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  • Edition: 10th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-01-03
  • Publisher: Pearson
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This text emphasizes the importance of critical thinking and the integration of culture and gender in the science of psychology. Well-known for its pioneering focus on the development of critical thinking skills crucial to students'success in college and in later life,Psychologyby Wade & Tavris is also widely regarded for the liveliness, warmth, and clarity of its writing style. Continuing its tradition of integrating gender, culture, and ethnicity throughout the text,Psychologyprovides a comprehensive introduction to the field.

Author Biography

Carole Wade earned her Ph.D. in cognitive psychology at Stanford University. She began her academic career at the University of New Mexico, where she taught courses in psycholinguistics and developed the first course at the university on the psychology of gender. She was professor of psychology for ten years at San Diego Mesa College, then taught at College of Marin and Dominican University of California. In addition to this text, she and Carol Tavris have written Invitation to Psychology; Psychology in Perspective; and The Longest War: Sex Differences in Perspective. Dr. Wade has a long-standing interest in making psychology accessible to students and the general public. In particular, she has focused her efforts on the teaching and promotion of critical-thinking skills, diversity issues, and the enhancement of undergraduate education in psychology. She chaired the APA Board of Educational Affairs’s Task Force on Diversity Issues at the Precollege and Undergraduate Levels of Education in Psychology, as well as the APA’s Public Information Committee; has been a G. Stanley Hall lecturer at the APA convention; and served on the steering committee for the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology. Dr. Wade is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a charter member of the Association for Psychological Science. When she isn’t busy with her professional activities, she can be found riding the trails of northern California on her Morgan horse, McGregor, or one of his Arabian stablemates, Condé or Ricochet.


Carol Tavris earned her Ph.D. in the interdisciplinary program in social psychology at the University of Michigan, and as a writer and lecturer she has sought to educate the public about the importance of critical and scientific thinking in psychology. In addition to this text, she and Carole Wade have written Invitation to Psychology; Psychology in Perspective; and The Longest War: Sex Differences in Perspective. Dr. Tavris is also coauthor, with Elliot Aronson, of Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me): Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts; and author of The Mismeasure of Woman and Anger: The Misunderstood Emotion. She has written on psychological topics for a wide variety of magazines, journals, edited books, and newspapers. Many of her book reviews and opinion essays for the Los Angeles Times, The New York Times Book Review, the TLS, Scientific American, and other publications have been collected in Psychobabble and Biobunk: Using Psychology to Think Critically About Issues in the News. Dr. Tavris lectures widely on topics involving science vs. pseudoscience in psychology and psychiatry, on writing about science for the public, and many other subjects of contemporary interest. She has taught in the psychology department at UCLA and at the Human Relations Center of the New School for Social Research in New York. She is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a charter Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science; and a member of the editorial board of the APS journal Psychological Science in the Public Interest. When she is not writing or lecturing, she can be found walking the trails of the Hollywood Hills with her border collie, Sophie.

Table of Contents



1. What is Psychology?

2. How Psychologists Do Research

3. Genes, Evolution, and Environment

4. The Brain: Source of Mind and Self

5. Body Rhythms and Mental States

6. Sensation and Perception

7. Learning and Conditioning

8. Behavior in Social and Cultural Context

9. Thinking and Intelligence

10. Memory

11. Emotion, Stress, and Health

12. Motivation

13. Development Over the Lifespan

14. Theories of Personality

15. Psychological Disorders

16. Approaches to Treatment and Therapy

Appendix: Statistical Methods   





Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Thinking Critically and Creatively About Psychology

Psychology's Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

    The Birth of Modern Psychology

    Three Early Psychologies

Psychology's Present: Behavior, Body, Mind, and Culture

    The Major Psychological Perspectives

    Other Influential Movements in Psychology

What Psychologists Do

    Psychological Research

    Psychological Practice

    Psychology in the Community 


    TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: What Psychology Can Do for You - and What it Can't


Chapter 2: How Psychologists Do Research

What Makes Psychological Research Scientific?

Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

    Case Studies

    Observational Studies



Correlational Studies: Looking for Relationships

    Measuring Correlations

    Cautions About Correlations

Experiments: Hunting for Causes

    Experimental Variables

    Experimental and Control Conditions

    Experimenter Effects

    CULTURE AND RESEARCH: Special Challenges

Evaluating the Findings

    Descriptive Statistics: Finding Out What's So

    Inferential Statistics: Asking "So What?"

    Interpreting the Findings

Keeping the Enterprise Ethical

    The Ethics of Studying Human Beings

    The Ethics of Studying Animals

    TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU:  Lying with Statistics


Chapter 3: Genes, Evolution, and Environment

Unlocking the Secrets of Genes

The Genetics of Similarity

    Evolution and Natural Selection

    Innate Human Characteristics

Our Human Heritage: Language

    The Nature of Language

    The Innate Capacity for Language

    Learning and Language

Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating

    Evolution and Sexual Strategies

    Culture and the "Genetic Leash"

The Genetics of Difference

    The Meaning of Heritability

    Computing Heritability

Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence

    Genes and Individual Differences

    BIOLOGY AND INTELLECT: Genes and Brainy Brains

    The Question of Group Differences

    The Environment and Intelligence

Beyond Nature versus Nurture

    TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Should You Have Genetic Testing?


Chapter 4: The Brain: Source of Mind and Self

The Nervous System: A Basic Blueprint

    The Central Nervous System

    The Peripheral Nervous System

Communication in the Nervous System

    The Structure of the Neuron

    Neurons in the News

    How Neurons Communicate

    The Plastic Brain

    Chemical Messengers in the Nervous System

Mapping the Brain

A Tour through the Brain

    The Brain Stem

    The Cerebellum

    The Thalamus

    The Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland

    The Amygdala

    The Hippocampus

    The Cerebrum

      CULTURE AND THE CORTEX: Can Culture Shape the Brain?

The Two Hemispheres of the Brain

    Split Brains: A House Divided

    The Two Hemispheres: Allies or Opposites?

Two Stubborn Issues in Brain Research

    Where Is the Self?

    Are There "His" and "Hers" Brains?

    TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Cosmetic Neurology: Tinkering with the Brain


Chapter 5: Body Rhythms and Mental States 

Biological Rhythms: The Tides of Experience

    Circadian Rhythms

    Moods and Long-Term Rhythms


The Rhythms of Sleep

    The Realms of Sleep

    Why We Sleep

Exploring the Dream World

    Dreams as Unconscious Wishes

    Dreams as Efforts to Deal with Problems

    Dreams as Thinking

    Dreams as Interpreted Brain Activity

    Evaluating Dream Theories

The Riddle of Hypnosis

    The Nature of Hypnosis

    Theories of Hypnosis

    BIOLOGY AND HYPNOSIS: Now You See It. . .

Consciousness-Altering Drugs

    Classifying Drugs

    The Physiology of Drug Effects

    The Psychology of Drug Effects



Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception

Our Sensational Senses:

    The Riddle of Seperate Sensations

    Measuring the Senses

    Sensory Adaptation

    Sensing Without Perceiving


    What We See

    An Eye on the World

    Why the Visual System Is Not a Camera

    How We See Colors

    Constructing the Visual World


    What We Hear

    An Ear on the World

    Constructing the Auditory World

Other Senses

    Taste: Savory Sensations

    Smell: The Sense of Scents

    Senses of the Skin

    The Mystery of Pain

    BIOLOGY AND EXPECTATIONS OF PAIN: Positive Thinking and the Power of the Placebo

    The Environment Within

Perceptual Powers: Origins and Influences

    Inborn Abilities

    Critical Periods

    Psychological and Cultural Influences

    CULTURE AND PERCEPTION: Of Carpenters and Context

Perception without Awareness

    TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Extrasensory Perception: Reality or Illusion?


