Practice of Social Research

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1994-08-16
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing

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This thorough revision of Babbie's standard-setting book for the course offers students a comprehensive, straightforward introduction to the field of research methods as practiced by sociologists and other social scientists. Emphasizing the importance of the research process, the book shows students how social scientists design research studies, introduces the variety of observation modes used by sociologists, and covers the "how-tos" and "whys" of social research methods. Students learn how to conduct various types of research, when it is appropriate to use each method, and how to analyze qualitative and quantitative data using the Elaboration Model. The 10th edition provides students with the necessary tools for understanding social research methods and for applying these concepts both inside and outside the classroom--as researchers and as consumers of research. Retaining the authoritative coverage of the research process that has made the book a best-seller, the new edition is more student-friendly than ever. The new edition features a completely new chapter on reading and writing social research, a streamlined organization, a new running glossary, and a new Research Writing and Chapter Tutorial CD-ROM that not only helps students every step of the way in writing research papers, but also links to chapter by chapter online tutorials that will help them master the concepts and techniques of the course.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvi
Holographic Overviewp. 1
An Introduction to Inquiryp. 14
Human Inquiry and Sciencep. 16
Introductionp. 17
Looking for Realityp. 18
The Foundations of Social Sciencep. 24
Some Dialectics of Social Sciencep. 33
The Ethics of Social Researchp. 37
Main Pointsp. 38
Key Termsp. 39
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 39
Additional Readingsp. 40
Sociology Web Sitep. 40
Infotrac College Editionp. 40
Paradigms, Theory, and Social Researchp. 41
Introductionp. 42
Some Social Science Paradigmsp. 42
Elements of Social Theoryp. 51
Two Logical Systems Revisitedp. 53
Deductive Theory Constructionp. 60
Inductive Theory Constructionp. 63
The Links Between Theory and Researchp. 64
Main Pointsp. 65
Key Termsp. 66
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 66
Additional Readingsp. 66
Sociology Web Sitep. 67
Infotrac College Editionp. 67
The Idea of Causation in Social Researchp. 68
Introductionp. 69
Determinism and Social Sciencep. 69
Causation in Idiographic and Nomothetic Models of Explanationp. 72
Criteria for Causalityp. 75
Necessary and Sufficient Causesp. 78
Errors in Reasoning About Causationp. 81
Linking Measurement and Associationp. 83
Main Pointsp. 85
Key Termsp. 86
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 86
Additional Readingsp. 87
Sociology Web Sitep. 87
Infotrac College Editionp. 87
The Structure of Inquiryp. 88
Research Designp. 90
Introductionp. 91
Three Purposes of Researchp. 91
Units of Analysisp. 94
The Time Dimensionp. 101
How To Design a Research Projectp. 107
The Research Proposalp. 113
Main Pointsp. 114
Key Termsp. 115
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 115
Additional Readingsp. 116
Answers to Review Questions and Exercises, Item 2p. 117
Sociology Web Sitep. 117
Infotrac College Editionp. 117
Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Measurementp. 118
Introductionp. 119
Measuring Anything That Existsp. 119
Conceptualizationp. 122
Definitions in Descriptive and Explanatory Studiesp. 129
Operationalization Choicesp. 132
Criteria of Measurement Qualityp. 140
Main Pointsp. 145
Key Termsp. 146
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 146
Additional Readingsp. 147
Sociology Web Sitep. 147
Infotrac College Editionp. 147
Indexes, Scales, and Typologiesp. 148
Introductionp. 149
Indexes versus Scalesp. 149
Index Constructionp. 152
Scale Constructionp. 165
Typologiesp. 171
Main Pointsp. 173
Key Termsp. 173
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 173
Additional Readingsp. 174
Sociology Web Sitep. 174
Infotrac College Editionp. 174
The Logic of Samplingp. 175
Introductionp. 176
A Brief History of Samplingp. 177
Nonprobability Samplingp. 178
The Theory and Logic of Probability samplingp. 182
Populations and Sampling Framesp. 194
Types of Sampling Designsp. 197
Multistage Cluster Samplingp. 204
Probability Sampling in Reviewp. 211
Main Pointsp. 212
Key Termsp. 213
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 213
Additional Readingsp. 213
Sociology Web Sitep. 213
Infortrac College Editionp. 213
Modes of Observationp. 214
Experimentsp. 216
Introductionp. 217
Topics Appropriate to Experimentsp. 217
The Classical Experimentp. 217
Selecting Subjectsp. 221
Variations on Experimental Designp. 224
An Illustration of Experimentationp. 230
