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9780072895391

Politics Among Nations

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780072895391

  • ISBN10:

    007289539X

  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-04-19
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

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Summary

"Hans Morgenthau's classic text established realism as the fundamental way of thinking about international relations. Although realism has had its critics, the fact that Politics Among Nations continues to be used in international relations courses attests to its enduring value. Someone has said that the study of international relations has for half a century been nothing so much as a dialogue between Morgenthau, those who embrace his approach, and those who turn elsewhere for enlightenment. After more than 50 years, the dialogue between Morgenthau's ideas and scholars from around the world continues, with even greater relevance in a time where international terrorism has become the focal point in the field of international relations." "The new edition preserves Morgenthau's original work while adding an extensive, 40-page introduction by the editors, who explore the relevance of Politics Among Nations for a new era. The perspectives of a dozen statesmen, scholars, and observers follow Morgenthau's seminal work, each offering important insights on Morgenthau's concepts and ideas as they relate to current crises and global challenges."--BOOK JACKET.

Table of Contents

Preface v
Foreword xvii
PART ONE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF INTERNATIONAL POLITICS
1(26)
A Realist Theory of International Politics
3(14)
Six Principles of Political Realism
4(13)
The Science of International Politics
17(10)
Understanding International Politics
17(7)
Different Approaches
17(2)
Limitations to Understanding
19(5)
Understanding the Problem of International Peace
24(3)
PART TWO INTERNATIONAL POLITICS AS A STRUGGLE FOR POWER
27(84)
Political Power
29(21)
What Is Political Power?
29(6)
As Means to the Nation's Ends
29(1)
Its Nature: Four Distinctions
30(5)
The Depreciation of Political Power
35(3)
Two Roots of the Depreciation of Political Power
38(3)
Nineteenth-Century Philosophy
39(1)
The American Experience
39(2)
The Science of Peace: Contemporary Utopianism
41(9)
The Struggle for Power: Policy of the Status QUO
50(6)
The Struggle for Power: Imperialism
56(27)
What Imperialism Is Not
56(3)
Economic Theories of Imperialism
59(5)
The Marxist, Liberal, and ``Devil'' Theories of Imperialism
59(2)
Criticism of These Theories
61(3)
Different Types of Imperialism
64(10)
Three Inducements to Imperialism
65(1)
Victorious War
65(1)
Lost War
65(1)
Weakness
66(1)
Three Goals of Imperialism
66(1)
World Empire
67(1)
Continental Empire
67(1)
Local Preponderance
68(1)
Three Methods of Imperialism
69(1)
Military Imperialism
69(1)
Economic Imperialism
70(4)
How to Detect and Counter an Imperialistic Policy
74(9)
The Problem of Policy: Containment, Appeasement, Fear
75(4)
The Problem of Detection
79(4)
The Struggle for Power: Policy of Prestige
83(14)
Diplomatic Ceremonial
84(5)
Display of Military Force
89(1)
Two Objectives of the Policy of Prestige
90(3)
Three Corruptions of the Policy of Prestige
93(4)
The Ideological Element in International Policies
97(14)
The Nature of Political Ideologies
97(3)
Typical Ideologies of Foreign Policies
100(8)
Ideologies of the Status Quo
100(2)
Ideologies of Imperialism
102(4)
Ambiguous Ideologies
106(2)
The Problem of Recognition
108(3)
PART THREE NATIONAL POWER
111(66)
The Essence of National Power
113(9)
What Is National Power?
113(3)
Roots of Modern Nationalism
116(6)
Retreat from Nationalism: Apparent and Real
116(2)
Personal Insecurity and Social Disintegration
118(4)
Elements of National Power
122(41)
Geography
122(2)
Natural Resources
124(7)
Food
124(2)
Raw Materials
126(1)
The Power of Oil
127(4)
Industrial Capacity
131(2)
Military Preparedness
133(4)
Technology
133(2)
Leadership
135(1)
Quantity and Quality of Armed Forces
136(1)
Population
137(3)
Distribution
137(2)
Trends
139(1)
National Character
140(7)
Its Existence
140(2)
The Russian National Character
142(3)
National Character and National Power
145(2)
National Morale
147(5)
Its Instability
147(2)
The Quality of Society and Government as Decisive Factors
149(3)
The Quality of Diplomacy
152(4)
The Quality of Government
156(7)
The Problem of Balance Between Resources and Policy
156(1)
