9780240806853

Practical Recording Techniques : The Step-by-Step Approach to Professional Audio Recording

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780240806853

  • ISBN10:

    0240806859

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-08-08
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Practical Recording Techniques is a hands-on practical guide for all aspects of recording, ideal for beginning and intermediate recording engineers, producers, musicians and audio enthusiasts. Filled with tips and shortcuts, this book offers advice on equipping a home studio (both low-budget and advanced), with suggestions for set-up, acoustics, choosing monitor speakers, and preventing hum. This best-selling guide also tells how to judge recordings and improve them to produce maximum results. Two extensive glossaries clearly explain audio jargon and sound-quality descriptions. NEW material includes: * Extensive coverage of digital recording technology and techniques, including computer DAWs and optimizing them for best performance * Extra coverage of the basics, such as speed of sound, inverse square law, sound-wave interference, reflection and diffusion * Comprehensive look at all types of microphones, including live-vocal, digital and headworn mics * A detailed instrument frequency range chart Also new to this edition is an accompanying audio CD (Mac and PC compatible), which will enable you to actually hear the effects and techniques described in the book.

Table of Contents

Preface xxv
Acknowledgments xxvii
Music: Why You Record
1(4)
Increasing Your Involvement in Music
2(1)
Different Ways of Listening
2(1)
Why Record?
3(2)
The Recording Chain
5(14)
Types of Recording
6(8)
Live Stereo Recording
7(1)
Live-Mix Recording
8(1)
Separate Multitrack Recorder and Mixer
9(2)
Stand-Alone DAW (Recorder-Mixer)
11(1)
Computer DAW
11(2)
MIDI Sequencing
13(1)
Pros and Cons of Each Method
14(2)
Editing/Mastering
16(1)
Quality Levels of Recording Formats
16(3)
Sound, Signals, and Studio Acoustics
19(22)
Sound Wave Creation
19(2)
Characteristics of Sound Waves
21(5)
Amplitude
21(1)
Frequency
21(1)
Wavelength
22(1)
Phase and Phase Shift
22(1)
Phase Interference
23(1)
Harmonics
24(1)
Envelope
25(1)
Behavior of Sound in Rooms
26(4)
Echoes
26(1)
Reverberation
27(2)
Diffusion
29(1)
Leakage
29(1)
How to Tame Echoes, Reverb, and Leakage
30(3)
Controlling Room Problems with Recording Techniques
30(1)
Controlling Room Problems with Acoustic Treatments
30(3)
Controlling Standing Waves
33(1)
Making a Quieter Studio
33(2)
Signal Characteristics of Audio Devices
35(6)
Frequency Response
36(2)
Noise
38(1)
Distortion
38(1)
Optimum Signal Level
38(1)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
38(1)
Headroom
39(2)
Equipping Your Studio
41(32)
Low-Cost Recording Equipment
42(6)
Microphone
42(1)
Monitor System
43(1)
Recording Device
43(5)
Higher-Cost Recording Equipment
48(3)
Mixer
49(1)
Hard-Disk Recorder (HD Recorder)
49(1)
Processors
50(1)
HD Recorder-Mixer with 16 to 32 Tracks
50(1)
High-End Recording Software and Hardware
50(1)
Equipment Details
51(8)
Recorder
51(1)
Mixer
52(1)
Effects
53(1)
Microphones
54(1)
Phantom-Power Supply
54(1)
Mic Preamp
54(1)
Direct Box
55(1)
Monitor System
55(1)
Rack and Patch Bay
56(1)
Miscellaneous Equipment
56(1)
Blank Recording Media
56(1)
MIDI Studio Equipment
57(2)
Setting Up Your Studio
59(10)
Cables
59(1)
Equipment Connectors
60(1)
Cable Connectors
61(2)
Cable Types
63(2)
Rack/Patch Bay
65(1)
Equipment Connections
66(3)
Acoustic Treatment
69(1)
Hum Prevention
70(2)
Reducing Radio Frequency Interference
72(1)
Monitoring
73(14)
Speaker Requirements
74(1)
Nearfield™ Monitors
75(2)
Powered (Active) Monitors
77(1)
The Power Amplifier
77(1)
Speaker Cables and Polarity
78(1)
Control-Room Acoustics
78(2)
Speaker Placement
80(1)
Using the Monitors
81(1)
Headphones
82(1)
The Cue System
83(2)
Conclusion
85(2)
Microphones
87(22)
Transducer Types
87(4)
General Traits of Each Transducer Type
90(1)
Polar Pattern
91(3)
Traits of Various Polar Patterns
93(1)
Frequency Response
94(3)
Impedance (Z)
97(1)
Maximum SPL
97(1)
Sensitivity
97(1)
Self-Noise
98(1)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
98(1)
Polarity
99(1)
Microphone Types
99(4)
Large-Diaphragm Condenser Microphone
99(1)
Small-Diaphragm Condenser Microphone
99(1)
Dynamic Instrument Microphone
100(1)
Live-Vocal Microphone
100(1)
Ribbon Microphone
100(1)
Boundary Microphone
100(1)
Miniature Microphone
101(1)
Stereo Microphone
102(1)
Digital Microphone
103(1)
Headworn Microphone
103(1)
Microphone Selection
103(2)
Mic Accessories
105(3)
Pop Filter
105(1)
Stands and Booms
105(1)
Shock Mount
106(1)
Cables and Connectors
106(1)
Snake
107(1)
Splitter
107(1)
Summary
108(1)
Microphone Technique Basics
109(22)
Which Mic Should I Use?
