9781319194451

Practical Argument A Text and Anthology

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  • ISBN13:

    9781319194451

  • ISBN10:

    1319194451

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2019-10-07
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Summary

More than ever, successful argumentation is a major part of academic success—and has plenty of real-world application. But students don’t benefit when they are bogged down with technical jargon and abstraction. That’s where Practical Argument comes in.


Bestselling authors Laurie Kirszner and Stephen Mandell make argumentative writing accessible with a scaffolded, step-by-step approach to convey what students need to know about argument, in understandable language. The Fourth Edition includes an even more contemporary and diverse array of readings, as well as new coverage of the kinds of visual arguments students are likely to encounter in their everyday lives.

Table of Contents

Part 1—Understanding Argument


An Introduction to Argument


Recognizing Arguments


Why Instructors Assign Argument [box]


Defining Argument


What Kinds of Statements Are Not Debatable? [box]


Arguments in Real Life


Winning and Losing Arguments


The Rhetorical Situation


Considering the Writer


Considering the Purpose


Considering the Audience


Considering the Question


Considering the Context


Logos, Pathos, and Ethos


The Appeal to Reason (logos)


Logos in Action


The Appeal to the Emotions (pathos)


Pathos in Action


The Appeal to Authority (ethos)


Ethos in Action


The Rhetorical Triangle



1—The Four Pillars of Argument


AT ISSUE: Is a College Education Worth the Money?


The Elements of Argument


Thesis Statement


Evidence


Refutation


Concluding Statement


Checklist: Does Your Argument Stand Up?


Nia Tuckson, Why Foreign-Language Study Should Be Required [student essay]


*Andy Kessler, Learn a Language, But Not a Human One


READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Is a College Education Worth the Money?


*Derek Tharp, Is College Worth It? The Answer Isn’t as Simple as You Think


Marty Nemko, We Send Too Many Students to College


Jennie Le, What Does It Mean to Be a College Grad?


*Bryan Caplan, What’s College Good For?


Mary C. Daly and Leila Bengali, Is It Still Worth Going to College?


*University of the People, Does College Still Matter in 2018?



Part 2—Reading and Responding to Arguments


2—Thinking and Reading Critically


AT ISSUE: Does Recycling Really Accomplish Anything?


Using Critical-Thinking Skills [box]


Reading Critically


Guidelines for Reading Critically [box]


Becoming an Active Reader


Previewing


Close Reading


Comprehension Clues [box]


*John Tierney, The Reign of Recycling


Highlighting


Suggestions for Highlighting [box]


Annotating


Checklist: Questions for Annotating


*Los Angeles Times, It’s Time to Phase Out All Single-Use Plastic


*Bob Holmes, Waste Not…


*Jenny Luna, We Are So Forked


Writing a Critical Response


Checklist: Questions for Critical Reading


*Neena Thomason, Response to "It’s Time To Phase Out All Single-Use Plastic" [student response]


Template for Writing a Critical Response



3—Reading and Responding to Visual Arguments


AT ISSUE: Does Recycling Really Accomplish Anything? [continued]


Thinking Critically about Visual Arguments


Visuals versus Visual Arguments [box]


Using Active Reading Strategies with Visual Arguments


Comprehension Clues [box]


Appeals: Logos, Pathos, and Ethos [box]


National Geographic Cover [visual]


Recycling Bar Graph [graphs]


Bird Trapped in Plastic [photo]


Recycling cartoon [cartoon]


Waste Pie Chart [chart]


Straws Suck! [infographic]


What Goes in the Ocean Goes in You [advertisement]


Last Earth Day [advertisement]


Responding Critically to Visual Arguments


Checklist: Questions for Responding to Visual Arguments


What Goes in the Ocean Goes in You [student response]


Template for Responding to Visual Arguments



4—Writing a Rhetorical Analysis


AT ISSUE: Is It Ethical to Buy Counterfeit Designer Merchandise?


What Is a Rhetorical Analysis?