Chapter 7: Learning and Conditioning

Classical Conditioning

    New Reflexes from Old

    Principles of Classical Conditioning

    What Is Actually Learned in Classical Conditioning?

Classical Conditioning in Real Life

    Learning to Like

    Learning to Fear

    Accounting for Taste

    Reacting to Medical Treatments


Operant Conditioning

    The Birth of Radical Behaviorism

    The Consequences of Behavior

Principles of Operant Conditioning

    Skinner: The Man and the Myth

Operant Conditioning in Real Life

    The Pros and Cons of Punishment

    The Problems with Reward

Learning and the Mind

    Latent Learning

    Social-Cognitive Learning Theories

    TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Does Media Violence Make You Violent?


Chapter 8: Behavior in Social and Cultural Context

Roles and Rules

    The Obedience Study

    The Prison Study

    Why People Obey

Social Influences on Beliefs and Behavior



    BIOLOGY AND BELIEFS: Do Genes Influence Attitudes?

    Persuasion or "Brainwashing"?: The Case of Suicide Bombers

Individuals in Groups



    The Wisdom and Madness of Crowds

    Altruism and Dissent

Us Versus Them: Group Identity

    Ethnic Identity



Group Conflict and Prejudice

    The Origins of Prejudice

    Defining and Measuring Prejudice

    Reducing Conflict and Prejudice

The Question of Human Nature

    TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Dealing with Cultural Differences


Chapter 9: Thinking and Intelligence

Thought: Using What We Know

    The Elements of Cognition

    How Conscious is Thought?

Reasoning Rationally

    Formal Reasoning: Algorithms and Logic

    Informal Reasoning: Heuristics and Dialectical Thinking

    Reflective Judgment

Barriers to Reasoning Rationally

    Exagerrating the Improbable (and Minimizing the Probable)

    Avoiding Loss

    The Fairness Bias

    BIOLOGY AND ECONOMIC CHOICE: Rejecting Unfair Offers

    The Hindsight Bias

    The Confirmation Bias

    Mental Sets

    The Need for Cognitive Consistency

    Overcoming Our Cognitive Biases

Measuring Intelligence: The Psychomatic Approach

    The Invention of IQ Tests


Dissecting Intelligence: The Cognitive Approach

    The Triarchic Theory

    Domains of Intelligence

    Thinking Critically About Intelligence(s)

    Motivation, Hard Work, and Intellectual Success

Animal Minds

    Animal Intelligence

    Animals and Language

    Thinking About the Thinking of Animals

    TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Becoming More Creative


Chapter 10: Memory

Reconstructing the Past

    The Manufacture of Memory

    The Conditions of Confabulation

Memory and the Power of Suggestion

    The Eyewitness on Trial

    Children's Testimony

In Pursuit of Memory

    Measuring Memory

    Models of Memory

The Three-Box Model of Memory

    The Sensory Register: Fleeting Impressions

    Short-Term Memory: Memory's Scratch Pad

    Long-Term Memory: Final Destination

The Biology of Memory

    Changes in Neurons and Synapses

    Locating Memories

    Hormones, Emotion, and Memory

How We Remember

    Effective Encoding


    Read, Recite, Review

    Retrieval Practice


Why We Forget




    Cue-Dependent Forgetting

    The Repression Controversy

Autobiographical Memories

    Childhood Amnesia: The Missing Years

    Memory and Narrative: The Stories of Our Lives



Chapter 11: Emotion, Stress, and Health

The Nature of Emotion

    Emotion and the Body

    BIOLOGY AND DECEPTION: Can Lies Be Detected in the Brain and Body?

    Emotion and the Mind

Emotion and Culture

    How Culture Shapes Emotions

    Communicating Emotions

    Gender and Emotion

The Nature of Stress

    Stress and the Body

    Stress and the Mind

    CULTURE AND CONTROL: What Can We Change, and What Must We Accept?

