9780495008248

Philosophical Thinking About Death And Dying

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780495008248

  • ISBN10:

    0495008249

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-03-30
  • Publisher: Cengage High School

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Summary

No one likes to think about death, but what if someone asked you what you believed about it? PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING ABOUT DEATH AND DYING walks you through the major metaphysical and ethical issues surrounding death and dying, showing you what others have thought so you can form your own opinion. Plus, it covers what science is telling us about the process of dying. This philosophy textbook is easy to use and full of study tools, so you'll be ready to get a great grade in class as well.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction: Philosophical Thinking and Death 1(1)
Philosophy and The Death of Ivan Ilyich
2(2)
Metaphysics
2(1)
Epistemology
2(1)
Ethics
3(1)
Philosophical Thinking
4(1)
Philosophical vs. Ordinary Thinking
5(1)
Philosophical Thinking and Death
6(1)
Three Kinds of Fundamental Questions
6(1)
The Value of Philosophical Thinking About Death and Dying
7(2)
References
9(2)
PART I The Nature of Death
Introduction: The 9/11 Memorial and Death Denial
11(4)
Definition and Criteria of Death
15(17)
The Death of Terri Schiavo
15(1)
Traditional Heart-Lung Definition
16(2)
The Challenge Posed by Biomedical Technology
17(1)
The Challenge Posed by Transplantation
17(1)
Whole-Brain Death Definition
18(1)
Challenges to the Whole-Brain Formulation
18(3)
Return to the Heart-Lung Formulation
19(1)
Adopt a Higher-Brain Formulation
19(1)
Adopt a Brainstem Formulation
20(1)
The Biological vs. Psycho-Social Debate: Organisms vs. Persons
21(4)
Death of the Organism: A Biological Perspective
21(1)
Death of the Person: A Psycho-Social Perspective
22(1)
Problems with the Person-Based View
23(1)
The Person-Based Reply
23(2)
Lingering Questions About Brain Death
25(3)
Definition or Permission?
25(1)
Help or Harm?
26(2)
Event or Process?
28(1)
Conclusions
28(2)
References
30(2)
Death in the West
32(19)
A Wisconsin Death Trip
32(1)
Premodern Attitude (To 1900): Death Visible and Tamed
33(11)
Early Middle Ages (500-1000): Death as Destiny
34(3)
Later Middle Ages (1000-1400): Death of Self
37(3)
The Age of Enlightenment (1650-1750): Fear Checked by Reason
40(2)
Romanticism (1750-1850): Fear Sublimated in the Death of Others
42(2)
The Modern Age (1900-1975): Death Invisible and Wild
44(2)
Scientific vs. Traditional Worldview
45(1)
Postmodern Age (1975-Present): Death Open and Available
46(2)
The Fear of Death
48(1)
Conclusions
48(1)
References
49(2)
The Consciousness of Death
51(19)
The Beheading of Nicholas Berg and the Imminence of Death
51(1)
The Instinctual Basis of the Fear of Death
52(3)
The Argument from Biology
52(1)
The Argument from Psychoanalysis
53(2)
Existential Thought and the Fear of Death
55(1)
Kierkegaard
55(6)
Human Nature as a Union of Opposites
56(1)
``The Predicament of the Existing Individual''
57(1)
``The Dizziness of Freedom''
58(1)
``Shut-upness''
58(1)
Objective vs. Subjective Thinking
59(1)
Relation with the Infinite
60(1)
Heidegger
61(6)
Awareness of One's Being
62(1)
``Thrownness'' and ``Angst''
62(1)
``Being-Towards-Death''
63(1)
``Fallenness''
63(1)
``Fleeing in the Face of Death'' vs. ``Living in the Light of Death''
64(1)
Death as an Event
64(2)
Death as an Existential Phenomenon
66(1)
Conclusions
67(1)
References
68(2)
The Evil of Death
70(15)
Waiting for Godot
70(1)
The Problem of the Evil of Death
71(5)
Death as Not Bad: The Epicurean Argument
71(2)
Death as Bad: Deprivation Theory
73(3)
The Rationality of Death
76(3)
Is It Irrational to Fear Death?
77(1)
Is It Rational to Be Led by the Fear of Death?
78(1)
Conclusions
79(1)
References
80(3)
PART II Survival of Death
Introduction: A Death in the Family
83(2)
The Self and Its Relation to Death
85(19)
Dualistic View of Human Nature
86(4)
Plato
86(1)
The Soul's Existence
86(3)
Descartes
89(1)
The Mind-Body Problem
90(1)
Responses to the Mind-Body Problem
91(5)
Reductive Theories of Mind
92(2)
Critical Responses to Reductive Theories of Mind
94(2)
The Persistence of Personal Identity
96(5)
Body
96(1)
Soul
97(1)
Memory
98(1)
No-Self
99(1)
Hume
99(2)
Conclusion
101(1)
References
