism
288(1)
Physicalism
288(16)
Leading Questions: Physicalism
288(1)
Surveying the Case for Physicalism
289(8)
Matter and Consciousness
297(5)
Paul Churchland
Looking Through the Physicalist's Lens
302(1)
Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Physicalism
302(2)
Functionalism and Artificial Intelligence
304(21)
Leading Questions: Functionalism and Artificial Intelligence
304(1)
The Amazing Chess-Playing Machine
305(2)
Surveying the Case for Functionalism
307(3)
The Mind-Body Problem
310(1)
Jerry Fodor
Surveying the Case for Artificial Intelligence
311(5)
Why, People Think Computers Can't
316(6)
Marvin Minsky
Looking Through the Lens of Functionalism and Strong AI
322(2)
Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Functionalism and Strong AI
324(1)
Overview: Freedom and Determinism
325(11)
Scouting the Territory: Freedom and Determinism
325(2)
Charting the Terrain of Freedom and Determinism: What are the Issues?
327(1)
Conceptual Tools: Thinking About Freedom
328(2)
Choosing a Path: What are my Options Concerning Human Freedom?
330(4)
What do I Think? Questionnaire on Freedom and Determinism
334(1)
Key to the Questionnaire on Freedom and Determinism
335(1)
Hard Determinism
336(24)
Leading Questions: Hard Determinisms
336(1)
The Debate Over Determinism
337(1)
Walden Two
337(1)
B. F. Skinner
Surveying the Case for Hard Determinism
338(1)
The problems With Libertarianism
339(1)
The Positive Case for Determinism
340(5)
The Denial of Moral Responsibility
345(1)
Erewhon
346(2)
Samuel Butler
The Leopold and Loeb Trial
348(2)
Clarence Darrow
Benedict (Baruch) Spinoza (1632--1677)
350(2)
B. F. Skinner (1904--1990)
352(3)
A Lecture on ``Having'' a Poem
355(4)
B. F. Skinner
Looking Through The Hard Determinist's Lens
359(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Hard Determinism
359(1)
Libertarianism
360(22)
Leading Questions: Libertarianism
360(1)
Surveying The Case for Libertarianism
361(1)
The Problems With Determinism
361(2)
Three Views of Freedom
363(6)
The Positive Arguments for Libertarianism
369(4)
Metaphysics
373(2)
Richard Taylor
Jean-Paul Sartre (1905--1980)
375(1)
Being and Nothingness
376(2)
Jean-Paul Sartre
Dirty Hands
378(2)
Jean-Paul Sartre
Looking Through The Libertarian's Lens
380(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Libertarianism
381(1)
Compatibilism
382(23)
Leading Questions: Compatibilism
382(1)
Surveying The Case for Compatibilism (Soft Determinism)
383(4)
Religion and the Modern Mind
387(8)
Walter R. Stace
Looking Through the Compatibilist's Lens
395(1)
Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Compatibilism
396(1)
Review for Chapter 3
397(8)
The Search for God
405(101)
Overview of Philosophy of Religion
406(7)
Scouting The Territory: The Impact of Religion
406(1)
Does God Exist?
406(1)
Peter Kreeft
Charting The Terrain of Religion: What are The Issues?
407(1)
Choosing A Path: What are my Options Concerning Religious Belief?