"Natural" Experimentsp. 232
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Experimental Methodp. 234
Main Pointsp. 235
Key Termsp. 235
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 235
Additional Readingsp. 236
Sociology Web Sitep. 236
Infotrac College Editionp. 236
Survey Researchp. 237
Introductionp. 238
Topics Appropriate for Survey Researchp. 238
Guidelines for Asking Questionsp. 239
Questionnaire Constructionp. 245
Self-Administered Questionnairesp. 253
Interview Surveysp. 258
Telephone Surveysp. 262
New Technologies and Survey Researchp. 265
Comparison of the Different Survey Methodsp. 267
Strengths and Weaknesses of Survey Researchp. 268
Secondary Analysisp. 269
Main Pointsp. 270
Key Termsp. 271
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 271
Additional Readingsp. 272
Sociology Web Sitep. 273
Infotrac College Editionp. 273
Qualitative Field Researchp. 274
Introductionp. 275
Topics Appropriate to Field Researchp. 275
Special Considerations in Qualitative Field Researchp. 277
Some Qualitative Field Research Paradigmsp. 281
Conducting Qualitative Field Researchp. 290
Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Field Researchp. 298
Research Ethics in Qualitative Field Researchp. 300
Main Pointsp. 300
Key Termsp. 301
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 301
Additional Readingsp. 301
Sociology Web Sitep. 302
Infotrac College Editionp. 302
Unobtrusive Measuresp. 303
Introductionp. 304
Content Analysisp. 304
Analyzing Existing Statisticsp. 315
Historical/Comparative Analysisp. 322
Main Pointsp. 328
Key Termsp. 329
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 329
Additional Readingsp. 329
Sociology Web Sitep. 330
Infotrac College Editionp. 330
Evaluation Researchp. 331
Introductionp. 332
Topics Appropriate to Evaluation Researchp. 333
Formulating the Problem: Issues of Measurementp. 334
Types of Evaluation Research Designsp. 338
The Social Contextp. 344
Social Indicators Researchp. 351
Main Pointsp. 354
Key Termsp. 354
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 354
Additional Readingsp. 354
Sociology Web Sitep. 355
Infotrac College Editionp. 355
Analysis of Datap. 356
Qualitative Data Analysisp. 358
Introductionp. 359
Linking Theory and Analysisp. 359
Qualitative Data Processingp. 364
Computer Programs for Qualitative Datap. 370
Main Pointsp. 380
Key Termsp. 381
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 381
Additional Readingsp. 382
Sociology Web Sitep. 382
Infotrac College Editionp. 382
Quantifying Datap. 383
Introductionp. 384
Computers in Social Researchp. 384
Codingp. 387
Coding and Data Entry Optionsp. 390
Data Cleaningp. 392
Main Pointsp. 393
Key Termsp. 394
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 394
Additional Readingsp. 394
Sociology Web Sitep. 395
Infotrac College Editionp. 395
Elementary Quantitative Analysesp. 396
Introductionp. 397
Univariate Analysisp. 397
Subgroup Comparisonsp. 403
Bivariate Analysisp. 406
Introduction to Multivariate Analysisp. 412
Main Pointsp. 414
Key Wordsp. 414
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 414
Additional Readingsp. 415
Sociology web Sitep. 415
Infotrac College Editionp. 415
The Elaboration Modelp. 416
Introductionp. 417
The Origins of the Elaboration Modelp. 417
The Elaboration Paradigmp. 421
Elaboration and Ex Post Facto Hypothesizingp. 430
Main Pointsp. 432
Key Termsp. 432
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 432
Additional Readingsp. 433
Sociology Web Sitep. 433
Infotrac College Editionp. 433
Social Statisticsp. 434
Introductionp. 435
The Danger of Success in Mathp. 435
Descriptive Statisticsp. 436
Other Multivariate Techniquesp. 446
Inferential Statisticsp. 452
Main Pointsp. 463
Key Termsp. 464
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 464
Additional Readingsp. 464
Sociology Web Sitep. 464
Infotrac College Editionp. 465
The Social Context of Researchp. 466
The Ethics and Politics of Social Researchp. 468
Introductionp. 469
Ethical Issues in Social Researchp. 470
Two Ethical Controversiesp. 479
The Politics of Social Researchp. 481
Main Pointsp. 487
Key Termsp. 487
Review Questions and Exercisesp. 487
Additional Readingsp. 488
Sociology Web Sitep. 489
Infotrac College Editionp. 489
The Uses of Social Researchp. 490
Introductionp. 491
Theory--Data Collection--Analysisp. 491
Everyday Uses of Social Research Skillsp. 492
A Consumer's Guide to Social Researchp. 493
Conclusionp. 498
Sociology Web Sitep. 498
Infotrac College Editionp. 498
Appendixesp. 1
Using the Libraryp. 2
Social Research in Cyberspacep. 8
The Research Reportp. 16
GSS Household Enumeration Questionnairep. 23
Random Numbersp. 33
Distribution of Chi Squarep. 35
Normal Curve Areasp. 37
Estimated Sampling Errorp. 38
A Learner's Guide to SPSS 8.0p. 40
Twenty Questions a Journalist Should Ask about Poll Resultsp. 75
Bibliographyp. 1
Glossaryp. 1
Indexp. 1
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