Physics in the Arts : Revised Edition

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  • Edition: Revised
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-07-13
  • Publisher: Academic Pr

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A deep yet accessible analysis of the physics of light and sound, and how our eyes and ears detect them, is not only intellectually enjoyable, but also useful to understand and interpret the world in which we live, all the phenomena that take place around us, and how we perceive them. In short, how we interface with our planet, its inhabitants, and their creations. Understanding the physics of light and sound may also increase the appreciation for works of art and for art itself, and even stimulate the artists among the readers to deepen their knowledge of their media, of how people interface with them, and perhaps improve their art production. * Offers an alternative route to science literacy for those interested in the arts, music and photography * Popular science book with wide readership beyond the classroom at an accessible level * Material covered at a level appropriate for self-study or as a complementary textbook * Companion website for Instructors available in Spring 2008

Author Biography

Pupa Gilbert is a Professor of Physics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a surrealist painter. She is a physicist with passionate loves for biology and for modern art. She studied at the first University of Rome, worked as a staff scientist at the Italian National Research Council and at the eole Polytechnique F?d?rale de Lausanne until she joined the University of Wisconsin in 1999. Her current research focuses on biominerals, including mother-of-pearl, sea archin skeletons and the mechanisms leading to their formation. She pioneered the use of synchrotron spectromicroscopy in biology and medicine. She won "The Outstanding Young Persons (TOYP) of the World" award in 1997, and was knighted in 2000 for her contribution to the field of Biophysics. She leads a dynamic and diverse research group. She teaches "Physics in the Arts" and "Microscopy of Life", and in 2011 won the UW-Madison Distinguished Teaching Award. She lives in Madison and in Berkeley with her husband Ben. Willy Haeberli is a Professor of Physics and Steenbock Professor of Natural Sciences Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, He was educated in Switzerland and received a Ph.D. in Nuclear Physics at the University of Basel. He taught at the University of Wisconsin for 50 years and was honored for his leaching of undergraduates not majoring in physical sciences and for his research. He received the Bonner Prize in Nuclear Physics, and the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in I988 and to the National Academy of Science in 2002. In collaboration with 40 Ph.D. students whose research he has guided, he developed new methods to produce spin-polarized beams and targets and used them to study interactions in nuclear and high-energy collisions.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. xi
Light and Soundp. xi
Light and Light Wavesp. 01
Speed of Lightp. 05
Electromagnetic Spectrump. 06
Polarizationp. 07
Reflection and Refractionp. 10
Specular Reflection of Lightp. 10
Refraction of Lightp. 14
Total Internal Reflectionp. 17
Reflection and Refraction in Diamondsp. 21
The Rainbow25
Questionsp. 27
Lensesp. 30
The Prismp. 30
Converging and Diverging Lenses31
Focal Lengthp. 33
Images?Real and Virtualp. 36
Three Easy Raysp. 39
The Lens Formulap. 41
Note on Magnificationp. 45
Lens Aberrationsp. 47
Chromatic Aberrationsp. 48
Spherical Aberrationp. 49
Questionsp. 52
The Eyep. 56
Accommodationp. 58
Eyeglassesp. 60
Nearsighted Eyep. 61
Farsighted Eyep. 62
Astigmatic Eyep. 62
Photographyp. 63
The Camerap. 63
Focusing the Camerap. 64
p. 67
Choosing the Aperturep. 68
Depth of Fieldp. 69
Why the/Number?p. 70
The Filmp. 71
Digital Photographyp. 75
Putting it AH Together: Taking a Photographp. 76
Questionsp. 80
Color and Color Visionp. 82
Colorp. 82
