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Private Security Today

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2016-02-26
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


For courses in Introduction to Security and Introduction to Private Security.


A global perspective of security issues combined with broad practical coverage of crime prevention strategies.

Private Security Today includes topical coverage that spans the evolution of security, through the present, to the future of the field.To give readers a look at the diverse issues contemporary security professionals face, this globally-focused overview incorporates international components from outside the U.S., as well as a multidisciplinary analysis of the field. Theories are presented in a way that asks readers to consider the balance of individual personal freedoms and public safety for society as a whole. The topics in the text were chosen based on student, professional, and professor recommendations to ensure that the coverage is both relevant and current. Throughout the book, engaging learning tools and real-world examples encourage students to think critically about the state of security today.

Author Biography

Frank Schmalleger, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke, where he also was recognized as Distinguished Professor. Dr. Schmalleger holds degrees from the University of Notre Dame and The Ohio State University; he earned both a master's and a doctorate in sociology, with a special emphasis in criminology, from The Ohio State University. From 1976 to 1994, he taught criminal justice courses at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke, and for the last 16 of those years, he chaired the university's Department of Sociology, Social Work, and Criminal Justice. As an adjunct professor with Webster University in St. Louis, Missouri, Schmalleger helped develop the university's graduate program in security administration and loss prevention and taught courses in that curriculum for more than a decade. Schmalleger has also taught in the New School for Social Research's online graduate program, helping build the world's first electronic classrooms in support of distance learning through computer telecommunications. Schmalleger is the author of numerous articles as well as many books: Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century (Pearson, 2015), now in its thirteenth edition; Juvenile Delinquency (with Clemmens Bartollas; Pearson, 2014); Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, Tenth Edition (Pearson 2014); Criminal Law Today, Fifth Edition (Pearson, 2014); Corrections in the Twenty-First Century (with John Smykla; McGraw-Hill, 2015); and many other titles. He is also founding editor of the Journal of Criminal Justice Studies (formerly The Justice Professional).   


Carter F. Smith teaches security and criminal justice courses in the Department of Criminal Justice Administration at Middle Tennessee State University in Murfreesboro, TN. He has also taught at Austin Peay State University and the Florida Institute of Technology. Dr. Smith received a Ph.D. in Business Administration from Northcentral University, a Juris Doctorate from Southern Illinois University, and a Bachelor of Science Degree from Austin Peay State University. He has taught Security and Security Administration courses since 2005. Smith has taught classes for many Gang Investigators Associations, the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, the National Crime Prevention Council, the Regional Organized Crime Information Center, the National Gang Crime Research Center, the Southern Criminal Justice Association, the U.S. Department of Justice and the U.S. Army. Smith is a retired U.S. Army Criminal Investigations Division (CID) Command Special Agent. He provided and directed the security of several U.S. Army bases, supervised multi-national fraud and theft investigations, and conducted various criminal and cyber-crime investigations in Germany, Korea, Panama, and the United States. He has been interviewed by several national, regional and local television, print, internet and radio news sources, and has appeared twice in the History Channel’s Gangland series. He is a member of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (ACJS), The American Society of Criminology, the Southern Criminal Justice Association, the American Criminal Justice Association, the Fraternal Order of Police, Infragard, and ASIS International.


Larry J. Siegel, a graduate of Christopher Columbus High School in the Bronx, received his BA at the City College of New York, and his MA and Ph.D. in Criminal Justice at the State University of New York at Albany, Dr. Siegel began his teaching career at Northeastern University—where he was a faculty member for nine years and held teaching positions at the University of Nebraska-Omaha and Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire before joining the faculty of the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at the University of Massachusetts-Lowell where he taught for the past 26 years. He is now a professor emeritus and adjunct professor in the graduate program in the School of Criminology and Justice Studies. Dr. Siegel has also written extensively in the area of crime and justice, including books on juvenile law, delinquency, criminology, corrections, courts and criminal procedure. He is a court certified expert on police conduct and has testified in numerous legal cases.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Origins and Foundations of Security 1