407(3)
Conceptual Tools: Arguments for The Exitence of God
410(2)
What Do I Think? Questionnaire on The Existence of God
412(1)
Key to The Questionnaire on The Existence of God
412(1)
The Cosmological Argument for God
413(12)
Leading Questions: The Cosmological Argument
413(1)
Surveying The Case for The Cosmological Argument
413(1)
St. Thomas Aquinas (1225--1274)
414(1)
Summa Theologica
415(3)
Thomas Aquinas
Metaphysics
418(5)
Richard Taylor
Looking Through The Lens of The Cosmological Argument
423(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of The Cosmological Argument
424(1)
The Design Argument for God
425(11)
Leading Questions: The Argument From Design
425(1)
Surveying The Case for The Design Argument
425(1)
William Paley (1743--1805)
426(1)
Natural Theology
426(2)
William Paley
Science and Cosmic Design
428(1)
David Hume
429(1)
Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
430(5)
David Hume
Looking Through The Lens of The Argument from Design
435(1)
Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of The Argument from Design
435(1)
The Ontological Argument for God
436(6)
Leading Questions: The Ontological Argument
436(1)
Surveying The Case for The Ontological Argument
437(1)
St. Anselm (1033--1109)
438(1)
Proslogium
438(3)
St. Anselm
Looking Through The Lens of The Ontological Argument
441(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of The Ontological Argument
441(1)
Pragmatic and Subjective Justifications
442(14)
Leading Questions: The Pragmatic and Subjective Justifications for Belief
442(1)
Surveying The Case for Pragmatic and Subjective Justifications
443(1)
Blaise Pascal (1623--1662)
444(1)
Thoughts
444(4)
Blaise Pascal
William James
448(1)
The Will to Believe
449(1)
William James
Søren Kierkegaard
450(1)
Selections from his works
451(3)
Søren Kierkegaard
Looking Through The Lens of The Pragmatic and Subjective Justifications of Religious Belief
454(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of The Pragmatic and Subjective Justification of Religious Belief
454(2)
The Problem of Evil: Atheistic and Theistic Responses
456(18)
Leading Questions: The Problem of Evil
456(1)
Surveying The Case for Atheism: The Argument From Evil
456(1)
The Plague
457(3)
Albert Camus
Religious Responses to The Argument From Evil
460(5)
Evil and the God of Love
465(6)
John Hicks
The Problem of Pain
471(1)
C. S. Lewis
Looking Through The Atheist's Lens
472(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Atheism
472(2)
Rethinking The Western Tradition: Asian Religions
474(32)
Leading Questions: Asian Religions
474(1)
Surveying The Case for Hinduism
475(2)
Reading: From the Upanishads
477(8)
Surveying The Case for Buddhism
485(2)
Reading: The Buddha, from Selected Teachings
487(8)
Summary of Hindu and Buddhist Thought
495(1)
Siddhartha
496(1)
Herman Hesse
Looking Through The Hindu's and The Buddha's Lens
496(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Hinduism and Buddhism
497(2)
Review For Chapter 4
499(7)
The Search for Ethical Values
506(171)
Overview of Ethics
507(20)
Scouting The Territory: Why be Moral?
507(1)
Republic
508(2)
Plato
Charting The Terrain of Ethics: What are The Issues?
510(1)
Conceptual Tools: Philosophical Ethics Versus Religion
510(6)
The Question, Why be Moral? Reconsidered
516(5)
Choosing a Path: What are my Options Concerning Ethics?
521(4)
What Do I Think? Questionnaire on Ethics, Actions, Consequences, Motives, and Character
525(1)
Key to The Questionnaire on Ethics
526(1)
Ethical Relativism Versus Objectivism
527(27)
Leading Questions: Ethical Relativism and Ethical Objectivism
527(2)
Surveying The Case for Ethical Relativism
529(3)
The Histories
532(1)
Herodotus
Ruth Benedict (1857--1948)
533(1)
Anthropology and the Abnormal
533(5)
Ruth Benedict
Looking Through The Lens of Ethical Relativism
538(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Ethical Relativism
539(2)
Surveying The Case for Ethical Objectivism
541(4)
The Challenge of Cultural Relativism
545(7)
James Rachels
Looking Through The Lens of Ethical Objectivism
552(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Ethical Objectivism
553(1)
Ethical Egoism
554(19)
Leading Questions: Ethical Egoism
554(1)
Of Human Bondage
555(1)
Somerset Maugham
Surveying The Case for Ethical Egoism
556(11)
The Virtue of Selfishness
567(4)
Ayn Rand
Looking Through The Egoist's Lens
571(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Egoism
571(2)
Utilitarianism
573(24)
Leading Questions: Utilitarianism
573(4)
Surveying The Case for Utilitarianism
577(1)
Jeremy Bentham (1748--1832)
577(1)
An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
578(4)
Jeremy Bentham
John Stuart Mill (1806--1873)
582(1)
Utilitarianism
582(4)
John Stuart Mill
Utilitarianism: Objectivism or Relativism?
586(1)
The Consequences of Consequentialism: A Test Case
587(1)
Comparing Harms: Headaches and Human Lives
588(3)
Alastair Norcross
The Problem of Justice and Rights
591(1)
Act-Utilitarianism Versus Rule-Utilitariansm
592(2)
Looking Through The Utilitarian's Lens
594(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Utilitarianism
595(2)
Kantian Ethics
597(20)
Leading Questions: Kantian Ethics
597(1)
Surveying The Case for Kantian Ethics
598(1)
Immanuel Kant
598(2)
Foundations of The Metaphysics of Morals
600(15)
Immanuel Kant
Looking Through The Lens of Kantian Ethics
615(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Kantian Ethics
615(2)
Virtue Ethics
617(24)
Leading Questions: Virtue Ethics
617(2)
Surveying The Case for Virtue Ethics
619(1)
What is Virtue?
