Police Corruption: Preventing Misconduct and Maintaining Integrity

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-03-27
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Designed for administrators at all levels, this book presents proven strategies to prevent police corruption and to maintain an ethical culture in policing. Written by a leading international authority, this text describes diverse types of police misconduct, as well as their impact. It establishes ethical principles that police should follow, provides ways to identify misconduct, and discusses various strategies for managing integrity, including alternative strategies for dealing with misconduct. Bringing together four decades of research and work in the field,the author also addresses such key topics as ethical leadership, independent external oversight bodies, and early warning systems.

Table of Contents

Series Prefacep. xiii
Forewordp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
About the Authorp. xxi
The Misconduct Problem in Policingp. 1
Historical Backgroundp. 1
Major Judicial Inquiries and Associated Corruption Casesp. 3
Academic Researchp. 7
Notorious Casesp. 8
The Irish Miscarriages of Justice Casesp. 9
Ruby Ridgep. 9
Abner Louimap. 10
The Dutroux Affairp. 10
Police Death Squadsp. 10
"Mafia Cops"p. 11
The Problem of Ambiguityp. 11
Conclusionp. 13
Understanding Police Misconductp. 15
Categorizing Police Misconductp. 15
Impactsp. 17
Causes of Police Misconductp. 20
Structurep. 20
Culturep. 23
Conclusionp. 25
Setting Standardsp. 27
The Importance of Police Ethicsp. 27
Police Powersp. 28
Police Legitimacyp. 29
Police Legitimacy and Ethical Policing in Unequal or Nondemocratic Societiesp. 30
Constabulary Independence and the Separation of Powersp. 33
The Role of Codes of Ethicsp. 33
Discretionp. 34
Due Process, Including Deception and Entrapmentp. 35
Torturep. 36
Graftp. 38
Loyalty and Whistle-Blowingp. 38
Gratuitiesp. 40
Confidentialityp. 41
Forcep. 41
Cooperation Between Policing Agenciesp. 43
Custody Requirementsp. 44
Striking and Moonlightingp. 44
Personal Conductp. 45
Conclusionp. 45
Measuring Misconduct and Integrityp. 47
Inquiriesp. 48
The Pressp. 49
Citizen Action Groups and Integrated Methodsp. 49
Complaints and Discipline Datap. 50
Surveys and Interviewsp. 54
Defendant Surveysp. 54
Public Confidence Surveysp. 56
Police Surveysp. 57
Police Ethical Climate Surveysp. 58
Legal Professionalsp. 60
Litigationp. 60
Incident Datap. 61
System Auditsp. 61
Integrity System Assessmentsp. 62
Conclusionp. 63
Recruitment and Trainingp. 65
Backgroundp. 65
Promotional Materialp. 67
Criminal History Checksp. 67
Refereesp. 68
Panel Interviewsp. 68
Personality and Psychological Testingp. 69
A Recruitment Integrity Committeep. 70
Nondiscriminatory Recruitment, Affirmative Action, and Women Policep. 70
Polygraph Testingp. 72
Illicit-Drug Testingp. 72
Home Visitsp. 73
Intelligence Checks on Associatesp. 73
Character Checking in Recruit Training and Probationary Programsp. 73
Higher Recruitment Agep. 74
Personal Financial Checkingp. 74
Recruit Training and Education in Ethicsp. 74
Higher Educational Standardsp. 76
In-Service Training and Educationp. 77
Conclusionp. 78
An Advanced Complaints and Discipline Systemp. 79
Backgroundp. 80
Complaints and Disciplinep. 81
Key Elements of an Advanced Complaints and Discipline Systemp. 83
Discipline Systemp. 83
A Professional Standards Unitp. 83
Mandatory Police Reporting and Whistle-Blower Protection and Supportp. 84
Receptionp. 85
Case Assessment and Allocationp. 86
Quality Investigationsp. 87
Final Outcomesp. 90
Inquisitorial Methods and Administrative Authorityp. 91
Officer Rightsp. 93
A Disciplinary Matrixp. 93
Alternative Responsesp. 94
Advanced Techniquesp. 94
Responding to Vexatious Complaintsp. 94
Quality Controlp. 95
Conclusionp. 96
Alternative Dispute Resolutionp. 97
The ADR Movementp. 97
ADR for Complaints Against Policep. 99
Mediationp. 99
Informal Resolutionp. 100
Managerial Resolutionp. 101
Evaluations of ADR for Complaints Against Policep. 101
Quality Control, Intelligence, and Behavioral Changep. 108
Conclusionp. 112
System Controls and Risk Managementp. 113
Backgroundp. 113
Strategic Intelligencep. 114
Complaintsp. 115
Principles of Complaint Profiling and Early Interventionp. 119
Individual Profiling: Some Case Studiesp. 121
The Victoria Police Early Intervention Systemp. 123
Early Intervention: Unit Profilesp. 124
Broader Risk Management and Threat Assessmentsp. 126
High-Speed Pursuitsp. 127
Data Access Controls and Data Trailsp. 127
Informant Managementp. 128
Due Process in Investigations and Prosecutionsp. 128
Corruption Hazards and Rotation of Personnelp. 130
Miscellaneous Areas of High Riskp. 130
Raidsp. 130
Public Order Policingp. 131
Theft of Propertyp. 131
Intelligence Gathering for Investigations and Covert Operationsp. 131
Maintaining Momentum and Maximizing Yieldsp. 132
Conclusionp. 133
Advanced Techniquesp. 135
Backgroundp. 135
Integrity Testingp. 136
Targeted and Random Testsp. 137
Legal and Ethical Issuesp. 139
Associated Issuesp. 141
Drug and Alcohol Testingp. 141
Covert Surveillancep. 143
Undercover Agentsp. 145
Financial Audits and Indirect Incapacitation Strategiesp. 148
Witness Protection Programsp. 149
Conclusionp. 150
External Oversightp. 153
Backgroundp. 153
Stakeholder Perspectivesp. 154
Inquiriesp. 154
Oversight Agenciesp. 157
Complainantsp. 158
Police Perspectivesp. 160
Public Opinionp. 161
Civil Liberties Groupsp. 162
Government Reviewsp. 163
The Performance of External Agenciesp. 164
A Model Oversight Systemp. 170
Conclusionp. 172
Leadership for Integrityp. 175
Backgroundp. 175
Types of Leadershipp. 177
Assessing the Impacts of Ethical Leadershipp. 178
Overcoming the Internal Cultural Dividep. 182
Ethical Leadership and Integrity Mechanismsp. 183
Selection and Education of Ethical Leadersp. 184
Ethical Leadership and the Compstat Modelp. 185
Police Union Leadersp. 186
Conclusionp. 188
Referencesp. 189
Indexp. 205
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