Introduction 2

The History of Security 3

Security in European History 3

Security in North America 4

Spotlight Allan Pinkerton 5

Security Today 7

Defining Security 10

The Need for Security 11

Security Professionals 12

Academic Recognition 13

Security Careers 13

The Role of Security 14

Private Security and Public Space 16

Private Security and Law Enforcement 17

Agency Cooperation 17

Overcoming Obstacles to Cooperation 18

The Effect of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 18

Volunteers in Security 19

Neighborhood Watch 19

Stand Your Ground 20

Spotlight Trayvon Martin and George Zimmerman 20

Challenges in the Security Field 20

Professional Organizations 22

Summary 24


Chapter 2 Theoretical Foundations of Security 26

Introduction 27

Why Do People Commit Crime? 28

Focus on the Individual 28

It’s a Rational Choice 28

It’s in Your Makeup 29

It’s in Your Mind 29

It’s a Lack of Self-Control 30

Social Influences 30

It’s the Environment 30

It is How You Are Raised 31

Learning View 31

Control View 32

Multiple Causes/Multiple Crimes 32

The Crime Triangle 33

Controlling People 34

General Deterrence 34

Specific Deterrence 34

Controlling Places 34

Situational Crime Prevention 34

Security in Practice Communities Feel Safer with Private Security 35

Defensible Space 35

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design 36

Displacement and Diffusion 37

Diffusion 37

Broken Windows Theory 38

Game Theory 38

Summary 39

Key Terms 40

Review Questions 40

Practical Application 40


Chapter 3 Security Administration and Management 42

Introduction 43

The Business of Security 43

Security Programs: Proprietary versus Contractual 44

Spotlight What Security Executives Should Know about Ethics 45

Business Principles 45

Ethics 45

Explaining Ethics 46

Natural Law 46

Ethical Theory 46

Religious Principles 47

Legal Requirements 47

Ethical Practice 48

Ethical Systems 48

Ethics and Security 49

Security in Practice Insider Threats 50

Administrator or Manager 50

Ethics of the Employees 50

Ethics of Leadership 51

Competitive Advantages 51

Spotlight ACTION: Decision-Making Model—Raytheon 52

Ethical Decision Making 52

Ethics and the Use of Force 52

Ethical Hiring Practices 52

The Security Profession 53

Security Professionalism 53

Security Leadership 53

Security Management Issues 54

Planning and Decision Making 54

Labor Relations 55

Financial Management 55

Change Management 55

Security Programs in the Organization 55

Motivation and Management Theories 56

Security Administration and Management Challenges 58

Demographics 58

Globalization 59

Cultural Awareness 60

Professional Certification 60

G4S Custom Protection Officer (CPO) 61

Future Security Firms 61

Spotlight Security Franchising 62

Summary 62

Key Terms 63

Review Questions 63

Practical Application 63


Chapter 4 Legal Aspects, Liability, and Regulation 64

Introduction 65

Security Exercise 65

Licensing and Professional Standards 66

Spotlight Private Officer International Helps Craft Security Laws 67

Legal Foundations of Security Law 67

Constitutional Law 68

Bill of Rights 68

Case Law (Judicial Decisions) 69

Laws of Arrest 69

Confession/Admission 70

Detention 70

Interrogation 70

Rights of Accused Persons 70

Security in Practice Training Requirements in Private Security 71

Search and Seizure 71

Statutory Criminal Law 72

Administrative Law 73

Agency Relationship 74

Employment Law 74

Strikes 74

Workers’ Compensation 74

Hiring 75

Spotlight Security and Service Animals 76

Liability Insurance 76

Sexual Harassment 76

Civil Law 77

Careers in Security 81

Summary 81

Key Terms 82

Review Questions 82

Practical Application 83


Chapter 5 Understanding, Analyzing, and Managing Risk 84

Introduction 85

Risk 85

Risk Assessment 85

Determining Risk 86

Security Exercise 87

Security Surveys 87

Spotlight Home Security Survey 88

An Ongoing Process 88

Diagram the Location 89

Cost Effectiveness 89

Spotlight Security Vulnerability Self-Assessment 90

Types of Risk 91

Sources of Risk 91

The Process of Risk Management 92

The Cycle of Risk Management 92

Risk Management Activities 93

Risk Management Programs 94

Risk Management Applications 94

Risk Management Principles 94

Organizational Risk 94

Reducing Risk 96

Steps to Optimal Risk Reduction Strategies 96

Measuring Effectiveness 96

Spotlight Managing Risk on Campus 97

Careers in Security 97

Summary 98

Key Terms 98

Review Questions 98

Practical Application 98


Chapter 6 Physical Security 99

Introduction 100

Guiding Principles 100

Physical Security 101

Designing the Security System 101

Labeling the Threat 103

Ranking the Threat 103

Protecting against the Threat 104

Perimeter Security 104

Access Barriers 105

Structural Barriers 105

Fences 106

Gates 106

Safes and Vaults 106

Locks 106

Mechanical Locks 108

Lock Picking 110

Master Keying 110

Electromagnetic Locks 110

Electrified Locking Mechanisms 110

