Principles of Water Resources: History, Development, Management, and Policy, 3rd Edition

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-08-01
  • Publisher: Wiley
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With all new and updated material, the third edition provides civil engineers with a complete history of water availability. It also delves into government development, management, and policy of water usage. New information is included on international water issues, water measurement, and telemetry. Additional details are also presented on global warming and its impact on water resources. In addition, environmental engineers will gain a current understanding of the field through updated case studies and images that make the material more relevant.

Table of Contents

About the Authorp. vii
Prefacep. ix
Book Companion Websitep. xxiii
A Note to the Studentp. xxv
Historical Perspective of Water use and Developmentp. 1
Drinking Water for Early Civilizationsp. 1
Early Irrigation and Flood-Control Projectsp. 6
Egyptp. 6
Chinap. 6
The Middle Eastp. 8
India, Spain, Portugal, and South Americap. 9
North Americap. 9
Early Water Transportation Developmentp. 13
Egypt and Greecep. 13
Chinap. 13
Europep. 14
United Statesp. 15
Early Hydropower Developmentp. 18
The Hydrologic Cycle, Climate, and Weatherp. 24
The Properties of Waterp. 25
The Hydrologic Cyclep. 27
Precipitationp. 27
Measuring Precipitationp. 29
Runoffp. 32
Surface and Groundwater Storagep. 33
Lakes and Reservoirsp. 33
Case Study Great Salt Lake of Utahp. 35
Case Study The Aral Sea of Uzbekistanp. 35
Wetlandsp. 36
Groundwaterp. 37
Evaporationp. 38
Condensationp. 41
Guest Essay Fog Harvesting by Dr. Robert S. Schemenauerp. 41
Climate and Weatherp. 46
Overviewp. 46
Climatep. 46
Air Currentsp. 46
Ocean Currentsp. 48
Tilt of the Earth's Axisp. 49
Monitoring Climate Changep. 50
Urban Microclimatesp. 51
Guest Essay Urbanization and Its Effects on Key Atmospheric and Surface Water Cycles by Dr. J. Marshall Shepherdp. 51
Processesp. 51
Weatherp. 55
Temperaturep. 55
Air Pressurep. 56
Humidityp. 57
Heatingp. 58
Wind Speed and Directionp. 62
Weather Modificationp. 63
Floodsp. 64
Droughtp. 66
Surface Water Hydrologyp. 74
What Is Surface Water Hydrology?p. 75
Watershedsp. 75
Delineating a Watershedp. 75
Overland Flowp. 78
Riversp. 79
Components of a Riverp. 79
River Morphologyp. 79
Types of Riversp. 82
Gradientp. 83
Lakesp. 83
Types of Lakesp. 84
Ecological Zonesp. 84
Thermal Cyclesp. 85
Seichesp. 86
Water Measurementp. 86
Overland Flowp. 87
River Dischargep. 87
Water Storage in Lakes and Reservoirsp. 90
Flood Eventsp. 91
Flood Frequencyp. 92
Probable Maximum Precipitationp. 93
Probable Maximum Floodp. 93
Guest Essay GIS and Flooding by Jake Freierp. 94
Transport and Depositionp. 97
Velocityp. 98
Sediment Loadp. 98
Groundwater Hydrologyp. 104
What Is Groundwater?p. 105
What Is Groundwater Hydrology?p. 106
The Geology of Groundwaterp. 107
Sedimentary Rocksp. 107
Guest Essay Sinkholes by Carlos Herdp. 108
Glaciated Terrainp. 111
Alluvial Valleysp. 113
Tectonic Activityp. 113
Groundwater Rechargep. 114
Aquifersp. 115
Aquifer Typesp. 116
Properties of Aquifersp. 119
Groundwater Movementp. 121
Age of Groundwaterp. 126
Locating and Mapping Groundwaterp. 127
Drilling a Groundwater Wellp. 129
Water Qualityp. 137
Water Pollutionp. 137
