Psychology: The Adaptive Mind

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-06-21
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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1. AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY. Preview: "What''s It For?: The Function of Psychology." Defining and describing psychology. Learning Goals. What psychologists do. Practical Solutions: "Can Racial Diversity Improve the Way We Think?" Test Yourself. The Science of Psychology: A Brief History. Learning Goals. Mind and body: Are they the same? Nature or nurture: Where does knowledge come from? The first schools: Psychology as science. Freud and the humanists: The influence of the clinic. The first women in psychology. Test Yourself. The Focus of Modern Psychology. Learning Goals. Cognitive factors. Biological factors. Evolutionary psychology. Cultural factors. Solving problems with the adaptive mind. Test Yourself. Review: "Psychology for a Reason." 2. THE TOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH. Preview: "What''s It For?: Unlocking the Secrets of Behavior and Mind." Observing behavior: Descriptive research. Learning Goals. Naturalistic observation: Focusing on real life. Case studies: Focusing on the individual. Surveys: Focusing on the group. Psychological tests: Assessing individual differences. Statistics: Summarizing and interpreting the data. Practical Solutions: "Intuitive Statistics." Test Yourself. Predicting behavior: Correlational research. Learning Goals. Correlational research. Correlations and causality. Test Yourself. Explaining behavior: Experimental research. Learning Goals. Independent and dependent variables. Experimental control. Expectancies and biases in experimental research. Generalizing experimental conclusions. Test Yourself. The ethics of research: Human and animal guidelines. Learning Goals. Informed consent. Debriefing and confidentiality. The ethics of animal research. Test Yourself. Review: "Psychology for a Reason: The Tools of Psychological Science." 3. BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES. Preview: "What''s It For?: Biological Solutions." Communicating internally: Connecting world and brain. Learning Goals. The anatomy of neurons. Neural transmission: The electrochemical message. The communication network. Practical Solutions: Better Thinking Through Chemistry. Test Yourself. Initiating behavior: A division of labor. Learning Goals. The central and peripheral nervous systems. How Do We Determine Brain Function. Brain structures and their functions. The divided brain. Test Yourself. Regulating growth and internal functions: Extended communication. Learning Goals. The endocrine system. Are there gender effects? Test Yourself. Adapting and transmitting the genetic code. Learning Goals. Natural selection and adaptations. Genetic principles. Genes and behavior. Test Yourself. Review: "Psychology for a Reason: Biological Solutions." 4. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. Preview: "What''s It For?: Developmental Solutions." Developing physically. Learning Goals. The stages of prenatal development. Growth during infancy. From crawling to walking. From toddlerhood to adolescence. Becoming an adult. Test Yourself. Developing intellectually. Learning Goals. The tools of investigation. The growing perceptual world. Do we lose memory with age? Piaget and the development of thought. The sensorimotor period: Birth to two years. The preoperational period: Two to seven years. The concrete operational period: Seven to eleven years. The formal operational period: Eleven to adulthood. Challenges to Piaget''s theory. Moral development: Learning right from wrong. Test Yourself. Developing socially and personally. Learning Goals. Forming bonds with others. The origins of attachment. Types of attachment. Do early attachments matter later in life? Child care: A cause for concern? Practical Solutions: "Choosing a Day-Care Center." Forming a personal identity: Erikson''s crises of development. Gender-role development. Growing old in society. Death and dying. Test Yourself. Review: "Psychology for a Reason: The Tools of Development." 5. SENSATION AND PERCEPTION. Preview: "What''s It For?: Building the World of Experience." Vision: Building a world of color and form. Lea