Motion Sensors 111

Access and Entry Control 113

Biometrics 115

Security Lighting 117

Emergency Lighting 118

Security Forces 118

Security Personnel and the Use of Force 119

Dogs in Support of Security 119

Proper Use of Security Support Dogs 119

Use of Force with Security Support Dogs 120

Video Surveillance Systems 120

Legal Issues 121

The Future of Surveillance Systems 122

Layered Security 122

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design 124

Fire Safety 127

National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) 128

Fire Detectors 128

Fire Extinguishers 129

Careers in Security 130

Summary 130

Key Terms 131

Review Questions 131

Practical Application 131


Chapter 7 Institutional and Workplace Security 133

Introduction 134

Institutional and Facilities Security 134

Airport Security 134

Amusement Parks 135

Banking and Financial Institutions 135

Chemical Security 135

Convenience Stores 135

Correctional Facilities (Private) 135

Food Service Organizations 136

Government Buildings 136

Health Care Industry 136

Hospitality and Lodging (Hotels and Motels) 136

Maritime/Port Security 136

Medical and Legal Marijuana Distributions 136

Movie Theaters 137

Museums 137

Retail Complex Security (Mall, Shopping Center, General Retail Security) 137

Schools and Campuses 137

Sporting Events and Arenas 137

Security Exercise 138

The Nature of Workplace Violence 138

Types of Workplace Violence 138

Indicators of Potential for Workplace Violence 139

Domestic Violence in the Workplace 140

Active Shooter Situations 140

The Workplace Violator 142

Controlling Workplace Violence 143

Planning for Prevention 144

Prevention Strategies 145

Employee Responsibilities 146

Security in Practice Securing the Olympics 147

Emerging Forms of Institutional and Workplace Security 147

Petroleum Manufacturing and Distribution 147

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and Distribution 147

Cruise Ships 148

Energy Manufacturing and Distribution Sector 148

Careers in Security 148

Summary 149

Key Terms 150

Review Questions 150

Practical Application 151


Chapter 8 Security Investigations and Prosecution 152

Introduction 153

Private versus Public Investigators 153

Qualifications of Private Investigators 154

Spotlight Basic Principles for Investigators 154

The Investigation Process and the Investigative Mind-Set 155

Conducting Effective Investigations 155

Criminal Investigations 156

White-Collar Crimes 156

Spotlight Sarbanes-Oxley Act 157

Fraud Investigations 157

Product Counterfeiting 159

Noncriminal Investigations 159

Due Diligence Investigations 160

Accidents 160

Theft of Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage 161

Interviewing and Interrogating 161

Spotlight Differences between Interviews and Interrogations 162

Interview Types 162

Nonverbal Communication 163

Listening Skills 163

Taking Notes 164

Surveillance 164

Surveillance Methods 165

Surveillance Types 165

Spotlight Ten Tips and Suggestions for Covert Operators 166

Undercover Operations 166

Information and Intelligence 167

Polygraph Examinations and Behavioral Analysis Interviews 168

Sources and Other Information Resources 169

Managing Human Sources 169

Report Writing 170

Case Management for the Investigator 170

Bringing the Case to Court 170

Depositions 171

Discovery 172

Court Testimony 172

Direct Examination 172

Cross-Examination 172

Spotlight Courtroom Testimony 173

Expert Testimony 174

Professional Certifications for Investigators 174

Spotlight ASIS Professional Certified Investigator 174

Networking and Liaison 176

Careers in Security 177

Summary 177

Key Terms 178

Review Questions 178

Practical Application 179


Chapter 9 Retail Security and Loss Prevention 180

Introduction 181

Retail Security, Loss Prevention, and Asset Protection 181

Goals of Retail Security and Loss Prevention Professionals 182

Shrinkage 182

Shoplifting 184

Security Exercise 186

Types of Products Targeted for Theft 186

Preventing Shoplifting 186

Spotlight Probable Cause Steps 187

Shoplifter Identification: Profiling 187

Profiling Problems 188

Changing Behavior 188

Spotlight Credentialing Loss Prevention Professionals 189

Organized Retail Crime 189

Spotlight Gate Cutters Organized Retail Crime Group 190

Combating Organized Retail Crime 191

Security in Practice Mall Security 191

Flash Mobs 192

Employee Theft/Theft from Within 192

Motivations 193

Conspiracies with Outsiders 193

Preventing Employee Theft 194

New Loss Prevention 195

Technology 196

Spotlight LERPnet2.0 - The Law Enforcement Retail Partnership Network 196

Video Surveillance 197

Spotlight Facial Recognition is a Game-Changer for Retailers 197

Emerging Forms of Theft 198

Accident Prevention 198

Vandalism, Burglary, and Robbery 199

Vandalism 199

Burglary 200

Robbery 201

Careers in Security 202

Summary 202

Key Terms 203

Review Questions 204

Practical Application 204


