A Practical Study of Argument

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2004-05-11
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Learn to formulate better arguments with A PRACTICAL STUDY OF ARGUMENT! Providing you with a practical introduction to sound argumentation, this philosophy text gives you the tools you need to understand formal logic and formulate a good argument. Real world examples are included to show you how theory is brought to life in everyday practice. Tools such as exercises with answers, a glossary of common fallacies, chapter summaries, and a book-specific website give you the practice you need to master the material with ease.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
What Is an Argument? (And What Is Not?)p. 1
Argument and Opinionp. 1
What Is an Argument?p. 3
Where and How Do You Find Arguments?p. 7
Why Are Arguments Important?p. 10
What Isn't an Argument?p. 12
Argument and Explanation: What's the Difference?p. 18
Chapter Summaryp. 27
Review of Terms Introducedp. 27
Notesp. 28
Pinning Down Argument Structurep. 29
Standardizing an Argumentp. 29
From Colloquial Writing to Standardized Formp. 34
General Strategies for Standardizing Argumentsp. 38
Important Details about Conclusionsp. 43
Important Details about Premisesp. 51
The Principle of Charity in Argument Interpretationp. 60
Chapter Summaryp. 64
Review of Terms Introducedp. 65
Notesp. 66
When Is an Argument a Good One?p. 68
The ARG Conditionsp. 68
More on the (R) and (G) Conditions: Reasoning from Premises to Conclusionsp. 71
Using the ARG Conditions to Evaluate Argumentsp. 75
The Significance of Argument Evaluationp. 81
The Challenge of Argumentp. 85
Evaluating Arguments and Constructing Your Own Argumentsp. 92
The Dialectical Contextp. 94
Chapter Summaryp. 96
Review of Terms Introducedp. 97
Notesp. 99
Looking at Languagep. 100
Definitionsp. 103
Further Features of Languagep. 116
Clarity and Audience: The Problem of Jargonp. 126
Chapter Summaryp. 133
Review of Terms Introducedp. 134
Notesp. 136
Premises: What to Accept and Whyp. 138
The Dilemma of Premisesp. 138
When Premises Are Acceptablep. 140
Summary of Acceptability Conditionsp. 154
When Premises Are Unacceptablep. 156
Summary of Unacceptability Conditionsp. 165
Chapter Summaryp. 169
Review of Terms Introducedp. 170
Notesp. 172
Working on Relevancep. 174
Characteristics of Relevancep. 174
Some Ways of Being Relevantp. 177
Irrelevance: Some General Commentsp. 181
Fallacies Involving Irrelevancep. 187
Irrelevance, Missing Premises, and Argument Criticismp. 203
Emotional Appeals, Irrelevance, and Distractionp. 208
Chapter Summaryp. 211
Review of Terms Introducedp. 211
Notesp. 213
Deductions: Categorical Logicp. 215
Deductive Relationsp. 215
Four Categorical Formsp. 218
Natural Language and Categorical Formp. 220
Venn Diagramsp. 225
Rules of Immediate Inferencep. 227
Contrary and Contradictory Predicates and False Dichotomiesp. 233
Categorical Logic: Some Philosophical Backgroundp. 235
The Categorical Syllogismp. 238
The Rules of the Categorical Syllogismp. 244
Applying Categorical Logicp. 246
Chapter Summaryp. 249
Review of Terms Introducedp. 250
Notesp. 252
Deductively Valid Arguments: Propositional Logicp. 253
Definition of the Basic Symbols Used in Propositional Logicp. 254
Testing for Validity by the Truth Table Techniquep. 259
The Shorter Truth Table Techniquep. 262
Translating from English into Propositional Logicp. 266
Further Points about Translationp. 276
Simple Proofs in Propositional Logicp. 285
Propositional Logic and Cogent Argumentsp. 292
Chapter Summaryp. 294
Review of Terms Introducedp. 295
Notesp. 297
An Introduction to Inductive Argumentsp. 298
Philosophical Backgroundp. 298
Inductive Generalizationsp. 301
Causal Inductive Argumentsp. 313
Correlationsp. 318
Problems with Premisesp. 324
Common Fallacies in Inductive Argumentsp. 334
Different Senses of Inductivep. 344
Chapter Summaryp. 345
Review of Terms Introducedp. 346
Notesp. 348
Analogies: Reasoning from Case to Casep. 350
The Nature and Functions of Analogyp. 350
Analogy and Consistencyp. 352
Inductive Analogiesp. 367
Further Critical Strategiesp. 375
Loose and Misleading Analogiesp. 378
Chapter Summaryp. 389
Review of Terms Introducedp. 389
Notesp. 390
Conductive Arguments and Counterconsiderationsp. 392
Counterconsiderationsp. 395
Chapter Summaryp. 410
Review of Terms Introducedp. 410
Notesp. 411
Reflective Analysis of Longer Worksp. 413
Introductionp. 413
Reading for Understandingp. 414
Reading for Appraisalp. 418
Developing an Outline for Your Essayp. 420
A Sample Essayp. 425
Working through an Examplep. 430
Chapter Summaryp. 434
Review of Terms Introducedp. 435
Notep. 436
A Summary of Fallaciesp. 437
Selected Essays for Analysisp. 446
"How Patriarchy Becomes Santa Claus: Why a Myth Is as Good as Its Smile,"p. 446
"Abortion and Violence,"p. 448
"Believing in the Goddess?"p. 449
"Clash Over Climate Change: Singer Article Clouds the Picture,"p. 453
"Global Warming Proof Still Suspect,"p. 455
Answers to Selected Exercisesp. 458
Indexp. 484
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