Prescott's Microbiology

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-01-01
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Available with Prescott, Harley, and Klein's Microbiology, Seventh Edition, are more than 150 animations to harness the visual impact of microbiology processes in motion. These animations can be found on the ARIS Presentation Center at aris.mhhe.com. Since you control the action, these 3-D clips make great review and study tools! Each animation includes five questions to test your understanding of the concepts. Instructors can also import the animations into classroom presentations or online course materials! Book jacket.

Table of Contents

About the Authorsp. xi
Prefacep. xii
Introduction to Microbiology
The History and Scope of Microbiologyp. 1
Members of the Microbial Worldp. 1
The Discovery of Microorganismsp. 3
The Conflict over Spontaneous Generationp. 6
The Golden Age of Microbiologyp. 8
The Scientific Methodp. 10
Koch's Molecular Postulatesp. 11
The Development of Industrial Microbiology and Microbial Ecologyp. 12
The Scope and Relevance of Microbiologyp. 13
The Future of Microbiologyp. 14
The Study of Microbial Structure: Microscopy and Specimen Preparationp. 17
Lenses and the Bending of Lightp. 17
The Light Microscopep. 18
Preparation and Staining of Specimensp. 25
Electron Microscopyp. 28
Newer Techniques in Microscopyp. 31
Procaryotic Cell Structure and Functionp. 39
An Overview of Procaryotic Cell Structurep. 39
Procaryotic Cell Membranesp. 42
Monstrous Microbesp. 43
The Cytoplasmic Matrixp. 48
Living Magnetsp. 51
The Nucleoidp. 52
Plasmidsp. 53
The Bacterial Cell Wallp. 55
Archaeal Cell Wallsp. 62
Protein Secretion in Procaryotesp. 63
Components External to the Cell Wallp. 65
Chemotaxisp. 71
The Bacterial Endosporep. 73
Eucaryotic Cell Structure and Functionp. 79
An Overview of Eucaryotic Cell Structurep. 79
The Plasma Membrane and Membrane Structurep. 81
The Cytoplasmic Matrix, Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments, and Microtubulesp. 83
Getting Aroundp. 84
Organelles of the Biosynthetic-Secretory and Endocytic Pathwaysp. 84
Eucaryotic Ribosomesp. 88
Mitochondriap. 88
Chloroplastsp. 90
The Origin of the Eucaryotic Cellp. 91
The Nucleus and Cell Divisionp. 91
External Cell Coveringsp. 94
Cilia and Flagellap. 95
Comparison of Procaryotic and Eucaryotic Cellsp. 96
Microbial Nutrition, Growth, and Control
Microbial Nutritionp. 101
The Common Nutrient Requirementsp. 101
Requirements for Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Electronsp. 102
Nutritional Types of Microorganismsp. 102
Requirements for Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfurp. 104
Growth Factorsp. 105
Uptake of Nutrients by the Cellp. 105
Culture Mediap. 110
The Discovery of Agar as a Solidifying Agent and the Isolation of Pure Culturesp. 112
Isolation of Pure Culturesp. 113
The Enrichment and isolation of Pure Culturesp. 116
Microbial Growthp. 119
The Procaryotic Cell Cyclep. 119
The Growth Curvep. 123
Measurement of Microbial Growthp. 128
The Continuous Culture of Microorganismsp. 131
The Influence of Environmental Factors on Growthp. 132
Life Above 100[degree]Cp. 138
Microbial Growth in Natural Environmentsp. 142
Control of Microorganisms by Physical and Chemical Agentsp. 149
Definitions of Frequently Used Termsp. 149
Safety in the Microbiology Laboratoryp. 150
The Pattern of Microbial Deathp. 151
Conditions Influencing the Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Agentsp. 152