Table of Contents

An Introduction to Psychologyp. 2
Previewing the Conceptual Problemsp. 5
Defining and Describing Psychologyp. 6
Tracking Psychological Thought: A Brief Historyp. 11
Setting Directions in Modern Psychologyp. 20
Solving the Conceptual Problemsp. 26
The Tactics of Psychological Researchp. 30
Previewing the Conceptual Problemsp. 33
Observing Behavior: Descriptive Researchp. 34
Predicting Behavior: Correlational Researchp. 44
Explaining Behavior: Experimental Researchp. 48
The Ethics of Research: Human and Animal Guidelinesp. 55
Solving the Conceptual Problemsp. 59
Biological Processesp. 62
Previewing the Adaptive Problemsp. 65
Communicating Internally: Connecting World and Brainp. 65
Initiating Behavior: A Division of Laborp. 75
Regulating Growth and Internal Functions: Extended Communicationp. 91
Adapting and Transmitting the Genetic Codep. 94
Solving the Adaptive Problemsp. 98
Human Developmentp. 102
Previewing the Adaptive Problemsp. 104
Developing Physicallyp. 105
Developing Intellectuallyp. 114
Developing Socially and Personallyp. 130
Solving the Adaptive Problemsp. 145
Sensation and Perceptionp. 148
Previewing the Adaptive Problemsp. 151
Vision: Building a World of Color and formp. 152
Hearing: Identifying and Localizing Soundsp. 175
The Skin and Body Senses: from Movement to Touchp. 180
The Chemical Senses: Smell and Tastep. 184
From the Physical to the Psychologicalp. 187
Solving the Adaptive Problemsp. 190
Consciousnessp. 194
Previewing the Adaptive Problemsp. 197
Setting Priorities for Mental Functioning: Attentionp. 198
Sleeping and Dreamingp. 205
Altering Awareness: Psychoactive Drugsp. 217
Altering Awareness: Induced Statesp. 222
Solving the Adaptive Problemsp. 227
Learning From Experiencep. 230
Previewing the Adaptive Problemsp. 232
Learning about Events: Noticing and Ignoringp. 233
Learning What Events Signal: Classical Conditioningp. 236
Learning About the Consequences of Behavior: Operant Conditioningp. 247
Learning From Others: Observational Learningp. 260
Solving the Adaptive Problemsp. 263
Memoryp. 266
Previewing the Adaptive Problemsp. 269
Remembering Over The Short Termp. 269
Storing Information for the Long Termp. 278
Recovering Information from Cuesp. 286
Updating Memoryp. 292
Solving the Adaptive Problemsp. 299
Language and Thoughtp. 302
Previewing the Adaptive Problemsp. 304
Communicating with Othersp. 306
Classifying and Categorizingp. 315
Solving Problemsp. 320
Making Decisionsp. 327
Solving the Adaptive Problemsp. 333
Intelligencep. 336
Previewing the Conceptual and Practical Problemsp. 339
Conceptualizing Intelligencep. 339
Measuring Individual Differencesp. 347
Discovering the Sources of Intelligence: The Nature-Nurture Issuep. 358
Solving the Conceptual and Practical Problemsp. 367
Motivation and Emotionp. 370
Previewing the Adaptive Problemsp. 372
Activating Behaviorp. 373
Meeting Biological Needs: Hunger and Eatingp. 380
Meeting Biological Needs: Sexual Behaviorp. 387
Expressing and Experiencing Emotionp. 393
Solving the Adaptive Problemsp. 405
Personalityp. 408
Previewing the Conceptual and Practical Problemsp. 411
Conceptualizing and Measuring Personalityp. 411
Determining How Personality Developsp. 419
Resolving the Person--Situation Debatep. 433
Solving the Conceptual and Practical Problemsp. 438
Social Psychologyp. 442
Previewing the Adaptive Problemsp. 445
Interpreting the Behavior of Others: Social Cognitionp. 446
Behaving in the Presence of Others: Social Influencep. 461
Establishing Relations with Othersp. 474
Solving the Adaptive Problemsp. 482
Psychological Disordersp. 486
Previewing the Conceptual and Practical Problemsp. 489
Conceptualizing Abnormality: What Is Abnormal Behavior?p. 489
Classifying Psychological Disorders: The Dsm-IVp. 496
Understanding Psychological Disorders: Biological, Cognitive, or Environmental?p. 511
Solving the Conceptual and Practical Problemsp. 518
Therapyp. 522
Previewing the Conceptual and Practical Problemsp. 524
Treating the Body: Biomedical Therapiesp. 525
Treating the Mind: Insight Therapiesp. 532
Treating the Environment: Behavioral Therapiesp. 542
Evaluating and Choosing Psychotherapyp. 547
Solving the Conceptual and Practical Problemsp. 552
Stress and Healthp. 556
Previewing the Adaptive Problemsp. 558
Experiencing Stressp. 559
Reacting to Prolonged Stressp. 569
Reducing and Coping with Stressp. 575
Living a Healthy Lifestylep. 581
Solving the Adaptive Problemsp. 586
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