109(2)
How Many Mics?
111(2)
How Close Should I Place the Mic?
113(3)
Leakage
114(1)
Don't Mike Too Close
115(1)
Where Should I Place the Mic?
116(1)
On-Surface Techniques
117(2)
The Three-to-One Rule
119(1)
Off-Axis Coloration
120(1)
Stereo Mic Techniques
120(9)
Goals of Stereo Miking
120(1)
Types of Stereo Mic Techniques
121(7)
Comparing the Four Techniques
128(1)
Hardware
129(1)
How to Test Imaging
129(2)
Microphone Techniques
131(40)
Electric Guitar
131(4)
Miking the Amp
132(1)
Recording Direct
133(1)
Electric Guitar Effects
134(1)
Electric Bass
135(2)
Synthesizer, Drum Machine, and Electric Piano
137(1)
Leslie Organ Speaker
137(1)
Drum Set
138(11)
Tuning
139(1)
Damping and Noise Control
140(1)
Drum Miking
140(1)
Snare
140(2)
Hi-Hat
142(1)
Tom-Toms
142(1)
Kick Drum
143(1)
Cymbals
144(1)
Room Mics
145(1)
Boundary Mic Techniques
145(1)
Recording with Two to Four Mics
145(2)
Drum Recording Tips
147(2)
Percussion
149(1)
Acoustic Guitar
149(2)
Singer/Guitarist
151(1)
Grand Piano
151(3)
Upright Piano
154(1)
Acoustic Bass
155(1)
Banjo
156(1)
Mandolin, Dobro, Bouzouki, and Lap Dulcimer
157(1)
Hammered Dulcimer
157(1)
Fiddle (Violin)
157(2)
String Section
159(1)
String Quartet
160(1)
Bluegrass Band and Old-Time String Band
160(1)
Harp
160(1)
Horns
161(1)
Saxophone
161(1)
Woodwinds
162(2)
Harmonica, Accordion, and Bagpipe
164(1)
Lead Vocal
164(4)
Miking Distance
165(1)
Breath Pops
166(1)
Wide Dynamic Range
166(1)
Sibilance
167(1)
Reflections from the Music Stand and Ceiling
167(1)
Vocal Effects
168(1)
Background Vocals
168(1)
Spoken Word
169(1)
Choir and Orchestra
169(1)
Summary
170(1)
Digital Recording
171(30)
Analog versus Digital
171(1)
Digital Recording
172(4)
Bit Depth
174(1)
Sampling Rate
174(1)
Data Rate and Storage Requirements
175(1)
Digital Recording Level
175(1)
The Clock
176(1)
Digital Audio Signal Formats
176(1)
Converting Signal Formats
177(1)
Dither
177(2)
Jitter
179(1)
Digital Transfers or Copies
180(1)
2-Track Digital Recorders
181(17)
Portable Hard-Drive Recorder
182(1)
The Digital Audio Workstation
183(1)
CD Recordable
183(4)
MiniDisc Recorder
187(1)
Memory Recorder
188(2)
Multitrack Digital Recorders
190(1)
Modular Digital Multitrack
191(1)
Hard-Disk (HD) Recorder
192(1)
HD Recorder-Mixer
192(3)
MiniDisc Recorder-Mixer
195(1)
Pros and Cons of Four Multitrack Recording Systems
196(2)
Backup
198(3)
Effects and Signal Processors
201(36)
Software Effects (Plug-Ins)
201(1)
Equalizer
202(9)
Types of EQ
203(3)
How to Use EQ
206(2)
When to Use EQ
208(1)
Uses of EQ
209(2)
Compressor
211(5)
Using a Compressor
212(1)
Compression Ratio or Slope
213(1)
Threshold
213(1)
Gain Reduction
213(1)
Attack Time
214(1)
Release Time
214(1)
Output-Level Control
214(1)
Connecting a Compressor
215(1)
Suggested ``Ballpark'' Compressor Settings
215(1)
Limiter
216(1)
Noise Gate
217(1)
Delay: Echo, Doubling, Chorus, and Flanging
218(7)
Echo
218(2)
Slap Echo
220(1)
Repeating Echo
220(1)
Doubling
220(1)
Chorus
221(1)
Stereo Chorus
221(1)
Bass Chorus
221(1)
Flanging
221(1)
Reverberation
222(3)
Preverb
225(1)
Enhancer
226(1)
Octave Divider
226(1)
Harmonizer
226(1)
Vocal Processor
226(1)
Automatic Pitch Correction