The Problem of Balance Among Resources
157(1)
The Problem of Popular Support
158(4)
Domestic Government and Foreign Policy
162(1)
Evaluation of National Power
163(14)
The Task of Evaluation
163(3)
Typical Errors of Evaluation
166(11)
The Absolute Character of Power
166(2)
The Permanent Character of Power
168(2)
The Fallacy of the Single Factor
170(1)
Geopolitics
170(1)
Nationalism
171(2)
Militarism
173(4)
PART FOUR LIMITATIONS OF NATIONAL POWER: The Balance of Power
177(56)
The Balance of Power
179(11)
Social Equilibrium
179(5)
Balance of Power as Universal Concept
179(2)
Balance of Power in Domestic Politics
181(3)
Two Main Patterns of the Balance of Power
184(6)
The Pattern of Direct Opposition
184(2)
The Pattern of Competition
186(3)
Korea and the Balance of Power
189(1)
Different Methods of the Balance of Power
190(19)
Divide and Rule
190(1)
Compensations
191(1)
Armaments
192(1)
Alliances
193(11)
The General Nature of Alliances
193(5)
Alliances vs. World Domination
198(2)
Alliances vs. Counteralliances
200(4)
The ``Holder'' of the Balance
204(5)
The Structure of the Balance of Power
209(4)
Dominant and Dependent Systems
209(2)
Structural Changes in the Balance of Power
211(2)
Evaluation of the Balance of Power
213(20)
The Uncertainty of the Balance of Power
214(4)
The Unreality of the Balance of Power
218(6)
The Balance of Power as Ideology
222(2)
The Inadequacy of the Balance of Power
224(9)
Restraining Influence of a Moral Consensus
224(4)
Moral Consensus of the Modern State System
228(5)
PART FIVE LIMITATIONS OF NATIONAL POWER: International Morality and World Public Opinion
233(48)
Morality, Mores, and Law as Restraints on Power
235(5)
International Morality
240(30)
The Protection of Human Life
241(10)
Protection of Human Life in Peace
241(3)
Protection of Human Life in War
244(3)
Moral Condemnation of War
247(1)
International Morality and Total War
248(3)
Universal Morality vs. Nationalistic Universalism
251(19)
Personal Ethics of the Aristocratic International
251(4)
Destruction of International Morality
255(2)
Destruction of International Society
257(2)
Victory of Nationalism over Internationalism
259(2)
Transformation of Nationalism
261(4)
Human Rights and International Morality
265(5)
World Public Opinion
270(11)
Psychological Unity of the World
272(1)
Ambiguity of Technological Unification
273(2)
The Barrier of Nationalism
275(6)
PART SIX LIMITATIONS OF NATIONAL POWER International Law
281(54)
The Main Problems of International Law
283(34)
The General Nature of International Law
283(3)
The Legislative Function in International Law
286(6)
Its Decentralized Character
286(3)
Interpretation and Binding Force
289(3)
The Judicial Function in International Law
292(8)
Compulsory Jurisdiction
293(1)
The Optional Clause
294(3)
International Courts
297(2)
The Effect of Judicial Decisions
299(1)
The Enforcement of International Law
300(17)
Its Decentralized Character
300(3)
Treaties of Guaranty
303(1)
Collective Security
304(1)
Article 16 of the Covenant of the League of Nations
305(4)
Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations
309(3)
The Veto
312(2)
The ``Uniting for Peace'' Resolution
314(3)
Sovereignty
317(18)
The General Nature of Sovereignty
317(2)
Synonyms of Sovereignty: Independence, Equality, Unanimity
319(2)
What Sovereignty Is Not
321(1)
How Sovereignty Is Lost
322(7)
Majority Vote in International Organizations
326(3)
Is Sovereignty Divisible?
329(6)
PART SEVEN INTERNATIONAL POLITICS IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD
335(64)
The New Moral Force of Nationalistic Universalism
337(10)
Nationalism, Old and New
337(2)
The Struggle for the Minds of Men
339(2)
Three Principles of Propaganda
341(6)
The New Balance of Power
347(30)
Inflexibility of the New Balance of Power
347(4)
Numerical Reduction of Great Powers
347(2)
The Bipolarity of Power
349(1)
The Tendency Toward a Two-Bloc System
350(1)
Disappearance of the Balancer
351(3)
The Problem of a ``Third Force''
352(2)
Disappearance of the Colonial Frontier
354(3)
The Colonial Revolution
357(1)
The Decline of the West
358(5)
Potentialities of the Bipolar System
363(14)
The Possibility of Its Breakup
363(1)
Continuation of the Cold War
364(2)
The New Diplomacy of Movement
366(4)
Detente and Peaceful Coexistence
370(7)
Total War
377(22)
War of Total Populations
379(3)
War by Total Populations
382(1)
War Against Total Populations
383(1)
The Mechanization of Warfare
384(5)
The Mechanization of Weapons
385(3)
The Mechanization of Transportation and Communications
388(1)
