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9780131846616

Physics : Principles with Applications

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780131846616

  • ISBN10:

    0131846612

  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2004-08-30
  • Publisher: SCHOOL GROUP

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Table of Contents

Applications List xii
Preface xiv
Available Supplements and Media xxii
Notes to Students (and Instructors) on the Format xxiv
Color Use: Vectors, Fields, and Symbols xxv
Introduction, Measurement, Estimating
1(18)
The Nature of Science
1(2)
Physics and its Relation to Other Fields
3(1)
Models, Theories, and Laws
4(1)
Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures
5(3)
Units, Standards, and the SI System
8(2)
Converting Units
10(2)
Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating
12(2)
Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis
14(5)
Summary
15(1)
Questions
16(1)
Problems
16(1)
General Problems
17(2)
Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension
19(26)
Reference Frames and Displacement
20(1)
Average Velocity
21(2)
Instantaneous Velocity
23(1)
Acceleration
23(3)
Motion at Constant Acceleration
26(2)
Solving Problems
28(3)
Falling Objects
31(5)
Graphical Analysis of Linear Motion
36(9)
Summary
38(1)
Questions
38(1)
Problems
39(3)
General Problems
42(3)
Kinematics in Two Dimensions; Vectors
45(27)
Vectors and Scalars
45(1)
Addition of Vectors---Graphical Methods
46(2)
Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
48(1)
Adding Vectors by Components
49(5)
Projectile Motion
54(2)
Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion
56(6)
Projectile Motion Is Parabolic
62(1)
Relative Velocity
62(10)
Summary
64(1)
Questions
65(1)
Problems
65(4)
General Problems
69(3)
Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion
72(34)
Force
72(1)
Newton's First Law of Motion
73(2)
Mass
75(1)
Newton's Second Law of Motion
75(2)
Newton's Third Law of Motion
77(3)
Weight---the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force
80(4)
Solving Problems with Newton's Laws: Free-Body Diagrams
84(6)
Problems Involving Friction, Inclines
90(6)
Problem Solving---A General Approach
96(10)
Summary
96(1)
Questions
97(1)
Problems
98(5)
General Problems
103(3)
Circular Motion; Gravitation
106(30)
Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion
106(3)
Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
109(3)
Highway Curves, Banked and Unbanked
112(3)
Nonuniform Circular Motion
115(1)
Centrifugation
116(1)
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
117(4)
Gravity Near the Earth's Surface; Geophysical Applications
121(1)
Satellites and ``Weightlessness''
122(3)
Kepler's Laws and Newton's Synthesis
125(3)
Types of Forces in Nature
128(8)
Summary
128(1)
Questions
129(1)
Problems
130(3)
General Problems
133(3)
Work and Energy
136(31)
Work Done by a Constant Force
137(4)
Work Done by a Varying Force
141(1)
Kinetic Energy, and the Work-Energy Principle
141(3)
Potential Energy
144(4)
Conservative and Nonconservative Forces
148(1)
Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation
149(1)
Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy
150(5)
Other Forms of Energy; Energy Transformations and the Law of Conservation of Energy
155(1)
Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems
156(2)
Power
158(9)
Summary
160(1)
Questions
160(2)
Problems
162(3)
General Problems
165(2)
Linear Momentum
167(27)
Momentum and Its Relation to Force
168(2)
Conservation of Momentum
170(3)
Collisions and Impulse
173(2)
Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions
175(1)
Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
176(2)
Inelastic Collisions
178(1)
Collisions in Two or Three Dimensions
179(3)
Center of Mass (CM)
182(2)
CM for the Human Body
184(1)
Center of Mass and Translational Motion
185(9)
Summary
187(1)
Questions
187(1)
Problems
188(4)
General Problems
192(2)
Rotational Motion
194(32)
Angular Qualities
195(6)
Constant Angular Acceleration
201(1)
Rolling Motion (Without Slipping)
202(1)
Torque
203(3)
Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia
206(2)
Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics
208(2)
Rotational Kinetic Energy
210(3)
Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
213(2)
Vector Nature of Angular Quantities
215(11)
Summary
217(1)
Questions
217(2)
Problems
219(4)
General Problems
223(3)
Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture
226(29)
The Conditions for Equilibrium
227(2)
Solving Statics Problems
229(5)
Applications to Muscles and Joints
234(2)
Stability and Balance
236(1)
Elasticity; Stress and Strain
237(4)
Fracture
241(2)
Spanning a Space: Arches and Domes
243(12)
Summary
246(1)
Questions
246(1)
Problems
247(5)
General Problems
252(3)
Fluids
255(31)
Phases of Matter
255(1)
Density and Specific Gravity
256(1)
Pressure in Fluids
257(2)
Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