Overview: "Letter from Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King Jr. [box]


Considering the Rhetorical Situation


Analyzing the Rhetorical Situation [box]


The Writer


Analyzing the Writer [box]


The Writer’s Purpose


Analyzing the Writer’s Purpose [box]


The Writer’s Audience


Analyzing the Writer’s Audience [box]


The Question


Analyzing the Question [box]


The Context


Analyzing the Context [box]


Considering the Means of Persuasion: Logos, Pathos, Ethos


The Appeal to Reason (logos)


The Appeal to the Emotions (pathos)


The Appeal to Authority (ethos)


Considering the Writer’s Rhetorical Strategies


Thesis


Organization


Evidence


Stylistic Techniques


Assessing the Argument


Checklist: Preparing to Write a Rhetorical Analysis


Sample Rhetorical Analysis


Dana Thomas, Terror's Purse Strings


Deniz Bilgutay, A Powerful Call to Action [student essay]


Rajeev Ravisankar, Sweatshop Oppression


Template for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis


*Jerome Sieger, Sweatshops Are Good



5—Understanding Logic and Recognizing Logical Fallacies


AT ISSUE: How Free Should Free Speech Be?


What Is Deductive Reasoning?


Constructing Sound Syllogisms


Syllogism with an Illogical Middle Term


Syllogism with a Key Term Whose Meaning Shifts


Syllogisms with Negative Premise


Recognizing Enthymemes


Bumper-Sticker Thinking [box]


Writing Deductive Arguments


Crystal Sanchez, College Should Be for Everyone [student essay]


What Is Inductive Reasoning?


Reaching Inductive Conclusions [box]


Making Inferences


Constructing Strong Inductive Arguments


Generalization Too Broad


Insufficient Evidence


Irrelevant Evidence


Exceptions to the Rule


Writing Inductive Arguments


William Saletan, Please Do Not Feed the Humans


Recognizing Logical Fallacies


Begging the Question


Circular Reasoning


Weak Analogy


Ad Hominem Fallacy (Personal Attack)


Creating a Straw Man


Hasty or Sweeping Generalization (Jumping to a Conclusion)


Either/Or Fallacy (False Dilemma)


Equivocation


Red Herring


Slippery Slope


You Also (Tu Quoque)


Appeal to Doubtful Authority


Misuse of Statistics


Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (After This, Therefore Because of This)


Non Sequitur (It Does Not Follow)


Bandwagon Fallacy


Patrick J. Buchanan, Immigration Time-Out


READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: How Free Should Free Speech Be?


*Thane Rosenbaum, Should Neo-Nazis Be Allowed Free Speech?


*Sol Stern, The Unfree Speech Movement


*American Association of University Professors, On Freedom of Expression and Campus Speech Codes


*Wendy Kaminer, Progressive Ideas Have Killed Free Speech on Campus


*Judith Shulevitz, In College and Hiding from Scary Ideas


*Eric Posner, Universities Are Right to Crack Down on Speech and Behavior


Template for Writing a Deductive Argument


Template for Writing an Inductive Argument



6—Rogerian Argument, Toulmin Logic, and Oral Arguments


AT ISSUE: Why Are So Few Women in STEM Fields?


Understanding Rogerian Argument


Structuring Rogerian Arguments


Writing Rogerian Arguments


Zoya Kahn, Why Cell Phones Do Not Belong in the Classroom [student essay]


Understanding Toulmin Logic


Constructing Toulmin Arguments


Writing Toulmin Arguments


Jen Davis, Competitive Cheerleaders Are Athletes [student essay]


Understanding Oral Arguments


Planning an Oral Argument


Checklist: Designing and Displaying Visuals


Delivering Oral Arguments


Dealing with Nervousness [box]


Composing an Oral Argument


Chantee Steele, An Argument in Support of the "Gap Year" [student speech]


READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Why Are So Few Women in STEM Fields?


**Olivia Nicholas, **What Are You Going to Do with That Major?*


                     **Olga Khazan, **The More Gender Equality, the Fewer Women in STEM*


*Stuart Reges, Why Women Don’t Code


*Rosalind C. Barnett and Caryl Rivers, The Science Doesn’t Support the Google Memo


*Barbara Oakley, Why Do Women Shun STEM? It’s Complicated


Template for Writing a Rogerian Argument


Template for Writing a Toulmin Argument



Part 3—Writing an Argumentative Essay



7—Planning, Drafting, and Revising an Argumentative Essay


AT ISSUE: Should College Campuses Go Green?