Color Sensitivity of the Eyep. 84
Physical and Psychological Colorp. 89
Color: Hue, Saturation, and Brightnessp. 90
Light Interaction with other Objectsp. 92
Scattering or Diffuse Reflectionp. 92
Questionsp. 98
Additive Color Mixingp. 99
Primary Colorsp. 99
Adding Primary Colorsp. 100
The Color Trianglep. 103
Low-Brightness Colorsp. 107
Spectral Colorsp. 107
Non-Spectral Colorsp. 112
Summaryp. 113
Additive Color Mixing in Paintingp. 144
Questionsp. 117
Subtractive Color Mixingp. 118
Filtersp. 118
Subtractive Primary Colorsp. 120
Subtractive primariesp. 122
Color Photographyp. 124
Pigmentsp. 125
Change in Saturationp. 128
Why Do Blue and Yellow Make Green?p. 130
Change in Huep. 131
Questionsp. 134
Color-Generating Mechanismsp. 136
Illuminating Lightp. 136
Pigmentsp. 136
Structural Color: Iridescencep. 137
More Color-Generating Mechanisms Due to Iridescencep. 139
Color in Gemstonesp. 142
Mineral Color Due to Charge Transferp. 144
Mineral Color Due to Color Centersp. 144
Color in Gems Due to Band Gap Absorption of Lightp. 145
Periodic Oscillationsp. 148
Displacement Graph: Positions x Changes with Time tp. 151
The Period T and the Frequency fp. 153
Large and Small Numbersp. 154
Speed of Motiop. 154
Questionsp. 156
Simple Harmonic Motionp. 158
The Spring Constantp. 160
Oscillation Frequency for Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)p. 161
Wave Shape of Simple Harmonic Motionp. 163
Phase Anglep. 165
Questionsp. 166
Damped Oscillations and Resonancep. 168
Damped Oscillations?The Concept of "Damping Time"p. 168
Resonancep. 170
Build-up and Decay of Musical Tonesp. 175
Applications in Musicp. 175
Resonators in Musical Instrumentsp. 175
Questionsp. 177
Adding Sound Sources: Beats and Harmonyp. 179
Principle of Superpositionp. 179
Two Pure Tones of the Same Frequencyp. 180
Beatsp. 182
Harmonyp. 184
For the Fun of It: Lissajous Figuresp. 185
Questionsp. 188
Sound wavesp. 190
Propagation of a Pulsep. 190
Longitudinal and Transverse Wavesp. 192
Sound Waves in Air Are Longitudinal Wavesp. 193
Speed of Sound in Airp. 195
Wavelength and Frequencyp. 196
Relevance to Size of Instruments or Loudspeakersp. 197
Sound Propagationp. 198
Interference of Sound Wavesp. 199
Concert Hall Acousticsp. 201
Questionsp. 205
Sound Perception: Pitch, Loudness, and Timbrep. 206
Ludness and Amplitudep. 207
Loudness and Frequencyp. 210
Pitch Discriminationp. 213
The Earp. 214
The Parts of the Earp. 214
Place Theory of Pitch Perceptionp. 216
What Do the Auditory Nerves Tell the Brain?p. 217
Vibration of Stringsp. 220
Single Modesp. 220
Higher Modesp. 222
Traveling Versus Standing Wavesp. 223
The Voicing Formula225
How Do Modes Relate to Music?p. 226
Damping of Higher Partialsp. 227
Plucked Strings: Missing Partialsp. 227
Playing Harmonicsp. 228
Real Strings Have Some Stiffnessp. 228
Questionsp. 229
Pipesp. 231
Pressure Pulse in a Pipep. 231
Reflections in Open and Closed Pipesp. 232
Boundary Conditionsp. 233
Standing Waves in Open Pipesp. 233
Fundamental Frequency of Open Pipep. 234
Higher Modes of Open Pipep. 235
Fundamental Frequency of Closed Pipep. 237
Higher Modes of Closed Pipep. 238
Playing Tunes on Wind Instruments: Fingerholes and Overblowingp. 240
Other Shapesp. 240
Acoustic Lengthp. 241
Questionsp. 241
Fourier Analysisp. 243
The Fourier Theoremp. 243
Sound Spectrump. 244
Fourier Analyzer (Sound Analyzer)p. 249
Fourier Synthesisp. 251
Why Can't We Synthesize a Stradivari?p. 252
Questionsp. 254
Musical Scalesp. 256
Musical Intervalsp. 257
Consonance (Harmony): Simple Number Ratiosp. 257
The Major Triadp. 259
Constructing a Scale: The Just Scalep. 260
Whole and Half Tone Intervalsp. 263
Names of Intervalsp. 264
Transposing: Why Black Keys?p. 266
Perfection Sacrificed: The Tempered Scalep. 267
Major and Minor Scalesp. 273
The Natural Scalep. 274
Questionsp. 275
Musical Instrumentsp. 275
Structure of Musical Instrumentsp. 275
Excitation Mechanismp. 276
Playing aTunep. 278
Questionsp. 283
Solutions to Problemsp. 284
Indexp. 307
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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