259(1)
Pascal's Principle
260(1)
Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer
260(3)
Buoyancy and Archimedes' Principle
263(5)
Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity
268(2)
Bernoulli's Equation
270(2)
Applications of Bernoulli's Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes, Baseballs, and TIA
272(2)
Viscosity
274(1)
Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille's Equation, Blood Flow
275(1)
Surface Tension and Capillarity
276(2)
Pumps, and the Heart
278(8)
Summary
279(1)
Questions
280(1)
Problems
281(3)
General Problems
284(2)
Vibrations and Waves
286(36)
Simple Harmonic Motion
287(2)
Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
289(3)
The Period and Sinusoidal Nature of SHM
292(4)
The Simple Pendulum
296(2)
Damped Harmonic Motion
298(1)
Forced Vibrations; Resonance
299(1)
Wave Motion
300(3)
Types of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal
303(2)
Energy Transported by Waves
305(1)
Intensity Related to Amplitude and Frequency
306(1)
Reflection and Transmission of Waves
307(1)
Interference; Principle of Superposition
308(2)
Standing Waves; Resonance
310(2)
Refraction
312(1)
Diffraction
313(1)
Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave
314(8)
Summary
315(1)
Questions
316(1)
Problems
317(3)
General Problems
320(2)
Sound
322(30)
Characteristics of Sound
322(3)
Intensity of Sound: Decibels
325(3)
The Ear and Its Response; Loudness
328(1)
Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns
329(5)
Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition
334(1)
Interference of Sound Waves; Beats
335(3)
Doppler Effect
338(4)
Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom
342(1)
Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging
343(9)
Summary
345(1)
Questions
346(1)
Problems
347(2)
General Problems
349(3)
Temperature and Kinetic Theory
352(32)
Atomic Theory of Matter
352(2)
Temperature and Thermometers
354(3)
Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
357(1)
Thermal Expansion
357(4)
Thermal Stresses
361(1)
The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature
361(2)
The Ideal Gas Law
363(1)
Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law
364(2)
Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro's Number
366(1)
Kinetic Theory and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature
367(4)
Distribution of Molecular Speeds
371(1)
Real Gases and Changes of Phase
371(2)
Vapor Pressure and Humidity
373(3)
Diffusion
376(8)
Summary
378(1)
Questions
379(1)
Problems
380(2)
General Problems
382(2)
Heat
384(24)
Heat as Energy Transfer
385(1)
Internal Energy
386(1)
Specific Heat
387(1)
Calorimetry---Solving Problems
388(3)
Latent Heat
391(4)
Heat Transfer: Conduction
395(2)
Heat Transfer: Convection
397(2)
Heat Transfer: Radiation
399(9)
Summary
403(1)
Questions
403(1)
Problems
404(2)
General Problems
406(2)
The Laws of Thermodynamics
408(31)
The First Law of Thermodynamics
409(1)
Thermodynamic Processes and the First Law
410(4)
Human Metabolism and the First Law
414(1)
Second Law of Thermodynamics---Introduction
415(1)
Heat Engines
416(5)
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps
421(3)
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
424(2)
Order to Disorder
426(1)
Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death
426(1)
Evolution and Growth; ``Time's Arrow''
427(1)
Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law
428(2)
Thermal Pollution and Global Warming
430(9)
Summary
432(1)
Questions
433(1)
Problems
433(3)
General Problems
436(3)
Electric Charge and Electric Field
439(31)
Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation
440(1)
Electric Charge in the Atom
441(1)
Insulators and Conductors
441(1)
Induced Charge; the Electroscope
442(2)
Coulomb's Law
444(3)
Solving Problems Involving Coulomb's Law and Vectors
447(3)
The Electric Field
450(4)
Field Lines
454(2)
Electric Fields and Conductors
456(1)
Gauss's Law
457(3)
Electric Forces in Molecular Biology: DNA Structure and Replication
460(2)
Photocopy Machines and Computer Printers Use Electrostatics
462(8)
Summary
463(1)
Questions
464(1)
Problems
465(3)
General Problems
468(2)
Electric Potential
470(23)
Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference
470(4)
Relation between Electric Potential and Electric Field
474(1)
Equipotential Lines
474(2)
The Electron Volt, a Unit of Energy
476(1)
Electric Potential Due to Point Charges
476(3)
Potential Due to Electric Dipole; Dipole Moment
479(1)
Capacitance
480(2)
Dielectrics
482(2)
Storage of Electric Energy
484(1)
Cathode Ray Tube: TV and Computer Monitors, Oscilloscope
485(2)
The Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
487(6)
Summary
488(1)
Questions
488(1)
Problems
489(2)
General Problems
491(2)
Electric Currents
493(27)
The Electric Battery
494(2)
Electric Current
496(2)
Ohm's Law: Resistance and Resistors
498(2)
Resistivity
500(2)
Electric Power
502(3)