Stress and Emotion

    Hostility and Depression: Do They Hurt?

    Positive Emotions: Do They Help?

    Emotional Inhibition and Expression

Coping with Stress

    Solving the Problem

    Rethinking the Problem

    Drawing on Social Support

    TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: How Much Control Do We Have Over Our Emotions and Our Health?


Chapter 12: Motivation

The Hungry Animal: Motives to Eat

    The Biology of Weight

    Environmental Influences on Weight

    CULTURE AND THE IDEAL BODY: Norms, Gender, and Weight

    The Body as Battleground: Eating Disorders

The Social Animal: Motives to Love

    The Biology of Love

    The Psychology of Love

    Gender, Culture, and Love

The Erotic Animal: Motives for Sex

    The Biology of Desire

    The Psychology of Desire

    The Culture of Desire

    Gender. Culture, and Sex

    BIOLOGY AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION: Elusive Causes, Recent Clues

The Competent Animal: Motives to Achieve

    The Effects of Motivation on Work

    The Effects of Work on Motivation

Motives, Values, and the Pursuit of Happiness

    TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: How to Attain Your Goals


Chapter 13: Development Over the Life Span

From Conception through the First Year

    Prenatal Development

    The Infant's World


Cognitive Development


Moral Development

Gender Development

    Gender Identity

    Influences on Gender Development


    The Physiology of Adolescence

    BIOLOGY AND THE TEEN BRAIN: Less Guilty by Reason of Adolescence?

    The Psychology of Adolescence


    Stages and Ages

    The Transitions of Life

    Old Age

The Wellsprings of Resilience



Chapter 14:Theories of Personality

Psychodynamic Theories of Personality

    Freud and Psychoanalysis

    Other Psychodynamic Approaches

    Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories

The Modern Study of Personality

    Popular Personality Tests

    Core Personality Tests

Genetic Influences on Personality

    BIOLOGY AND ANIMAL TRAITS: Do Puppies Have Personalities?

    Heredity and Temperament

    Heredity and Traits

    Evaluating Genetic Theories

Environmental Influences on Personality

    Situations and Social Learning

    Parental Influences-and Its Limits

    The Power of Peers

Cultural Influences on Personality

    Culture, Values, and Traits

    CULTURE AND VIOLENCE: The Cultivation of Male Aggression

    Evaluating Cultural Approaches

The Inner Experience

    Humanist Approaches

    Narrative Approaches

    Evaluating Humanist and Narrative Approaches

    TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: How to Avoid the "Barnum Effect"


Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders

Diagnosing Mental Disorders

    Dilemmas of Diagnosis

    CULTURE AND MENTAL ILLNESS: Are Mental Problems the Same Everywhere?

    Dilemmas of Measurement

Anxiety Disorders

    Anxiety and Panic

    Fears and Phobias

    Obsessions and Compulsions

Mood Disorders


    Bipolar Disorder

    Origins of Depression

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Drug Abuse and Addiction

    Biology and Addiction

    Learning, Culture, and Addiction

    Debating the Causes of Addiction

Dissociative Identity Disorder


    Symptoms of Schizophrenia

    Origins of Schizophrenia

    TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Mental Disorder and Personal Responsibility


Chapter 16: Approaches to Treatment and Therapy

Biological Treatments for Mental Disorders

    The Question of Drugs

    Direct Brain Intervention

Major Schools of Psychotherapy

    Psychodynamic Therapy

    Behavior and Cognitive Therapy

    Humanist and Cognitive Therapy

    Family and Couples Therapy

Evaluating Psychotherapy

    CULTURE AND PSYCHOTHERAPY: Does a Therapist-Client "Match" Matter?

    The Scientist-Practitioner Gap

    When Therapy Helps

    BIOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY: How Treating the Mind Changes the Brain

    When Therapy Harms

The Value and Values of Psychotherapy

    TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Becoming a Smart Consumer of Psychological Treatments


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