227(1)
Tube Processor
227(1)
Rotary Speaker Simulator
227(1)
Analog Tape Simulator
227(1)
Spatial Processor
227(1)
Microphone Modeler
228(1)
Guitar Amplifier Modeler
228(1)
De-Click, and De-Noise
228(1)
Surround Sound
228(1)
Multieffects Processor
228(1)
Looking Back
229(1)
Sound-Quality Glossary
230(7)
Mixers and Mixing Consoles
237(20)
Stages of Recording
237(1)
Mixer Functions and Formats
238(1)
Analog Mixer
239(11)
Input Section
240(7)
Output Section
247(3)
Monitor Section
250(1)
Monitor Select Buttons
250(1)
Monitor Mix Controls and Connectors
250(1)
SOLO
251(1)
Additional Features in Large Mixing Consoles
251(2)
Digital Mixer
253(1)
Digital Mixer Features
254(1)
Software Mixer
254(1)
Controller Surface
255(2)
Operating the Multitrack Recorder and Mixer
257(26)
Session Preparation
258(1)
Recording
258(3)
Assign Inputs to Tracks
259(1)
Set Recording Levels
259(2)
Set EQ
261(1)
Recording
261(1)
Playback
261(1)
Overdubbing
262(1)
Punching-In
263(1)
Composite Tracks
264(1)
Getting More Tracks
265(1)
Flying In
265(1)
Drum Replacement
266(1)
Mixdown
267(9)
Set Up the Mixer and Recorders
267(1)
Erase Unwanted Material
268(1)
Panning
269(1)
Compression
270(1)
Set a Balance
270(1)
Set EQ
271(1)
Add Effects
272(1)
Set Levels
272(1)
Judging the Mix
273(1)
Changes During the Mix
274(1)
Record the Mix
275(1)
Summary
276(2)
Recording
277(1)
Overdubbing
277(1)
Mixdown
277(1)
Automated Mixing
278(5)
Types of Automation Systems
279(1)
Snapshot versus Continuous Automation
280(1)
Automated Mixing Procedure
280(3)
Computer Recording
283(34)
Basic Operation
284(4)
Recording and Playback
284(2)
Editing
286(2)
Mixdown
288(1)
The Computer
288(1)
Audio Interfaces
289(10)
Sound Card
290(2)
I/O Breakout Box
292(5)
Control Surface
297(2)
Alesis FirePort
299(1)
DSP Card
299(1)
Analog Summing Amplifier
299(1)
Recording Software
300(12)
Features
301(1)
Plug-Ins
302(1)
Examples of DAW Software
303(9)
Optimizing Your Computer for Digital Audio
312(1)
Using a DAW
313(4)
Connections
313(1)
Maintaining Quality
314(3)
Judging Sound Quality
317(26)
Classical versus Popular Recording
317(1)
Good Sound in a Pop-Music Recording
318(7)
A Good Mix
319(1)
Wide Range
320(1)
Good Tonal Balance
320(1)
Clean Sound
321(1)
Clarity
321(1)
Smoothness
322(1)
Presence
322(1)
Spaciousness
322(1)
Sharp Transients
322(1)
Tight Bass and Drums
322(1)
Wide and Detailed Stereo Imaging
323(1)
Wide but Controlled Dynamic Range
324(1)
Interesting Sounds
324(1)
Suitable Production
325(1)
Good Sound in a Classical-Music Recording
325(3)
Good Acoustics
325(1)
A Natural Balance
326(1)
Tonal Accuracy
326(1)
Suitable Perspective
326(1)
Accurate Imaging
326(2)
Training Your Hearing
328(1)
Troubleshooting Bad Sound
329(14)
Bad Sound on All Recordings
330(1)
Bad Sound on Playback Only
330(1)
Bad Sound in a Pop-Music Recording Session
331(7)
Bad Sound in a Classical-Music Recording
338(5)
Session Procedures, Editing, Mastering, and CD Burning
343(22)
Preproduction
344(5)
Instrumentation
344(1)
Recording Order
344(1)
Track Assignments
345(1)
Session Sheet
345(1)
Production Schedule
346(1)
Track Sheet
346(1)
Microphone Input List
346(3)
Instrument Layout Chart
349(1)