619(2)
The Problems With The Utilitarian View
621(1)
The Problems With The Kantian View
622(1)
The Positive Case for Virtue Ethics
623(5)
Aristotle (384--322 B. C.)
628(1)
Nicomachean Ethics
628(6)
Aristotle
The Virtues in Confucian Thought
634(1)
The Analects
635(1)
Confucius
A Contemporary Application of Virtue Ethics
636(1)
Moral Character and Abortion
636(1)
Janet Smith
Summary of Virtue Ethics
637(1)
Looking Through The Lens of Virtue Ethics
638(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Virtue Ethics
639(2)
Rethinking The Western Tradition: Feminist Ethics
641(36)
Leading Questions: Feminist Ethics
641(1)
Surveying The Case For Feminist Ethics
642(4)
Two Approaches to Feminist Ethics
646(2)
In a Different Voice
648(12)
Carol Gilligan
Liberating Care
660(4)
Marilyn Friedman
Summary of Feminist Ethics
664(1)
Looking Through The Lens of Feminist Ethics
665(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Feminist Ethics
665(2)
Review for Chapter 5
667(10)
The Search for The Just Society
677(110)
Overview of Political Philosophy
678(5)
Scouting The Territory: Thinking About Government
678(1)
Charting The Terrain of Political Philosophy: What are The Issues?
679(1)
Choosing a Path: What are my Options Concerning Political Philosophy?
680(1)
What Do I Think? Questionnaire on Political Philosophy
681(1)
Key to The Questionnaire on Political Philosophy
682(1)
The Justification of Government
683(24)
Leading Questions: The Justification of Government
683(2)
Surveying The Case for Anarchism
685(2)
In Defense of Anarchism
687(4)
Robert Paul Wolff
Looking Through The Anarchist's Lens
691(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Anarchism
691(1)
Surveying The Case for Social Contract Theory
692(1)
Leviathan
693(9)
Thomas Hobbes
An Essay Concerning The True Original, Extent and End of Civil Government
702(4)
John Locke
Reading: From The Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776)
706(1)
Looking Through The Lens of The Social Contract Theory
706(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of The Social Contract Theory
706(1)
The Question of Justice
707(28)
Leading Questions: The Nature of Justice
707(2)
Surveying The Case For Justice As Merit
709(1)
Republic
710(2)
Plato
Looking Through Plato's Lens
712(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Plato's Theory of Justice
713(1)
Surveying The Case for Justice as Conformity to The Natural Law
714(2)
Summa Theologica
716(1)
Thomas Aquinas
Looking Through The Lens of Natural Law Theory
717(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Natural Law Theory
717(1)
Surveying The Case for Justice as Social Utility
718(1)
John Stuart Mill
718(1)
Utilitarianism
719(4)
John Stuar Mill
Looking Through Mill's Lens
723(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Mill's Theory of Justice
723(1)
Surveying The Case for Justice as Fairness
724(1)
John Rawls (Born 1921)
724(1)
A Theory of Justice
725(7)
John Rawls
Justice, Gender, and the Family
732(2)
Susan Molle Okin
Looking Through Rawls's Lens
734(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Rawls's Theory of Justice
734(1)
The Individual and The State
735(25)
Leading Questions: The Individual and The State
735(2)
Surveying The Case for Classical Liberalism
737(1)
John Stuart Mill
737(1)
On Liberty
738(7)
John Stuar Mill
Looking Through The Lens of Classical Liberalism
745(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Classical Liberalism
745(1)
Surveying The Case for Marxism
746(1)
Karl Marx (1818--1883)
746(6)
Communist Manifesto
752(6)
Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels
Looking Through The Lens of Marxism
758(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of Marxism
759(1)
Civil Disobedience
760(27)
Leading Questions: Civil Disobedience
760(2)
Surveying The Case Against Civil Disobedience
762(2)
Crito
764(4)
Plato
Looking Through The Lens of The Opponents of Civil Disobedience
768(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of The Opposition to Civil Disobedience
769(1)
Surveying The Case for Civil Disobedience
770(1)
Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869--1948)
771(2)
Young India
773(3)
Mahatma Gandhi
Martin Luther King Jr. (1929--1986)
776(1)
Letter from Birmingham Jail
777(3)
Martin Luther King Jr.
Looking Through The Lens of The Supporters of Civil Disobedience
780(1)
Examining The Strengths and Weaknesses of The Civil Disobedience Position
780(1)
Review For Chapter 6
781(6)
Credits 787(2)
Index 789


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