Power in Household Circuits
505(1)
Alternating Current
506(3)
Microscopic View of Electric Current
509(1)
Superconductivity
510(1)
Electrical Conduction in the Human Nervous System
510(10)
Summary
514(1)
Questions
514(1)
Problems
515(3)
General Problems
518(2)
DC Circuits
520(34)
EMF and Terminal Voltage
520(2)
Resistors in Series and in Parallel
522(6)
Kirchhoff's Rules
528(4)
EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery
532(1)
Circuits Containing Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
533(2)
RC Circuits---Resistor and Capacitor in Series
535(3)
Electric Hazards
538(3)
Ammeters and Voltmeters
541(13)
Summary
545(1)
Questions
545(2)
Problems
547(4)
General Problems
551(3)
Magnetism
554(30)
Magnets and Magnetic Fields
554(3)
Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields
557(1)
Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of B
558(2)
Force on Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field
560(3)
Magnetic Field Due to a Long Straight Wire
563(2)
Force between Two Parallel Wires
565(2)
Solenoids and Electromagnets
567(1)
Ampere's Law
568(2)
Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Moment
570(1)
Applications: Galvanometers, Motors, Loudspeakers
571(1)
Mass Spectrometer
572(1)
Ferromagnetism: Domains and Hysteresis
573(11)
Summary
575(1)
Questions
576(1)
Problems
577(4)
General Problems
581(3)
Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday's Law
584(31)
Induced EMF
584(2)
Faraday's Law of Induction; Lenz's Law
586(4)
EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor
590(1)
Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field
591(1)
Electric Generators
592(1)
Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currents
593(2)
Transformers and Transmission of Power
595(3)
Applications of Induction: Sound Systems, Computer Memory, Seismograph, GFCI
598(2)
Inductance
600(2)
Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
602(1)
LR Circuit
602(1)
AC Circuits and Reactance
603(3)
LRC Series AC Circuit
606(2)
Resonance in AC Circuits
608(7)
Summary
608(1)
Questions
609(1)
Problems
610(3)
General Problems
613(2)
Electromagnetic Waves
615(17)
Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Maxwell's Equations
616(1)
Production of Electromagnetic Waves
617(2)
Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
619(3)
Measuring the Speed of Light
622(1)
Energy in EM Waves
623(2)
Momentum Transfer and Radiation Pressure
625(1)
Radio and Television; Wireless Communication
626(6)
Summary
629(1)
Questions
629(1)
Problems
629(2)
General Problems
631(1)
Light: Geometric Optics
632(32)
The Ray Model of Light
632(1)
Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror
633(2)
Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors
635(7)
Index of Refraction
642(1)
Refraction: Snell's Law
642(3)
Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics
645(2)
Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing
647(3)
The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification
650(4)
Combinations of Lenses
654(2)
The Lensmaker's Equation
656(8)
Summary
656(1)
Questions
657(1)
Problems
658(4)
General Problems
662(2)
The Wave Nature of Light
664(32)
Waves Versus Particles; Huygens' Principle and Diffraction
665(1)
Huygens' Principle and the Law of Refraction
666(2)
Interference---Young's Double-Slit Experiment
668(3)
The Visible Spectrum and Dispersion
671(2)
Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk
673(3)
Diffraction Grating
676(2)
The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy
678(1)
Interference by Thin Films
679(5)
Michelson Interferometer
684(1)
Polarization
684(4)
Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)
688(2)
Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere
690(6)
Summary
690(1)
Questions
691(1)
Problems
692(2)
General Problems
694(2)
Optical Instruments
696(30)
Cameras, Film and Digital
697(4)
The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses
701(3)
Magnifying Glass
704(2)
Telescopes
706(2)
Compound Microscope
708(2)
Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors
710(1)
Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures
711(3)
Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the λ Limit
714(1)
Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification
715(1)
Specialty Microscopes and Contrast
716(1)
X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction
717(1)
X-Ray Imaging and Computed Tomography (CT Scan)
718(8)
Summary
721(1)
Questions
722(1)
Problems
722(3)
General Problems
725(1)
The Special Theory of Relativity
726(28)
Galilean-Newtonian Relativity
727(3)
Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity
730(1)
Simultaneity
731(3)
Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox
734(6)
Length Contraction
740(2)
Four-Dimensional Space-Time
742(1)
Relativistic Momentum and Mass
742(1)
The Ultimate Speed
743(1)
E = mc2; Mass and Energy
744(4)
Relativistic Addition of Velocities