Point Source and Nonpoint Source Pollutionp. 139
Point Source Pollutionp. 139
Nonpoint Source Pollutionp. 142
Basic Parameters of Waterp. 143
Temperaturep. 143
Dissolved Oxygenp. 144
pHp. 144
Turbidityp. 146
Hardnessp. 147
Inorganic Chemicalsp. 147
Metalsp. 148
Leadp. 148
Arsenicp. 149
Mineralsp. 150
Saltp. 150
Policy Issuep. 150
Fluoridep. 152
Seleniump. 152
Organic Chemicalsp. 153
Natural Organic Chemicalsp. 153
Synthetic Organic Compoundsp. 153
Pesticidesp. 155
Nutrientsp. 157
Nitrogenp. 157
Phosphorusp. 158
The Nitrogen Cyclep. 159
Nitrogen Fixationp. 160
Mineralization/Ammonificationp. 160
Nitrificationp. 160
Denitrificationp. 161
The Phosphorus Cyclep. 161
Eutrophicationp. 162
Waterborne Diseasesp. 162
Historical Problemsp. 162
Microorganismsp. 164
Indicator Organismsp. 164
Other Waterborne Organismsp. 165
Water Quality Managementp. 167
Fate and Transportp. 167
Fate and Transport in Surface Waterp. 167
Fate and Transport in Groundwaterp. 167
Guest Essay Managing Data for a Groundwater Restoration Project by Dr. Curt Elmorep. 169
Wellhead Protection Programsp. 171
Organizationp. 171
Delineationp. 171
Contamination Source Inventoryp. 173
Source Managementp. 173
Contingency Planningp. 173
Watershed Protection Programsp. 173
Total Maximum Daily Loadsp. 174
Guest Essay Lake Okeechobee TMDLs by Dr. David Radcliffe and Dr. Todd Rasmussenp. 175
Water Samplingp. 177
Municipal and Irrigation Water Developmentp. 185
Municipal Water Systemsp. 186
Case Study Los Angeles Department of Water and Powerp. 187
Case Study Lincoln Water Systemp. 191
Case Study New York City Department of Environmental Protectionp. 193
Guest Study Construction of City Tunnel #3 by Eileen M. Schnockp. 196
Irrigationp. 202
Historical Perspectivep. 202
The need for Irrigationp. 202
Irrigation Techniquesp. 205
Gravity Irrigationp. 206
Sprinkler Irrigationp. 210
Drip Irrigationp. 213
Damsp. 217
Dam Basicsp. 217
Purposes of Damsp. 217
Components of Damsp. 218
Types of Damsp. 219
Dam Operationsp. 221
Case Study Hoover Dam and Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizonap. 223
Case Study Kingsley Dam and Lake McConaughy, Nebraskap. 227
Case Study Grand Coulee Dam and Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Washington Statep. 231
Cost-Benefit Analysisp. 234
Impacts of Damsp. 235
Guest Essay Forced Urbanization: The Three Gorges Dam Relocation Process by Colin Flahivep. 237
Dams and Locks for Navigationp. 240
Guest Essay Navigation on the Tennessee River by Ted Nelsonp. 242
Water Allocation Lawp. 249
Ancient Water Allocation Lawp. 250
Code of Hammurabip. 250
Justinian Codep. 251
Ancient Riparian Doctrinep. 251
Water Allocation Law: 1200-1799p. 252
Spanish Water Lawp. 252
First Possessionp. 254
English Common Law: 1200-1799p. 255
Mill Acts of the Eastern United Statesp. 255
Water Allocation Law: 1800-1847p. 258
Code Napoléonp. 258
Riparian Doctrine: 1800-1847p. 258
Tyler v. Wilkinsonp. 259
Water Allocation Law in the Western United States: 1800-1847p. 260
Water Allocation Law: 1848-1899p. 262
Riparian Doctrinep. 262
Doctrine of Prior Appropriation: 1848-1899p. 262
The California Gold Rushp. 264
The Colorado Gold Rushp. 267
Water Allocation Law: 1900-Presentp. 272
Riparian Doctrinep. 272
Doctrine of Prior Appropriation: 1900-Presentp. 274
Interstate River Compactsp. 277
Selected River Compactsp. 277
Colorado River Compact of 1922p. 277
Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty of 1950p. 281
Delaware River Compact of 1961p. 281
Groundwater Allocation Lawp. 282
Historical Perspectivep. 282
Role of the Federal Governmentp. 283
Legal Properties of Groundwaterp. 284
Federal Reserved Water Rightsp. 286
Guest Essay Stream Subflow and Water Rights by John Reganp. 287
Federal Water Agenciesp. 294
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)p. 295
Overviewp. 295
Brief History and Dutiesp. 295
Navigation Dutiesp. 296
Flood-Control Dutiesp. 300
Wetlands Protection Dutiesp. 303
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR)p. 306
Overviewp. 306
Brief Historyp. 307
National Irrigation Congressesp. 308
The Reclamation Act of 1902p. 309
The Anti-Dam Construction Erap. 310
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)p. 312
Overviewp. 312
Brief Historyp. 313
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)p. 316
Overviewp. 316
Brief Historyp. 316
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)p. 320
Overviewp. 320
Brief Historyp. 320
National Park Service (NPS)p. 322
Overviewp. 322
Brief Historyp. 322
Bureau of Land Management (BLM)p. 324
Overviewp. 324
Brief Historyp. 324
Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)p. 325
Overviewp. 325
Brief Historyp. 326
U.S. Forest Service (USFS)p. 326
Overviewp. 326
Brief Historyp. 326
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)p. 327
Overview and Brief Historyp. 327
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)p. 329
Overview and Brief Historyp. 329
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)p. 329
Overview and Brief Historyp. 329
Local, Regional, State, and Multistate Water Management Agenciesp. 338
Local Water Agenciesp. 338
Municipal Water Departmentsp. 338
Historical Overviewp. 339
Water and Sewer Districtsp. 341
Overviewp. 341
Example: Highline Water District, Kent, Washingtonp. 341
Levee and Flood-Control Districtsp. 342
Historical Overviewp. 342
Levee Districtsp. 342
Flood-Control Districtsp. 345
Example: Pima County Regional Flood Control District, Tucson, Arizonap. 345
Mutual Ditch and Irrigation Companiesp. 346
Historical Overviewp. 346
Regional Water Agenciesp. 348
Overviewp. 348
Irrigation Districtsp. 348
Example: Farwell Irrigation District, Farwell, Nebraskap. 348
Conservancy/Conservation Districtsp. 349
Example: Miami Conservancy District, Dayton, Ohiop. 350
Natural Resources Districts-Nebraskap. 350
Example: Papio-Missouri River Natural Resources District, Omaha, Nebraskap. 351
Groundwater Management Districts-Kansasp. 352
Example: Northwest Kansas Groundwater Management District No. 4, Colby, Kansasp. 353
Water Management Districts-Floridap. 353
State Water Agenciesp. 355
State of Arizona Water Agenciesp. 355
State of Rhode Island Water Agenciesp. 356
Multistate Water Agenciesp. 357
Chesapeake Bay Commissionp. 357
Missouri River Basin Associationp. 357
Water Management in Mexico and Canadap. 359
Overviewp. 359
Guest Essay Water Management in Mexico by Dr. Alvaro A. Aldamap. 360
Guest Essay Water Management in Canada: The Inter-Jurisdictional Context by Ralph L. Pentlandp. 366
Careersp. 371
Drinking-Water and Wastewater Treatmentp. 374
Historical Perspective on Drinking-Water Treatmentp. 374
Guest Essay Water Desalination in the Middle East: One of the Realistic Options by Dr. Fares M. Howarip. 380
