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9780197768013

Philosophy: Asking Questions, Seeking Answers

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780197768013

  • ISBN10:

    0197768016

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2024-02-21
  • Publisher: Oxford

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Supplemental Materials

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Table of Contents

Preface

CHAPTER 1 What Is Philosophy?
1.1 Philosophy Is Everywhere
1.2 What Is a Philosophical Question?
1.3 The Philosophical Method
1.4 Philosophy and Science
1.5 Why Bother?
Discussion Question
Notes

CHAPTER 2 What Are Arguments, and How Should We Evaluate Them?
Introduction
2.1 Premises and Conclusions
2.2 Evaluating Arguments
2.3 Deductive Validity
2.4 Induction and Abduction
2.5 Multistep Arguments
2.6 Evaluating Multistep Arguments
2.7 Some Arguments to Evaluate
2.8 Answers to Problems
What to Look at Next
Glossary
Notes

CHAPTER 3 Does God Exist?
Introduction
3.1 The First Cause Argument
3.2 Some Questions about the First Cause Argument
3.3 Leibniz's Cosmological Argument
3.4 The Design Argument
3.5 Criticisms of the Design Argument
3.6 Anselm's Ontological Argument
3.7 What, If Anything, Is Wrong with Anselm's Ontological Argument?
3.8 A Pragmatic Case for Theism?
Conclusion
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 4 Why Does God Leave Us to Suffer?
Introduction
4.1 Three Logical Puzzles for Theists
4.2 Introducing the Problem of Evil
4.3 Three Inadequate Responses
4.4 Rethinking the Nature of God
4.5 Theodicy
4.6 Skeptical Theism
Conclusion
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 5 Can We Be Completely Certain of Anything?
Introduction
5.1 Descartes's Project
5.2 Certainty Is Hard to Find
5.3 Achieving Certainty
5.4 Clear and Distinct Perception
5.5 Descartes's Theism, and His Solution to the Evil Demon Problem
5.6 The Cartesian Circle
5.7 Descartes's Legacy
Conclusion
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 6 Can We Trust Our Senses?
6.1 Rationalism and Empiricism
6.2 Indirect Realism
6.3 Primary and Secondary Qualities
6.4 Do Material Objects Really Exist?
6.5 Berkeley's Idealism
6.6 Direct Realism
Conclusion
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 7 Will the Sun Rise Tomorrow?
Introduction
7.1 Making Predictions
7.2 Hume's Problem
7.3 Karl Popper
7.4 Peter Strawson
7.5 Epistemically Basic Beliefs
7.6 Beyond Enumerative Induction
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 8 What Is Knowledge?
Introduction
8.1 Three Kinds of Knowledge
8.2 Analyzing Propositional Knowledge: The Easy Part-Belief and Truth
8.3 Analyzing Propositional Knowledge: The Hard Part-Justification
8.4 Foundationalism
8.5 Coherentism
8.6 Internalism and Externalism
8.7 Fallibilism and Skepticism
8.8 Gettier Cases-A Challenge to the Justified True Belief Account of Knowledge
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 9 Do We Have Free Will?
9.1 What Is Determinism?
9.2 Incompatibilism
9.3 Compatibilism
9.4 Libertarianism
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 10 Race
Introduction
10.1 Racialism
10.2 Non-Racialist Meanings of 'Race'
Summary
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 11 How Is Your Mind Related to Your Body?
Introduction
11.1 Cartesian Dualism
11.2 Philosophical Behaviorism
11.3 The Mind-Brain Identity Theory
11.4 Functionalism
11.5 Physicalism, Zombies and a Revival of Dualism
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 12 Will You Be the Same Person in Ten Years? Could You Survive Death?
12.1 The Philosophical Issue and Its Practical Importance
12.2 The Soul Theory
12.3 Problems for Soul Theory
12.4 Memory Theories
12.5 Personal Identity and the Brain
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 13 Are There Objective Truths about Right and Wrong?
Introduction
13.1 Objective Truth
13.2 The Divine Command Theory
13.3 Cultural Relativism
13.4 Subjectivism and Expressivism
13.5 The Qualified Attitude Theory
Conclusion
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 14 What Really Matters?
Introduction
14.1 Hedonism
14.2 Sartre
14.3 Susan Wolf on Meaningfulness
Conclusion
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 15 What Should We Do? (Part I)
15.1 Act Consequentialism and Act Utilitarianism
15.2 Objections to Act Utilitarianism
15.3 Rule Consequentialism and Rule Utilitarianism
15.4 Kant's Universalization Test
15.5 Kant's Humanity Formula
15.6 Comparing Kantianism and Consequentialism
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 16 What Should We Do? (Part II)
Introduction
16.1 Is It Morally Wrong to Go to the Opera While People Are Starving?
16.2 Vegetarianism
16.3 Is Abortion Morally Wrong?
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next
Notes

CHAPTER 17 Why Democracy?
17.1 What is Democracy?
17.2 The Basic Argument Against Democracy
17.3 A Modest Defence of Democracy
17.4 Are Democratic Countries Well Run?
17.5 Non-Instrumental Defenses of Democracy
Conclusion
Glossary
Comprehension Questions
Discussion Questions
What to Look at Next

Appendix: A General Knowledge Quiz
Appendix A: Reading and Writing Tips
Seven Tips on Reading Philosophy
Eighteen Tips for Writing Philosophy Papers
Appendix B: The Truth about Philosophy Majors
Careers
Salaries
Meaning
Resources
Notes

Glossary
Credits
Index

Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

The Used, Rental and eBook copies of this book are not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

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