Choosing a Topic


Topics to Avoid [box]


Thinking about Your Topic


Freewriting


Brainstorming


Clustering


Informal Outline


Drafting a Thesis Statement


Understanding Your Purpose and Audience


Gathering Evidence


Evaluating the Evidence in Your Sources


Detecting Bias in Your Sources


Using Analogies as Evidence [box]


Refuting Opposing Arguments


Strategies for Refuting Opposing Arguments


Revising Your Thesis Statement


Structuring Your Essay


Supplying Background Information [box]


Using Induction and Deduction


Identifying a Strategy for Your Argument


Constructing a Formal Outline


Establishing Credibility


Being Well-Informed


Being Reasonable


Being Fair


Maintaining Your Credibility [box]


Drafting Your Essay


Suggested Transitions for Argument [box]


GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using Parallelism


Revising Your Essay


Asking Questions


Checklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Purpose and Audience


Checklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Structure and Style


Checklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Supporting Evidence


Using Outlines and Templates


Getting Feedback


Guidelines for Peer Review


Polishing Your Essay


Editing and Proofreading


GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Contractions vs. Possessive Pronouns


Choosing a Title


Checking Format


Shawn Holton, Going Green [student essay]



Part 4—Using Sources to Support Your Argument



8—Finding and Evaluating Sources


AT ISSUE: Is Technology a Serious Threat to Our Privacy?


Finding Sources


Finding Information in the Library


Finding Information on the Internet


Evaluating Sources


*Zeynep Tufekci, The Privacy Debacle


*David N. Cicilline and Terrell McSweeny, Competition is at the Heart of Facebook’s Privacy Problem


*Daniel Lyons, Facebook: Privacy Problems and PR Nightmare


Evaluating Websites


Using a Site’s URL to Assess Its Objectivity [box]


Avoiding Confirmation Bias [box]


*The Chronicle of Higher Education, Home Page [website]


*Glamour Magazine, Home Page [website]


*The Chronicle of Higher Education, About The Chronicle [website]


*Glamour Magazine, About Glamour [website]


*Bart Lazar, Why We Need a Privacy Label on the Internet


*Douglas Rushkoff, You Are Not Facebook’s Customer


*Igor Kuksov, All Ears: The Dangers of Voice Assistants


Sam Laird, Should Athletes Have Social Media Privacy? One Bill Says Yes



9—Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Synthesizing Sources


AT ISSUE: Is Technology a Serious Threat to Our Privacy? (continued)


Summarizing Sources


When to Summarize [box]


Summarizing Sources [box]


Paraphrasing Sources


When to Paraphrase [box]


Paraphrasing Sources [box]


Quoting Sources


When to Quote [box]


Quoting Sources [box]


Shelley Fralic, Don’t Fall for the Myths about Online Privacy


Working Source Material into Your Argument


Using Identifying Tags


Template for Using Identifying Tags [box]


Working Quotations into Your Sentences


Distorting Quotations [box]


Synthesizing Sources



10—Documenting Sources: MLA


Using Parenthetical References


Preparing the Works-Cited List


Periodicals


Books


Audiovisual Sources


Internet Sources


Legal Case


Government Document


MLA Paper Guidelines [box]


Erin Blaine, Should Data Posted on Social Networking Sites Be "Fair Game" for Employers? [Model MLA Paper]



11—Using Sources Responsibly


AT ISSUE: Where Should We Draw the Line with Plagiarism?


Understanding Plagiarism


Two Definitions of Plagiarism [box]


Avoiding Unintentional Plagiarism


Internet Sources and Plagiarism [box]


Intentional Plagiarism [box]


Knowing What to Document


Loos Diallo, Plagiarism Policy [image]


*Erika Ramirez, When Beyonce’s Inspiration Turns Into Imitation


Revising to Eliminate Plagiarism


READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Where Should We Draw the Line with Plagiarism?


Trip Gabriel, Plagiarism Lines Blur for Students in Digital Age


*Jennifer Mott-Smith, Bad Idea about Writing: Plagiarism Deserves to be Punished


Richard A. Posner, The Truth about Plagiarism


*Helen Rubinstein, When Plagiarism is a Plea for Help


Dan Ariely, Essay Mills: A Coarse Lesson in Cheating


Term Papers for Sale Advertisement [Web page]


Template for Writing an Argument about Plagiarism


Writing Assignments: Using Sources Responsibly



Part 5— Strategies for Argument


12—Definition Arguments


AT ISSUE: How Do We Distinguish Between Real News and Misinformation?


What Is a Definition Argument?