Federal Protection of Drinking Water in the United Statesp. 383
Drinking-Water Treatment Processp. 384
Protection of Water Qualityp. 384
Intakes for Raw Waterp. 385
Case Study Department of Water Management, City of Chicago, Illinoisp. 386
Pretreatment of Drinking Waterp. 388
Flocculation/Coagulationp. 388
Filtrationp. 388
Case Study Sewerage and Water Board, City of New Orleans, Louisianap. 389
Final Drinking-Water Treatmentp. 390
Distribution Systemp. 390
Historical Perspective on Wastewater Treatmentp. 393
Wastewater Treatment Processp. 396
Primary Treatmentp. 396
Secondary Treatmentp. 397
Tertiary Treatmentp. 398
Nutrient Removalp. 398
Septic Tanks and Leach Fieldsp. 399
Wetlands and Water Treatmentp. 400
Water, Fish, and Wildlifep. 406
Early Fish and Wildlife Protectionp. 406
Fish and Wildlife Protection in the 20th Centuryp. 407
Wild and Scenic Rivers Actp. 408
National Environmental Policy Actp. 410
Endangered Species Actp. 413
Wetlands and Wildlifep. 415
Case Study Snail Darters and the Little Tennessee Riverp. 421
Case Study Whooping Cranes and the Platte Riverp. 424
Case Study Salmon and the Columbia Riverp. 428
Human-Environment Relationshipp. 434
Guest Essay Careers in Fish and Wildlife Management by Larry Rogstadp. 434
The Economics of Waterp. 441
Introductionp. 441
The Value of Waterp. 442
Water as a Public versus a Private Goodp. 443
Privatizationp. 444
Water Affordabilityp. 445
Water Marketingp. 446
Surface Water Marketingp. 446
Groundwater Marketingp. 449
Water Bankingp. 450
Pollution Fees and Creditsp. 451
Environmental Valuesp. 452
Water Use Conflictsp. 455
Reasons for Water Use Conflictsp. 455
Texasp. 457
Guest Essay Water Planning in Texas by Connie Townsendp. 458
Alabama and Florida versus
Georgiap. 463
Northern and Southern Californiap. 468
Canadap. 469
The Middle Eastp. 470
Religious/Political Backgroundp. 471
Water Resources in the Middle Eastp. 473
West Bank Mountain Aquiferp. 473
Jordan Riverp. 473
Tigris and Euphrates Riversp. 475
Tragedy of the Commonsp. 477
Emerging Water Issuesp. 482
Future Global Water Management Issuesp. 483
Populationp. 483
Lack of Wastewater Treatmentp. 483
Environmental Degradationp. 484
"Business as Usual"p. 485
Future Global Water Management Solutionsp. 486
Privatization of Water Treatment and Deliveryp. 486
"Technology Saves the Day"p. 487
Groundwater Rechargep. 487
Water Conservationp. 488
Dam Constructionp. 489
"Global Warming Floods the World"p. 490
Water Educationp. 490
The Watercourse and International Project Wetp. 490
Water Education Foundationp. 491
Groundwater Foundationp. 491
American Ground Water Trustp. 491
Stockholm International Water Institutep. 492
The Need for Cooperationp. 492
The Human Factorp. 492
Ethicsp. 493
The Power of the Individualp. 494
"Space Is the Answer"p. 495
Guest Essay Where Do We Go from Here? by Susan S. Seacrestp. 496
Conclusionsp. 499
Reading Topographic Mapsp. 503
Selected Environmental and Conservation Organizationsp. 504
Ducks Unlimitedp. 504
Environmental Defense Fundp. 504
National Audubon Societyp. 505
National Wildlife Federationp. 506
Nature Conservancyp. 506
Nature Resources Defense Councilp. 506
Sierra Clubp. 506
Trout Unlimitedp. 507
Wilderness Societyp. 507
Photo and Illustration Creditsp. 509
Glossaryp. 513
Indexp. 527
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