The Use of Physical Methods in Controlp. 153
The Use of Chemical Agents in Controlp. 158
Universal Precautions for Microbiology Laboratoriesp. 160
Evaluation of Antimicrobial Agent Effectivenessp. 164
Microbial Metabolism
Metabolism: Energy, Enzymes, and Regulationp. 167
An Overview of Metabolismp. 167
Energy and Workp. 169
The Laws of Thermodynamicsp. 169
Free Energy and Reactionsp. 170
The Role of ATP in Metabolismp. 171
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions, Electron Carriers, and Electron Transport Systemsp. 172
Enzymesp. 174
The Nature and Significance of Metabolic Regulationp. 180
Metabolic Channelingp. 180
Control of Enzyme Activityp. 181
Metabolism: Energy Release and Conservationp. 191
Chemoorganotrophic Fueling Processesp. 191
Aerobic Respirationp. 193
The Breakdown of Glucose to Pyruvatep. 194
The Tricarboxylic Acid Cyclep. 198
Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylationp. 200
Anaerobic Respirationp. 205
Fermentationsp. 207
Microbiology and World War Ip. 210
Catabolism of Carbohydrates and Intracellular Reserve Polymersp. 210
Lipid Catabolismp. 211
Protein and Amino Acid Catabolismp. 212
Chemolithotrophyp. 212
Phototrophyp. 214
Acid Mine Drainagep. 215
Metabolism: The Use of Energy in Biosynthesisp. 225
Principles Governing Biosynthesisp. 226
The Precursor Metabolitesp. 227
The Fixation of CO[subscript 2] by Autotrophsp. 228
Synthesis of Sugars and Polysaccharidesp. 230
Synthesis of Amino Acidsp. 235
Synthesis of Purines, Pyrimidines, and Nucleotidesp. 241
Lipid Synthesisp. 242
Microbial Molecular Biology and Genetics
Microbial Genetics: Gene Structure, Replication, and Expressionp. 247
The Elucidation of DNA Structurep. 248
DNA as Genetic Materialp. 249
The Flow of Genetic Informationp. 251
Nucleic Acid Structurep. 252
DNA Replicationp. 253
Gene Structurep. 264
Transcriptionp. 268
Catalytic RNA (Ribozymes)p. 268
The Genetic Codep. 275
Translationp. 276
Microbial Genetics: Regulation of Gene Expressionp. 291
Levels of Regulation of Gene Expressionp. 292
Regulation of Transcription Initiationp. 293
The Discovery of Gene Regulationp. 294
Regulation of Transcription Elongationp. 302
Regulation at the Level of Translationp. 305
Global Regulatory Systemsp. 307
Regulation of Gene Expression in Eucarya and Archaeap. 313
Microbial Genetics: Mechanisms of Genetic Variationp. 317
Mutations and Their Chemical Basisp. 317
Detection and Isolation of Mutantsp. 324
DNA Repairp. 326
Creating Genetic Variabilityp. 329
Transposable Elementsp. 332
Bacterial Plasmidsp. 334
Bacterial Conjugationp. 337
DNA Transformationp. 342
Transductionp. 345
Mapping the Genomep. 349
Recombination and Genome Mapping in Virusesp. 350
DNA Technology and Genomics
Recombinant DNA Technologyp. 357
Historical Perspectivesp. 357
Synthetic DNAp. 361
The Polymerase Chain Reactionp. 362
Gel Electrophoresisp. 366
Cloning Vectors and Creating Recombinant DNAp. 366
Construction of Genomic Librariesp. 370
Inserting Recombinant DNA into Host Cellsp. 371
Expressing Foreign Genes in Host Cellsp. 371
Visualizing Proteins with Green Fluorescencep. 374
Applications of Genetic Engineeringp. 375
Plant Tumors and Nature's Genetic Engineerp. 378
Social Impact of Recombinant DNA Technologyp. 380
Microbial Genomicsp. 383
Introductionp. 383
Determining DNA Sequencesp. 384
Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencingp. 384
Bioinformaticsp. 388
Functional Genomicsp. 388
Comparative Genomicsp. 391
Proteomicsp. 393