Setting Up the Studio
349(1)
Setting Up the Control Room
350(1)
Session Overview
350(1)
Recording
351(1)
Overdubbing
352(1)
Composite Tracks
352(1)
Drum Overdubs
353(1)
Overdubbing the Control Room
353(1)
Breaking Down
353(1)
Mixdown
354(1)
Mastering
354(6)
Burning a Reference CD
354(2)
Sending Out Your CD for Mastering
356(1)
Mastering Your Own Album
356(4)
Transferring the Mastered Program to CD-R
360(2)
Master Log
362(3)
The MIDI Studio: Equipment and Recording Procedures
365(32)
MIDI-Studio Components
366(6)
MIDI Recording Procedures
372(22)
2-Track Recording of a Synthesizer Performance
372(5)
Multitrack Recording of a Synthesizer Performance
377(3)
Recording with a Keyboard Workstation
380(3)
Recording with a Drum Machine and Synth
383(4)
Recording with MIDI/Audio Recording Software
387(4)
Loop-based Recording
391(3)
``No Sound'' MIDI Troubleshooting
394(1)
Summary
395(2)
On-Location Recording of Popular Music
397(32)
Two Mics Out Front
398(2)
Equipment
398(1)
Mic Placement
398(1)
Recording
399(1)
Recording from the Sound-Reinforcement Mixer
400(1)
Drawbacks
400(1)
Recording with a 4-tracker
401(1)
Recording Off the FOH Mixer Aux Output
402(2)
Feeding the FOH Mixer Insert Sends to a Multitrack Recorder
404(2)
Connections
404(1)
Monitor Mix
405(1)
Setting Levels
405(1)
Mixdown
405(1)
Feeding the FOH Mixer's Insert Sends to a Recording Mixer
406(1)
Splitting the Microphones
406(1)
Multitrack Recording in a Van
407(1)
Preparing for the Session
408(5)
Preproduction Meeting
408(1)
Site Survey
409(1)
Mic List
410(1)
Track Sheet
410(2)
Block Diagram
412(1)
Equipment List
412(1)
Preparing for Easier Setup
413(4)
Protective Cases
413(1)
Mic Mounts
414(1)
Snakes and Cables
415(1)
Rack Wiring
415(1)
Other Tips
416(1)
At the Session: Setup
417(4)
Power Distribution System
417(1)
Power Source
418(1)
Interconnecting Multiple Sound Systems
419(2)
Connections
421(1)
Running Cables
421(1)
Recording-Console Setup
421(1)
Mic Techniques
422(3)
Electric Guitar Grounding
423(1)
Audience Microphones
424(1)
Setting Levels and Submixes
425(1)
Recording
426(1)
Teardown
427(2)
On-Location Recording of Classical Music
429(10)
Equipment
429(3)
The 2-Track Recorder
430(1)
Microphones
430(1)
Monitors
431(1)
Mic Cables
432(1)
Mic Preamp or Mixer
432(1)
Stereo Microphone Techniques
432(1)
Preparing for the Session
433(1)
Session Setup
434(1)
Microphone Placement
435(2)
Distance
435(1)
Stereo-Spread Control
436(1)
Soloist Pickup and Spot Microphones
437(1)
Recording
437(1)
Editing
438(1)
Surround Sound: Techniques and Media
439(34)
Surround Speaker Arrangement
440(2)
Setting Up a Surround Monitoring System
442(7)
Bass Management
443(1)
Surround Mixing Equipment
444(1)
Connections
445(2)
Calibration
447(2)
Recording and Mixing Pop Music for Surround
449(2)
Panning
449(1)
Using the Center Speaker
450(1)
Using the LFE Channel
450(1)
Downmixing
451(1)
Surround Mix Delivery Format
451(1)
Surround-Sound Mic Techniques
451(11)
Soundfield 5.1 Microphone System
452(1)
Delos VR2 Surround Miking Method
452(1)
NHK Method
453(1)
The KFM 360 Surround System
454(1)
Five-Channel Microphone Array with Binaural Head
455(2)
DMP Method