War for Total Stakes
389(3)
Total Mechanization, Total War, and Total Dominion
392(7)
PART EIGHT THE PROBLEM OF PEACE Peace Through Limitation
399(104)
Disarmament
401(33)
The Problem of Peace in Our Time
401(2)
The History of Disarmament
403(5)
The Failures
404(3)
The Successes
407(1)
Four Problems of Disarmament
408(15)
The Ratio
408(4)
The World Disarmament Conference
412(1)
Disarmament Negotiations Since the Second World War
413(1)
Standards of Allocation
414(3)
Does Disarmament Mean Reduction of Armaments?
417(2)
Does Disarmament Mean Peace?
419(4)
Arms Control in the Nuclear Age
423(11)
Security
434(12)
Collective Security
434(9)
The Italo-Ethiopian War
440(1)
The Korean War
441(2)
An International Police Force
443(3)
Judicial Settlement
446(9)
The Nature of the Judicial Function
446(2)
The Nature of International Conflicts: Tensions and Disputes
448(4)
Pure Disputes
449(1)
Disputes with the Substance of a Tension
449(1)
Disputes Representing a Tension
450(2)
Limitations of the Judicial Function
452(3)
Peaceful Change
455(8)
Peaceful Change Within the State
455(4)
Peaceful Change in International Affairs
459(4)
Article 19 of the Covenant of the League of Nations
460(1)
The Charter of the United Nations
461(2)
International Government
463(20)
The Holy Alliance
463(8)
History
463(2)
Government by the Great Powers
465(1)
Dual Meaning of the Status Quo
466(1)
Peace, Order, and the National Interest
467(3)
The Concert of Europe
470(1)
The League of Nations
471(12)
Organization
472(2)
Dual Meaning of the Status Quo: France vs. Great Britain
474(2)
Three Weaknesses of the League of Nations
476(1)
Constitutional Weakness
477(1)
Structural Weakness
478(2)
Political Weakness
480(3)
International Government: the United Nations
483(20)
The United Nations According to the Charter
483(4)
Government by Superpowers
483(3)
Undefined Principles of Justice
486(1)
The United Nations---Political Reality
487(13)
The Rise and Decline of the General Assembly
487(11)
New Procedures
498(2)
The United Nations and the Problem of Peace
500(3)
PART NINE THE PROBLEM OF PEACE Peace Through Transformation
503(34)
The World State
505(16)
Conditions of Domestic Peace
506(6)
Suprasectional Loyalties
506(2)
Expectation of Justice
508(1)
Overwhelming Power
509(1)
The Role of the State
510(2)
The Problem of the World State
512(4)
Two Schools of Thought
513(1)
The Triple Test of Popular Support
514(2)
Two False Solutions
516(5)
World Conquest
517(1)
The Examples of Switzerland and the United States
518(3)
The World Community
521(16)
The Cultural Approach: Unesco
521(5)
Cultural Development and Peace
523(1)
Cultural Unity and Peace
523(1)
International Understanding and Peace
524(2)
The Functional Approach
526(11)
The Specialized Agencies of the United Nations
526(4)
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
530(2)
The European Communities
532(2)
Agencies for Economic and Technical Assistance
534(3)
PART TEN THE PROBLEM OF PEACE Peace Through Accommodation
537(32)
Diplomacy
539(12)
Four Tasks of Diplomacy
539(2)
Instruments of Diplomacy
541(4)
Symbolic Representation
542(1)
Legal Representation
543(1)
Political Representation
543(2)
The Decline of Diplomacy
545(6)
The Development of Communications
545(1)
The Depreciation of Diplomacy
546(1)
Diplomacy by Parliamentary Procedures
547(1)
The Superpowers: Newcomers to Diplomacy
548(1)
The Nature of Contemporary World Politics
549(2)
The Future of Diplomacy
551(18)
How Can Diplomacy Be Revived?
551(7)
The Vice of Publicity
551(3)
The Vice of Majority Decision
554(2)
The Vice of Fragmentation
556(2)
The Promise of Diplomacy: Its Nine Rules
558(8)
Four Fundamental Rules
559(4)
Five Prerequisites of Compromise
563(3)
Conclusion
566(3)
APPENDIX A UPDATING REALISM FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
569(59)
The False Promise of International Institutions
569(16)
John J. Mearsheimer
Realist Constructivism
585(16)
J. Samuel Barkin
The English School vs. American Realism: A Meeting of Minds or Divided by a Common Language?
601(6)
Richard Little
Morgenthau: Politics as the Struggle for Power
607(9)
Ashley Tellis
An Iraq Retrospect
616(5)
Admiral William J. Crowe, Jr.
New Departures in the Philosophies of International Politics
621(1)
General Brent Scowcroft
Did the United States Win the Cold War?
622(6)
Ambassador David D. Newson
APPENDIX B CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS
628(21)
Bibliography 649(24)
Historical Glossary 673(16)
Index 689

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