Insights from Microbial Genomesp. 395
Environmental Genomicsp. 402
The Viruses
The Viruses: Introduction and General Characteristicsp. 407
Early Development of Virologyp. 407
Disease and the Early Colonization of Americap. 408
General Properties of Virusesp. 409
The Structure of Virusesp. 409
Virus Reproductionp. 417
The Cultivation of Virusesp. 417
Virus Purification and Assaysp. 419
Principles of Virus Taxonomyp. 423
The Origin of Virusesp. 423
The Viruses: Viruses of Bacteria and Archaeap. 427
Classification of Bacterial and Archaeal Virusesp. 428
Virulent Double-Stranded DNA Phagesp. 428
Host-Independent Growth of an Archaeal Virusp. 429
Single-Stranded DNA Phagesp. 436
RNA Phagesp. 437
Temperate Bacteriophages and Lysogenyp. 438
Bacteriophage Genomesp. 444
The Viruses: Eucaryotic Viruses and Other Acellular Infectious Agentsp. 447
Taxonomy of Eucaryotic Virusesp. 447
Reproduction of Vertebrate Virusesp. 448
SARS: Evolution of a Virusp. 451
Constructing a Virusp. 458
Cytocidal Infections and Cell Damagep. 459
Persistent, Latent, and Slow Virus Infectionsp. 461
Viruses and Cancerp. 461
Plant Virusesp. 463
Viruses of Fungi and Protistsp. 466
Insect Virusesp. 466
Viroids and Virusoidsp. 467
Prionsp. 468
The Diversity ofthe Microbial World
Microbial Evolution, Taxonomy, and Diversityp. 471
Microbial Evolutionp. 471
Introduction to Microbial Classification and Taxonomyp. 477
Taxonomic Ranksp. 480
Techniques for Determining Microbial Taxonomy and Phylogenyp. 481
Assessing Microbial Phylogenyp. 488
The Major Divisions of Lifep. 489
Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriologyp. 493
"Official" Nomenclature Lists-A Letter from Bergey'sp. 494
A Survey of Procaryotic Phylogeny and Diversityp. 494
The Archaeap. 503
Introduction to the Archaeap. 503
Phylum Crenarchaeotap. 507
Phylum Euryarchaeotap. 508
Archaeal Phylogeny: More Than Just the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota?p. 511
Methanotrophic Archaeap. 513
Bacteria: The Deinococci and Nonproteobacteria Gram Negativesp. 519
Aquificae and Thermotogaep. 519
Deinococcus-Thermusp. 520
Photosynthetic Bacteriap. 520
The Mechanism of Gliding Motilityp. 527
Phylum Planctomycetesp. 530
Phylum Chlamydiaep. 531
Phylum Spirochaetesp. 532
Phylum Bacteroidetesp. 534
Bacteria: The Proteobacteriap. 539
Class Alphaproteobacteriap. 540
Class Betaproteobacteriap. 546
Class Gammaproteobacteriap. 551
Bacterial Bioluminescencep. 559
Class Deltaproteobacteriap. 562
Class Epsilonproteobacteriap. 567
Bacteria: The Low G + C Gram Positivesp. 571
General Introductionp. 571
Class Mollicutes (The Mycoplasmas)p. 571
Peptidoglycan and Endospore Structurep. 572
Spores in Spacep. 576
Class Clostridiap. 576
Class Bacillip. 578
Bacteria: The High G + C Gram Positivesp. 589
General Properties of the Actinomycetesp. 589
Suborder Actinomycineaep. 593
Suborder Micrococcineaep. 593
Suborder Corynebacterineaep. 595
Suborder Micromonosporineaep. 597
Suborder Propionibacterineaep. 598
Suborder Streptomycineaep. 598
Suborder Streptosporangineaep. 602
Suborder Frankineaep. 602
Order Bifidobacterialesp. 602
The Protistsp. 605
Distributionp. 606
Nutritionp. 606
Morphologyp. 607
Encystment and Excystmentp. 608
Reproductionp. 608
Protist Classificationp. 609
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)p. 621
Practical Importance of Diatomsp. 624
The Fungi (Eumycota)p. 629
Distributionp. 630
Importancep. 630
Structurep. 631
Nutrition and Metabolismp. 632
Reproductionp. 632