Developing Definitions


Dictionary Definitions (Formal Definitions)


Extended Definitions


Operational Definitions


Structuring a Definition Argument


Adam Kennedy, Why I Am a Nontraditional Student [student essay]


GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding "Is Where" and "Is When"


*Ej Garr, Athlete vs. Role Model


Firefighters at Ground Zero [photograph]; The Tuskegee Airmen [photograph]


READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: How Do We Distinguish Between Real News and Misinformation?


*Joanna Burkhardt, History of Fake News


*Jimmy Wales, What Can We Do to Combat Fake News?


*Adrian Chen, The Fake News Fallacy


*Katie Langin, Fake News Spreads Faster than True News


*Lee Leetaru, How Data and Information Literacy Could End Fake News


Template for Writing a Definition Argument


Writing Assignments: Definition Arguments



13—Cause-and-Effect Arguments


AT ISSUE: Does Our Reliance on Social Media Bring Us Together or Drive Us Apart?


What Is a Cause-and-Effect Argument?


Bumper Stickers [photograph]


Understanding Cause-and-Effect Relationships


Main and Contributory Causes


Immediate and Remote Causes


Causal Chains


Key Words for Cause-and-Effect Arguments [box]


Post Hoc Reasoning


Structuring a Cause-and-Effect Argument


Kristina Mialki, Texting: A Boon, Not a Threat, to Language [student essay]


GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding "The reason is because"


Peggy Orenstein, Should the World of Toys Be Gender-Free?


READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Does Our Reliance on Social Media Bring Us Together or Drive Us Apart?


*Laura Bogart, I Don’t Own a Smartphone – and I Don’t Want One


*Dimitiry Kozlov, Social Media: Bringing People Together, Virtually and Physically


*Robert Weiss, Closer Together or Further Apart? Digital Devices and the New Generation Gap


*David Ludden, Does Using Social Media Make You Lonely?


*Wendy Leung, I Quit Facebook and I Miss It


*Sherry Turkle, The Flight from Conversation


Template for Writing a Cause-and-Effect Argument


Writing Assignments: Cause-and-Effect Arguments



14—Evaluation Arguments


AT ISSUE: Do the Benefits of Fossil Fuels Outweigh the Environmental Risks?


What Is an Evaluation Argument?


Making Evaluations [box]


Identifying Bias [box]


Criteria for Evaluation


Structuring an Evaluation Argument


Kevin Murphy, Evaluation of a Website: RateMyProfessors.com [student essay]


GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Comparatives and Superlatives


*Eric Klinenberg, To Restore Civil Society, Start with the Library


READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Do the Benefits of Fracking Outweigh the Environmental Risks?


*Joseph Bast and Peter Ferrara The Social Benefits of Fossil Fuels Far Outweigh the Costs


*Juan Ramos, Fossil Fuels Pros and Cons


*Bernard McNamee, This Earth Day, Let’s Accept the Critical Role That Fossil Fuels Play in Energy Needs


Sean Lennon, Destroying Precious Land for Gas


*Bruno Comby, The Benefits of Nuclear Energy


*Barbara Hurd, Fracking: A Fable


Template for Writing an Evaluation Argument


Writing Assignments: Evaluation Arguments



15—Ethical Arguments


AT ISSUE: How Far Should Schools Go to Keep Students Safe?


What is an Ethical Argument?


Stating an Ethical Principle


Ethics versus Law


Understanding Ethical Dilemmas


Treadlighly.org, Ride Hard, Tread Lightly [advertisement]


*PETA, Adopt, Don’t Buy [advertisement]


Linda Pastan, Ethics [poem]


Structuring an Ethical Argument


Chris Muñoz, Are Colleges Doing Enough for Nontraditional Students? [student essay]


GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Subordination and Coordination


*Shubhankar Chokra, The Ethical Case for Eating Animals


READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: How Far Should Schools Go to Keep Students Safe?


*Evie Blad, Do Schools’ "Active Shooter" Drills Prepare or Frighten?


Timothy Wheeler There’s a Reason They Choose Schools


*Sasha Arbramsky, The Fear Industry Goes Back to Work


*Michael Goldberg, I’m a School Psychologist—and I Think Teachers Should Be Armed


*Vann Newkirk, Arming Educators Violates the Spirit of the Second Amendment


Isothermal Community College, Warning Signs: How You Can Help Prevent Campus Violence


Template for Writing an Ethical Argument


Writing Assignments: Ethical Arguments




16—Proposal Arguments


AT ISSUE: Should the Government Do More to Relieve the Student Loan Burden?


What Is a Proposal Argument?