457(1)
Woszcyk Technique (PZM Wedge plus Opposite-Polarity, 180-Degree Coincident-Cardioid Surround Mics)
458(1)
Williams Five Cardioid Mic Array
459(1)
Double MS Technique
459(1)
Surround Ambience Microphone Array
460(1)
Spider Microphone Array
460(1)
The Holophone H2-PRO Surround Mic
461(1)
Mike Sokol's FLuRB Array
461(1)
Stereo Pair plus Surround Pair
461(1)
Surround Media
462(5)
Compact Disc
462(1)
DVD
463(3)
Super Audio CD
466(1)
Encoding Surround for Release on Various Formats
467(4)
Surround Encoding for CD
467(1)
Surround Encoding for DVD-Video
468(1)
Surround Encoding for DVD-Audio
468(1)
Summary of Media Formats
469(1)
Encoding Hardware and Software for CD and DVD-Video
469(2)
DVD Pre-Mastering Formats
471(1)
Dolby Units for DVD Mastering
472(1)
Putting Your Music on the Web
473(16)
Streaming versus Downloading
473(1)
Data Compression
474(1)
Web-Related Audio Files
475(1)
What You Need
476(2)
How to Upload Compressed Audio Files
478(2)
Putting Your Music on Your Web Site
480(8)
Putting MP3 or WMA Files on Your Site
480(2)
Putting RealAudio Files on Your Site
482(2)
Examples of Web-page Song Links
484(1)
Streaming Audio from a RealServer Site
484(4)
Liquid Audio
488(1)
A db or not dB
489(10)
Definitions
489(1)
Sound Pressure Level
490(1)
Signal Level
490(4)
dBm
491(1)
dBv or dBu
492(1)
dBV
492(1)
Change in Signal Level
493(1)
The VU Meter, Zero VU, and Peak Indicators
494(1)
Balanced versus Unbalanced Equipment Levels
495(1)
Interfacing Balanced and Unbalanced Equipment
496(1)
Microphone Sensitivity
496(3)
B Optimizing Your Computer for Digital Audio
499(10)
Speeding Up Your Hard Drive
500(2)
Increasing Processing Speed
502(2)
Preventing Interruptions
504(2)
Setting the Buffer Size
506(1)
Other Tips
506(2)
Optimizing MacIntosh for Audio
508(1)
C Introduction to SMPTE Time Code
509(12)
How the Time Code Works
509(1)
Time-Code Signal Details
510(2)
Drop-Frame Mode
510(2)
Setting Up a Time-Code System
512(2)
How to Use SMPTE Time Code
514(1)
Restriping Defective Code
515(1)
Audio-for-Video SMPTE Applications
515(4)
Synchronizing to Video
516(1)
The Audio-Tape Synchronization Procedure
516(1)
Using SMPTE with a Digital Audio Workstation
517(2)
Other Time-Code Applications
519(2)
D Further Education
521(6)
Books and Videos
521(1)
The Library
521(1)
Pro Audio Books
521(1)
Music Books Plus
521(1)
Focal Press
522(1)
Amazon.com
522(1)
Recording Magazines
522(1)
Pro Audio Magazines
522(1)
Consumer Audio Magazines
523(1)
Guides, Brochures, and Other Literature
523(1)
Guides to Recording Schools
523(1)
The Internet
524(1)
Recording Equipment Catalogs
525(1)
Experience
525(2)
E Impedance
527(6)
What Is Impedance?
527(1)
I'm Connecting Two Audio Devices. Is It Important to Match Their Impedances? What If I Don't?
527(2)
What About Microphone Impedance?
529(1)
I'm Connecting a Mic to a Mixer. Is Impedance a Consideration?
529(1)
Should I Consider Impedance When I Connect Two Line-Level Devices?
530(1)
Can I Connect One Source to Two or More Loads?
530(1)
Can I Connect Two or More Sources to One Input?
530(1)
Summary
531(2)
Glossary 533(50)
Index 583

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