Characteristics of the Fungal Divisionsp. 635
Ecology and Symbiosis
Biogeochemical Cycling and Introductory Microbial Ecologyp. 643
Foundations in Microbial Diversity and Ecologyp. 643
Microbial Ecology Versus Environmental Microbiologyp. 644
Biogeochemical Cyclingp. 644
The Physical Environmentp. 653
Microbial Ecology and Its Methods: An Overviewp. 659
Thermophilic Microorganisms and Modern Biotechnologyp. 660
Microorganisms in Marine and Freshwater Environmentsp. 667
Marine and Freshwater Environmentsp. 667
New Agents in Medicine-The Sea as the New Frontierp. 668
Microbial Adaptations to Marine and Freshwater Environmentsp. 671
Microorganisms in Marine Environmentsp. 673
Microorganisms in Freshwater Environmentsp. 682
Microorganisms in Terrestrial Environmentsp. 687
Soils as an Environment for Microorganismsp. 687
Soils, Plants, and Nutrientsp. 689
An Unintended Global-Scale Nitrogen Experimentp. 691
Microorganisms in the Soil Environmentp. 692
Microorganisms and the Formation of Different Soilsp. 693
Microorganism Associations with Vascular Plantsp. 696
Mycorrhizae and the Evolution of Vascular Plantsp. 697
Soil Microorganisms and the Atmospherep. 708
Soils, Termites, Intestinal Microbes, and Atmospheric Methanep. 709
Keeping Inside Air Fresh with Soil Microorganismsp. 710
The Subsurface Biospherep. 711
Soil Microorganisms and Human Healthp. 713
Microbial Interactionsp. 717
Microbial Interactionsp. 717
Wolbachia pipientis: The World's Most Infectious Microbe? 720
Coevolution of Animals and Their Gut Microbial Communitiesp. 725
Human-Microbe Interactionsp. 734
Normal Microbiota of the Human Bodyp. 735
Probiotics for Humans and Animalsp. 739
Nonspecific (Innate) Resistance and the Immune Response
Nonspecific (Innate) Host Resistancep. 743
Overview of Host Resistancep. 743
Cells, Tissues, and Organs of the Immune Systemp. 744
Phagocytosisp. 752
Inflammationp. 756
Physical Barriers in Nonspecific (Innate) Resistancep. 758
Chemical Mediators in Nonspecific (Innate) Resistancep. 762
Specific (Adaptive) Immunityp. 773
Overview of Specific (Adaptive) Immunityp. 774
Antigensp. 774
Types of Specific (Adaptive) Immunityp. 776
Recognition of Foreignnessp. 778
Donor Selection for Tissue or Organ Transplantsp. 779
T Cell Biologyp. 781
B Cell Biologyp. 786
Antibodiesp. 789
Action of Antibodiesp. 799
Monoclonal Antibody Technologyp. 800
Summary: The Role of Antibodies and Lymphocytes in Immune Defensep. 802
Acquired Immune Tolerancep. 802
Immune Disordersp. 803
Microbial Diseases and Their Control
Pathogenicity of Microorganismsp. 815
Host-Parasite Relationshipsp. 815
Pathogenesis of Viral Diseasesp. 818
Overview of Bacterial Pathogenesisp. 820
Toxigenicityp. 824
Detection and Removal of Endotoxinsp. 830
Host Defense Against Microbial Invasionp. 830
Microbial Mechanisms for Escaping Host Defensesp. 832
Antimicrobial Chemotherapyp. 835
The Development of Chemotherapyp. 835
The Use of Antibiotics in Microbiological Researchp. 837
General Characteristics of Antimicrobial Drugsp. 837
Determining the Level of Antimicrobial Activityp. 840
Antibacterial Drugsp. 841
Factors Influencing Antimicrobial Drug Effectivenessp. 849
Drug Resistancep. 849
Antibiotic Misuse and Drug Resistancep. 850
Antifungal Drugsp. 854
Antiviral Drugsp. 855
Antiprotozoan Drugsp. 856
Clinical Microbiology and Immunologyp. 859
Specimensp. 859
Standard Microbial Practicesp. 861
Identification of Microorganisms from Specimensp. 864
Biosensors: The Future Is Nowp. 871
Clinical Immunologyp. 875