PETA, Let Vegetarianism Grow on You [advertisement]


Problem Solving Strategies [box]


Stating the Problem


Proposing a Solution


Demonstrating That Your Solution Will Work


Sunshineweek.org, Let the Sunshine In [advertisement]


Establishing Feasibility


Discussing Benefits


Refuting Opposing Arguments


Nyc.gov, It’s Your City. It’s Your Earth. [advertisement]


Bernie Sanders, Medicare for All Is Good for Business


Structuring a Proposal Argument


Melissa Burrell, Colleges Need Honor Codes [student essay]


GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Will versus Would


*Michelle Wu, The Road to Fear-Free Driving in Boston


READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Should the Government Do More to Relieve the Student-Loan Burden?


*Rana Foroohar, The US College Debt Bubble Is Becoming Dangerous


Richard Vedder, Forgive Student Loans?


*Ben Miller, Student Debt: It’s Worse Than We Imagined


Sam Adolphsen, Don’t Blame the Government


Astra Taylor, A Strike against Student Debt


Template for Writing a Proposal Argument


Writing Assignments: Proposal Arguments



Part 5 Review: Combining Argumentative Strategies


*Robert M. Franklin, RFK’s Still a Leadership Role Model for Youth


Kevin Carey, Fulfill George Washington’s Last Wish — a National University




Part 6—Debates, Casebooks, and Classic Arguments


DEBATES


17— Should We Embrace Self-Driving Cars?


*Don Aucoin, Why We Have the Ethics of Self-Driving Cars All Wrong


*Olivia Goldhill, Should Driverless Cars Kill Their Own Passengers to Save a Pedestrian?


18—Should College Athletes Be Paid?


*Randy Bertolas, Jayme Krejci, and Alex Stanley Are Colleges and Universities Obligated to Provide Student Athletes with Additional Compensation? (Point)


* Randy Bertolas, Jayme Krejci, and Alex Stanley Are Colleges and Universities Obligated to Provide Student Athletes with Additional Compensation? (Counterpoint)


19—Under What Circumstances Do Bystanders Have an Ethical Obligation to Intervene?


Lenore Skenazy, How Kitty Genovese Destroyed Childhood


Joe Nocera, It’s Hard to Be a Hero


20—Should the United States Establish a Universal Basic Income?


*Christian Bot, The Conservative Case for Universal Basic Income


*Geroge Zarkadakas, The Case Against Universal Basic Income



CASEBOOKS


21—Should Every American Go to College?


Eric Hoover, College’s Value Goes Deeper Than the Degree


*Andrew Perry, Stop Saying College Isn’t for Everyone


*G. Vance, The College Trap: Our Higher Education System Hurts the Poor


Charles Murray, What's Wrong with Vocational School?



22—How Should We Solve the Opioid Problem?


*Ericka Anderson, The Opioid Epidemic Is a Cultural Problem, It Requires Cultural Solutions


*Stanton Peele, The Solution to the Opioid Crisis


*Peter Moore, The Other Opioid Crisis


*Sally Satel, The Myth of What’s Driving the Opioid Crisis



23—Should the United States Have Open Borders?


*Richard Lamm, The Liberal Case for Reducing Immigration


*Nick Srineck, $100 Trillion Case for Open Borders


*John Lee, Secure the U.S.-Mexico Border: Open It


*Adam Ozemik, Why I Don’t Support Open Borders



24—Does It Pay to Study the Humanities?


Christina H. Paxson, The Economic Case for Saving the Humanities


Anthony P. Carnevale and Michelle Melton, Major Differences: Why Undergraduate Majors Matter


Kim Brooks, Is It Time to Kill the Liberal Arts Degree?


Thomas Frank, Course Corrections



25—CLASSIC ARGUMENTS


Plato, The Allegory of the Cave


Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress


Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal


Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence


Abraham Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address


Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions


George Orwell, Politics and the English Language


Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endure


Betty Friedan, The Importance of Work


James Baldwin, If Black English Isn’t a Language, Then Tell Me, What Is?



Appendix A—Writing Literary Arguments


What Is a Literary Argument?


Stating an Argumentative Thesis


Choosing Evidence


Writing a Literary Argument


Megan McGovern, Confessions of a Misunderstood Poem: An Analysis of "The Road Not Taken" [student essay]


Loren Martinez, Not Just a "Girl"[student essay]



Appendix B—Documenting Sources: APA


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