Pioneers of European Integration and Peace, 1945-1963 : A Brief History with Documents

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-02-02
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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After the devastation of the Second World War, Western European leaders worked together to achieve what had eluded their predecessors after World War I: a lasting peace. Between 1945 and 1963, visionary men such as France's Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman, Belgium's Paul-Henri Spaak, and West Germany's Konrad Adenauer laid the foundation for the creation of the European Union. In so doing, they inaugurated what has been a sixty-year period of peace and increasing cooperation among nations that had engaged each other repeatedly in warfare. Sherrill Brown Wells's collection of primary documents takes students through the evolution of European integration in the critical early years. Her cogent introduction describes the thinking and motivations of the most influential pioneers of European integration. Document headnotes, a glossary of acronyms and key figures, a chronology, questions for consideration, and a selected bibliography offer additional pedagogical support.

Author Biography

SHERRILL BROWN WELLS (Ph.D., University of London) has been a professorial lecturer in history and international affairs at the Elliott School of International Affairs of George Washington University since 1992. She was a visiting professor at l'Institut d'Etudes Politiques in Paris in 2004 and has taught history at Rutgers and North Carolina State University. As a senior historian at the Department of State from 1979–1991, she was the editor of the Department of State's American Foreign Policy: Current Documents series and a volume editor of the Foreign Relations of the United States series. She is also the author of French Industrial Policy: A History, 1945–1981.

Table of Contents

  List of Maps and Illustrations
Introduction: The Pioneers of European Integration
    War's Aftermath: Plans for Peace, Cold War, and Reconstruction

The Marshall Plan

Revitalizing the French Economy

Integration Schemes Proliferate

    French-German Rapprochement
    The European Coal and Steel Community: A Supranational

    The Failure of the Idea of a European Defense Community

The Impact of the ECSC

Increased Commitments to European Integration

The Road to Closer Union

Negotiating the Treaties of Rome

The European Economic Community

De Gaulle and the EEC

The British Application to Join the EEC
    "Ever Closer Union": The EEC to EU, 1963–2006
The Documents
  1. War's Aftermath: Plans for Peace, Cold War, and Reconstruction
       1. Altiero Spinelli, The State of Federalism in June 1945, June 17, 1945
       2. Raymond Aron, "If France Does Not Recover…What Hope Is There for Europe?" July 1945
       3. Jean Monnet, "The French Economy Can’t Be Transformed Unless the French People Take Part ... in an Investment and Modernization Plan," August 1945
       4. Winston Churchill, Iron Curtain Speech, March 5, 1946
       5. Winston Churchill, United States of Europe Speech, September 19, 1946
       6. Harry Truman, The Truman Doctrine, March 12, 1947
       7. George C. Marshall, "The World Situation Is Very Serious," June 5, 1947
       8. Andrei Vyshinsky, Criticism of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan, September 18, 1947
       9. Robert Marjolin, The Design and Goals of the Monnet Plan, 1946–1948
       10. Ernest Bevin, The Need for a Western Defensive Alliance, January 22, 1948
       11. Robert Marjolin, OEEC’s Role: Promoting European Cooperation, April 1948
       12. Jean Monnet, Europe Must Build "a True Western Federation," April 18, 1948
       13. Jean Monnet, "I Saw Our Policy towards Germany Beginning to Slip Back into Its Old Ways," April 1948
       14. Paul-Henri Spaak, The Congress of Europe, May 7–11, 1948
       15. Alcide De Gasperi, The Approach toward the Political and Economic Union of Europe Must Be Gradual, "Genuine, and Lasting," February 20, 1950

2. French-German Rapprochement
      16. Jean Monnet, "France’s Continued Recovery Will Come to a Halt Unless We Rapidly Solve the Problem of German Industrial Production and Its Competitive Capacity," May 3, 1950
       17. Robert Schuman, The Schuman Declaration, May 9, 1950

  • John Foster Dulles, The Schuman Plan’s "Conception Is Brilliantly Creative," May 10, 1950

  • Jean Monnet, Meeting with Adenauer: Sharing Identical Views, May 23, 1950

  • Paul-Henri Spaak, Enthusiastic Support for the Schuman Plan, August 1950

  • Jean Monnet, "The Schuman Proposals Are Revolutionary," August 1950

  • Jean Monnet, Seeds of the Pleven Plan, September 16, 1950

  • René Pleven, Pleven Plan for a European Defense Community (EDC), October 24, 1950

  • Dwight Eisenhower, A Call for Political Unity and the Economic Integration of Western Europe, July 3, 1951

  • Johan Willem Beyen, Beyen Plan to Establish a Customs Union, December 11, 1952

  • John Foster Dulles, Alarmed by French Rejection of the European Defense Community Treaty, August 31, 1954

    3. The Road to Closer Union and the Treaties of Rome

  • The Messina Declaration, June 1–2, 1955

  • Jean Monnet, A United Europe Would Stabilize East-West Relations, June 16, 1955

  • Jean Monnet, Action Committee for the United States of Europe, October 6, 1955

  • Jean Monnet, "The Spearhead" for European Unity Must Be "the Peaceful Atom," January 1956

  • Konrad Adenauer, Unreserved German Support for European Integration, January 19, 1956

  • John Foster Dulles, Strong U.S. Support for Euratom and Common Market Proposals, January 26, 1956

  • Robert Marjolin, French Officialdom: Main Obstacle in Rome Treaty Negotiations, 1956–March 1957

  • Paul-Henri Spaak, Rome Treaty Negotiations as First Stage of a Political Revolution, 1956–March 1957

    4. De Gaulle, the European Economic Community,

    and the French-German Treaty

  • Charles de Gaulle, A Europe of States, May 15, 1962

  • John F. Kennedy, Declaration of Interdependence Speech, July 4, 1962

  • Harold Macmillan, Britain’s Decision to Join the European Economic Community, September 10, 1962

  • Charles de Gaulle, Veto of British Application for EEC Membership, January 14, 1963

  • Charles de Gaulle and Konrad Adenauer, Common

    Declaration of the French-German Treaty,

    January 22, 1963

  • John F. Kennedy, "We Have to Live with de Gaulle," January 22, 1963

  • Walter Hallstein, "The European Community ... Is a Process of Continuous Creation," March 2, 1963

  • Konrad Adenauer, Without French-German Reconciliation, "Europe Is Unthinkable," July 2, 1963



    Glossary of Acronyms and Terms

    Glossary of Key People

    A Chronology of European Integration (1945–1963)

    Questions for Consideration

    Selected Bibliography

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