History and Importance of Serotypingp. 876
Susceptibility Testingp. 882
Computers in Clinical Microbiologyp. 882
The Epidemiology of Infectious Diseasep. 885
Epidemiological Terminologyp. 886
John Snow-The First Epidemiologistp. 886
Measuring Frequency: The Epidemiologist's Toolsp. 887
Recognition of an Infectious Disease in a Populationp. 888
"Typhoid Mary"p. 889
Recognition of an Epidemicp. 889
The Infectious Disease Cycle: Story of a Diseasep. 891
The First Indications of Person-to-Person Spread of an Infectious Diseasep. 896
Virulence and the Mode of Transmissionp. 897
Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases and Pathogensp. 897
Control of Epidemicsp. 900
The First Immunizationsp. 902
Bioterrorism Preparednessp. 905
1346-The First Recorded Biological Warfare Attackp. 905
Global Travel and Health Considerationsp. 907
Nosocomial Infectionsp. 908
Human Diseases Caused by Viruses and Prionsp. 913
Airborne Diseasesp. 914
Reye's and Guillain-Barre Syndromesp. 918
Arthropod-Borne Diseasesp. 922
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers-A Microbial History Lessonp. 923
Direct Contact Diseasesp. 925
Food-Borne and Waterborne Diseasesp. 939
A Brief History of Poliop. 941
Zoonotic Diseasesp. 941
Prion Diseasesp. 944
Human Diseases Caused by Bacteriap. 947
Airborne Diseasesp. 948
Arthropod-Borne Diseasesp. 960
The Hazards of Microbiological Researchp. 960
Direct Contact Diseasesp. 964
Biofilmsp. 969
Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcip. 972
A Brief History of Syphilisp. 974
Food-Borne and Waterborne Diseasesp. 979
Clostridial Toxins as Therapeutic Agents-Benefits of Nature's Most Toxic Proteinsp. 983
Sepsis and Septic Shockp. 987
Zoonotic Diseasesp. 987
Dental Infectionsp. 991
Human Diseases Caused by Fungi and Protistsp. 997
Pathogenic Fungi and Protistsp. 997
Airborne Diseasesp. 999
Arthropod-Borne Diseasesp. 1001
A Brief History of Malariap. 1002
Direct Contact Diseasesp. 1008
Food-Borne and Waterborne Diseasesp. 1012
Opportunistic Diseasesp. 1016
The Emergence of Candidiasisp. 1018
Food and Industrial Microbiology
Microbiology of Foodp. 1023
Microorganism Growth in Foodsp. 1024
Microbial Growth and Food Spoilagep. 1026
Controlling Food Spoilagep. 1028
An Army Travels on Its Stomachp. 1030
Food-Borne Diseasesp. 1032
Typhoid Fever and Canned Meatp. 1033
Detection of Food-Borne Pathogensp. 1035
Microbiology of Fermented Foodsp. 1036
Chocolate: The Sweet Side of Fermentationp. 1037
Starter Cultures, Bacteriophage Infections, and Plasmidsp. 1039
Microorganisms as Foods and Food Amendmentsp. 1046
Applied and Industrial Microbiologyp. 1049
Water Purification and Sanitary Analysisp. 1050
Waterborne Diseases, Water Supplies, and Slow Sand Filtrationp. 1051
Wastewater Treatmentp. 1054
Microorganisms Used in Industrial Microbiologyp. 1060
The Potential of Thermophilic Archaea in Biotechnologyp. 1061
Microorganism Growth in Controlled Environmentsp. 1064
Major Products of Industrial Microbiologyp. 1070
Biodegradation and Bioremediation by Natural Communitiesp. 1075
Methanogens-A New Role for a Unique Microbial Groupp. 1078
Bioaugmentationp. 1080
A Fungus with a Voracious Appetitep. 1081
Microbes As Productsp. 1082
Streptavidin-Biotin Binding and Biotechnologyp. 1084
Impacts of Microbial Biotechnologyp. 1086
A Review of the Chemistry of Biological Moleculesp. A-1
Common Metabolic Pathwaysp. A-13
Glossaryp. G-1
Creditsp. C-1
Indexp. I-1
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