101(3)
Survival Hypotheses
104(18)
Disembodied or Pure Individual Mind
105(1)
Resurrection
106(5)
Judaism
106(1)
Islam
107(1)
Christianity
108(3)
Reincarnation
111(5)
Hinduism
111(1)
Buddhism
112(2)
Christianity
114(1)
Western Philosophy
115(1)
Mystical Union
116(3)
Hinduism
116(1)
Taoism
117(1)
Buddhism
118(1)
Western Philosophy
118(1)
Conclusions
119(1)
References
119(3)
Bases for Afterlife Belief
122(23)
``After-Death.Com'' and Life Everlasting
122(1)
The Argument from Theology
123(1)
The Argument from Morality
123(2)
The Argument from Globalism
125(1)
The Argument from Human Development
126(4)
Irenaean Theodicy
126(2)
Bergson's Elan Vital
128(2)
The Argument from Parapsychological Phenomena
130(4)
Past Life
130(1)
Near Death Experiences
131(1)
Deathbed Visions
131(1)
Apparitions and Materializations
132(1)
Out-of-Body Experiences
133(1)
Messages from the Dead and the Beyond
134(1)
Conclusions
134(4)
References
138(3)
PART III Voluntary Death
Introduction: Quinlan, Perlmutter, Cruzan
141(4)
Conceptual Issues in Suicide and Euthanasia
145(16)
Garrett Hardin and the Profile of Suicide
145(2)
Suicide: The Problem of Definition
147(2)
Self-Sacrificial Deaths
147(1)
Coerced Deaths
148(1)
Euthanasia
149(1)
Definition: Narrow and Broad Interpretations
150(1)
Killing vs. Allowing to Die
151(5)
A Distinction with a Difference?
154(1)
Yes (Narrow Interpretation)
154(1)
No (Broad Interpretation)
155(1)
Voluntary and Nonvoluntary Decisions
156(2)
Voluntary Decisions
157(1)
Nonvoluntary Decisions
157(1)
Conclusions
158(1)
References
159(2)
History and Contemporary Opinion
161(18)
Suicide as an Office to God, Neighbor, Self: Plato and Aristle
161(1)
Suicide as Rational: The Stories
162(1)
Suicide as Sinful: Augnustne and Aquinas
163(1)
Suicide as Beneficial to Self and Others: Hume
164(2)
``On Suicide''
165(1)
Suicide as Violating Moral Responsibility: Kant
166(3)
The Argument from Free Will
166(1)
The Argument from Human Nature
167(1)
The Argument from Autonomy
168(1)
Argument from Divine Will
168(1)
Suicide as a Social Utility: Bentham and Mill
169(2)
Assisted Suicide: The Contemporary Picture
171(4)
Physician Assistance
171(1)
World Legal Opinion
172(1)
U.S. Public and Professional Opinion
172(2)
Initiatives and Legislation
174(1)
Oregon's Death with Dignity Act
174(1)
Conclusions
175(1)
References
176(3)
Individual Morality
179(18)
The Assisted Death of Velma Howard
179(1)
Principles
180(8)
Utility/Happiness
180(4)
Respect for Persons
184(2)
Natural Law
186(2)
Virtue
188(5)
Conclusions
193(1)
References
194(3)
Social Policy and Law
197(17)
Gonzales v. Oregon
197(1)
Individual Rights
198(5)
Human Rights
199(2)
Welfare Rights
201(2)
Equality
203(3)
The General Welfare
206(4)
State Paternalism
206(1)
Self-Regarding vs. Other-Regarding I rtues and Vices
207(1)
The Case for Indirect Harm
208(1)
The Case Against Indirect Harm
208(2)
Conclusions
210(1)
References
211(3)
Futile Treatment and the Duty to Die
214(18)
The Case of Helga Wanglie
214(1)
Medical Futility: Physician Beneficence v Patient Autonomy
215(2)
Arguments for Limiting Patient Autonomy
217(2)
Professionalism
217(1)
Responsible Stewardship
218(1)
Arguments Against Limiting Patient Autonomy
219(3)
Physician Bias
219(1)
Uncertain Prognoses/Mistaken Diagnoses
220(1)
Lack of Social Consensus
220(1)
Social Contract
221(1)
The Duty to Die
222(6)
From Patient to Family-Centered Bioethics: The Ideas of John Hardwig
224(2)
Hardwig's Critics
226(1)
Logical Problems
226(1)
Practical Problems
227(1)
Conclusions
228(1)
References
229(3)
Conclusion: Life, Death, and Meaning
232(22)
Death Gives Meaning to Life
233(4)
Death as Necessary for Life
233(1)
Death as Part of the Life Cycle
234(1)
Death as Ultimate Affirmation
235(1)
Death as Motive to Commitment and Engagement
235(1)
Death as Stimulus to Creativity
236(1)
Death as Socially Useful
236(1)
The Meaning of Life
237(3)
Theistic
238(1)
Non-Theistic
239(1)
Progress and Meaning
240(4)
Self-Consciousness and Freedom
240(1)
Science
241(1)
Critics of Progress
242(1)
Schopenhauer
242(1)
Von Hartmann
242(1)
Nietzsche
243(1)
Criticism of the Western Conception of ``Progress''
243(1)
The Challenge of Nihilism
244(1)
Responses to Nihilism
245(4)
Refusal or Rejection
245(1)
Acceptance
245(2)
Affirmation
247(2)
The Examined Life, Death, and Meaning
249(5)
Index 254

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