748(1)
The Impact of Special Relativity
748(6)
Summary
749(1)
Questions
750(1)
Problems
751(1)
General Problems
752(2)
Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom
754(32)
Discovery and Properties of the Electron
754(2)
Planck's Quantum Hypothesis; Blackbody Radiation
756(2)
Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect
758(4)
Energy, Mass, and Momentum of a Photon
762(1)
Compton Effect
763(1)
Photon Interactions; Pair Production
764(1)
Wave-Particle Duality; the Principle of Complementarity
765(1)
Wave Nature of Matter
766(2)
Electron Microscopes
768(1)
Early Models of the Atom
769(2)
Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom
771(2)
The Bohr Model
773(7)
de Broglie's Hypothesis Applied to Atoms
780(6)
Summary
781(1)
Questions
782(1)
Problems
782(2)
General Problems
784(2)
Quantum Mechanics of Atoms
786(26)
Quantum Mechanics---A New Theory
787(1)
The Wave Function and Its Interpretation; the Double-Slit Experiment
787(2)
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
789(3)
Philosophic Implications; Probability versus Determinism
792(2)
Quantum-Mechanical View of Atoms
794(1)
Quantum Mechanics of the Hydrogen Atom; Quantum Numbers
794(3)
Complex Atoms; the Exclusion Principle
797(1)
The Periodic Table of Elements
798(2)
X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Number
800(2)
Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
802(1)
Lasers
803(3)
Holography
806(6)
Summary
807(1)
Questions
808(1)
Problems
809(1)
General Problems
810(2)
Molecules and Solids
812(23)
Bonding in Molecules
812(3)
Potential-Energy Diagrams for Molecules
815(2)
Weak (van der Waals) Bonds
817(4)
Molecular Spectra
821(3)
Bonding in Solids
824(1)
Band Theory of Solids
825(2)
Semiconductors and Doping
827(1)
Semiconductor Diodes
828(2)
Transistors and Integrated Circuits
830(5)
Summary
831(1)
Questions
832(1)
Problems
832(1)
General Problems
833(2)
Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity
835(28)
Structure and Properties of the Nucleus
835(3)
Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces
838(3)
Radioactivity
841(1)
Alpha Decay
842(3)
Beta Decay
845(2)
Gamma Decay
847(1)
Conservation of Nucleon Number and Other Conservation Laws
848(1)
Half-life and Rate of Decay
848(2)
Calculations Involving Decay Rates and Half-Life
850(2)
Decay Series
852(1)
Radioactive Dating
853(2)
Stability and Tunneling
855(1)
Detection of Radiation
856(7)
Summary
858(1)
Questions
859(1)
Problems
860(1)
General Problems
861(2)
Nuclear Energy; Effects and Uses of Radiation
863(26)
Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements
863(3)
Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors
866(5)
Nuclear Fusion
871(5)
Passage of Radiation Through Matter; Radiation Damage
876(1)
Measurement of Radiation---Dosimetry
877(3)
Radiation Therapy
880(1)
Tracers and Imaging in Research and Medicine
880(1)
Emission Tomography
881(1)
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
882(7)
Summary
885(1)
Questions
885(1)
Problems
886(1)
General Problems
887(2)
Elementary Particles
889(25)
High-Energy Particles and Accelerators
890(5)
Beginnings of Elementary Particle Physics---Particle Exchange
895(3)
Particles and Antiparticles
898(1)
Particle Interactions and Conservation Laws
898(2)
Neutrinos---Recent Results
900(1)
Particle Classification
901(1)
Particle Stability and Resonances
902(1)
Strange Particles? Charm? Maybe a New Model Is Needed!
903(1)
Quarks
904(2)
The ``Standard Model'': Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the Electroweak Theory
906(2)
Grand Unified Theories
908(2)
Strings and Supersymmetry
910(4)
Summary
910(1)
Questions
911(1)
Problems
911(2)
General Problems
913(1)
Astrophysics and Cosmology
914
Stars and Galaxies
915(3)
Stellar Evolution: The Birth and Death of Stars
918(6)
Distance Measurements
924(2)
General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space
926(4)
The Expanding Universe: Redshift and Hubble's Law
930(3)
The Big Bang and the Cosmic Microwave Background
933(3)
The Standard Cosmological Model: the Early History of the Universe
936(3)
Dark Matter and Dark Energy
939(3)
Large-Scale Structure of the Universe
942(1)
Finally . . .
942
Summary
943(1)
Questions
944(1)
Problems
944(1)
General Problems
945
Appendices
A Mathematical Review
1(11)
A-1 Relationships, Proportionality, and Equations
1(1)
A-2 Exponents
2(1)
A-3 Powers of 10, or Exponential Notation
3(1)
A-4 Algebra
3(3)
A-5 The Binomial Expansion
6(1)
A-6 Plane Geometry
7(1)
A-7 Trigonometric Functions and Identities
8(2)
A-8 Logarithms
10(2)
B Selected Isotopes
12(4)
C Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces; Coriolis Effect
16(4)
D Molar Specific Heats for Gases, and the Equipartition of Energy
20(3)
E Galilean and Lorentz Transformations
23(4)
Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems 27(15)
Index 42(15)
Photo Credits 57

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