Chapter 10 Homeland Security and the Terrorism Threat 205

Introduction 206

Defining Homeland Security 207

The Goals of Homeland Security 209

Practicing Homeland Security 209

Private Homeland Security 211

Private/Public Cooperation 212

International Homeland Security 213

United Kingdom 213

France 213

Israel 213

Russia 214

Canada 214

The Threat of Terrorism 215

Homegrown Violent Extremists 216

Extremism 216

Spotlight Nidal Hasan 217

Religious Extremism 217

Spotlight Best Terminology for Describing the Terrorist Threat 218

Becoming an Extremist 218

Spotlight Sovereign Citizens 219

Domestic Terrorists 219

Spotlight Wolf Packs 220

Terrorist Activity in the United States 220

Spotlight Terrorism in Texas 221

Terrorists and Crime 221

Terrorism outside the United States 222

The Islamic State (IS) 222

Boko Haram 222

Spotlight Islamic State in Europe 223

Al-Shabaab 223

Terrorist Planning and Preparation 224

Terrorist Motivation 225

Domestic Terrorism and Law Enforcement 226

Bombings and Bomb Threats 227

Fires, Bombs, and Explosive Devices 228

Spotlight INTERCON Bomb Threat Plan 228

Countering Terrorism with Private Security 228

Executive and Protection Services 229

Assessing the Threat of Terrorism 230

Careers in Security 231

Summary 232

Key Terms 233

Review Questions 233

Practical Application 234


Chapter 11 Emergency Practices and Crisis/Disaster Management 235

Introduction 236

History of Emergency, Crisis, and Disaster Management 237

Supporting Emergency Management Legislation 237

Emergency, Crisis, or Disaster Management? 238

Emergencies 238

Crisis 239

Disaster 239

The Effect of Emergency, Crisis, or Disaster Management on Security 240

Maintaining Partnerships 240

Emergency Management and National Preparedness 240

Prevention 241

Protection 242

Mitigation 242

Response 243

Recovery 244

Planning 245

Emergency Response Plans 246

Public Information and Warning 247

Media and Public Relations 248

National Incident Management System 249

Incident Command System 250

Business and Operations Continuity 252

Challenges and Future Considerations for Security Professionals 256

Careers in Security 257

Summary 258

Key Terms 259

Review Questions 259

Practical Application 260


Chapter 12 Critical Infrastructure Security 261

Introduction 262

Critical Infrastructure Defined 262

Key Resources 263

Spotlight The New World Trade Center 263

Threat Analysis 264

Protecting CIKR 265

National Infrastructure Protection Plan 267

The National Response Framework 268

Information Sharing 268

Spotlight Critical Infrastructure in Occupied Territory 268

CIKR Protection at the Federal Level 269

Interagency Cooperation 270

Security Exercise 270

State, Local, and Tribal CIKR Concerns and Responsibilities 271

Fusion Centers 271

Protecting CIKR and the Private Sector 274

Industry Concerns 274

Public-Private Partnerships for Infrastructure Security 274

Benefits of Cooperation 275

Cooperation in Practice 277

New York Police Department SHIELD 277

The Law Enforcement and Private Security Organization El Paso 278

Target & BLUE 278

Operation Cooperation 278

InfraGard 278

The Process of CIKR Protection 279

Vulnerability Assessment Guidelines 279

Vulnerability Assessment Tools 280

Careers in Security 280

Summary 281

Key Terms 282

Review Questions 282

Practical Application 282


Chapter 13 Information, Cyber, and Computer Security 284

Introduction 285

Security in Practice Securing Client Networks 286

Information Security and Cyber/Computer Security 287

Information Security (INFOSEC) 288

Spotlight Wikileaks 288

Information Security Threats and Concerns 289

Spotlight Facebook 290

Spotlight Edward Snowden 292

Cyber/Computer Security 292

Cybercrimes 293

Spotlight Nigerian Scams 293

Identity theft 294

Cybercriminals 294

How Do They Do It? 295

Spotlight U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team 295

Spotlight Ransomware 298

Mobile Security 299

Mobile Payments 300

Cloud Computing 300

The Smart Grid 300

Mesh Networks 301

Internet of Things 301

Human Enhancements 302

Driverless Vehicles 303

Here Come the White Hats: Security’s Role in Countering Cyberattacks 303

Elicit Management Commitment 303

Securing Passwords 304

Require Firewalls 304

Encourage a Computer User Baseline 304

Countering Cyberthreats 304

Spotlight Cyber Storm 304

Cyberthreats from Within 304

Cyberwarfare and Cyberterrorism 305

Cyberterrorism 306

Spotlight Anonymous 306

Cyber Vigilantism 306

Fighting the Cyberwar 307

Cyber Caliphate 307

Spotlight What Can We Do with Cyberspace? 308

Careers in Security 308

Summary 309

Key Terms 310

Review Questions 310

Practical Application 311




Supplemental Materials

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The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

The Used, Rental and eBook copies of this book are not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

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