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9780393975918

Psychology of Learning and Behavior

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780393975918

  • ISBN10:

    0393975916

  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2001-09-19
  • Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

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Summary

Now in its Fifth Edition, Psychology of Learning and Behavior is one of the most highly regarded texts in its field. Barry Schwartz, Steven Robbins, and new coauthor Edward Wasserman offer students an engaging introduction to the basic principles of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and comparative cognition. The text's critical approach exposes students to the unresolved problems and controversies surrounding behavior theory and encourages them to interpret the material and make connections between theories and real-life situations. With several hundred new references, a new emphasis on comparative cognition, and expanded treatment of neuroscience and the neural basis of learning, the Fifth Edition sets the standard in its coverage of contemporary theory and research.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Human Nature, Science, and Behavior Theory
1(23)
Understanding
2(1)
Understanding and Science
3(2)
Causes, Generalizations, and Laws
3(2)
Experimentation: The Tool of Science
5(1)
Science end Human Nature
6(2)
Psychology, Behavior Theory, and Learning
8(2)
Philosophical Background of Behavior Theory
10(3)
Descartes and Hobbes: Man as Machine
10(2)
Associationism
12(1)
Biological Background of Behavior Theory
13(3)
Darwin and Evolution
14(2)
The Emergence of Behavior Theory
16(4)
Single Event Learning: Habituation
17(1)
Event-Event Learning: Pavlovian Conditioning
17(1)
Behavior-Event Learning: Operant Conditioning
18(2)
Learning about Humans by Studying Animals
20(1)
Summary
21(3)
PART I Event Learning: Habituation and Pavlovian Conditioning
Single Event Learning: Habituation
24(17)
Separating Habituation from Sensory Adaptation or Motor Fatigue
25(4)
Evidence for a Learning Explanation
26(3)
Applying the Principles: Response Recovery in Everyday Life
29(1)
Condition: that Produce Habituation
30(2)
Mechanisms of Habituation
32(1)
Dual-Process Theories
32(2)
Neuroscience and Learning: The Neural Mechanisms of Habituation
34(2)
A Memory Theory of Habituation
36(4)
Summary
40(1)
Pavlovian Conditioning: Basic Phenomena
41(29)
The Classic Conditioning Experiment
42(1)
Acquisition and Extinction
43(1)
The Scope of Pavlovian Conditioning Research
44(2)
Eyeblink Conditioning
45(1)
Conditioned Fear
45(1)
Neuroscience and Learning: The Neural Mechanisms of Eyeblink Conditioning
46(5)
Applying the Principles: Causes and Treatments of Phobia
51(4)
Conditioned Keypecking
53(1)
Taste Aversion Learning
53(2)
The Need for Control Procedure: in Studies of Pavlovian Conditioning
55(1)
Applying the Principles: food Aversions in Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy
56(1)
Temporal Relation: between the CS and the US
57(3)
Delay Conditioning
58(1)
Simultaneous Conditioning
59(1)
Temporal Conditioning
59(1)
Backward Conditioning
59(1)
Other Variables Affecting Pavlovian Conditioning
60(4)
The CS and the US
60(1)
Qualitative Relations between CS and US
61(3)
Constraints on Learning
64(5)
Unbiased Environments
64(2)
Unbiased Environments and Substitutability
66(3)
Summary
69(1)
Pavlovian Conditioning: Causal Factors
70(21)
Necessary Condition: for Pavlovian Conditioning
71(6)
Contingency
71(3)
Locating the US in Time
74(2)
Informativeness, Redundancy, and Blocking
76(1)
Applying the Principles: Predictiveness, Fear, and Anxiety
77(3)
Pavlovian Conditioning and Inhibition
80(3)
Inhibition in the Nervous System
80(1)
Conditioned Inhibition of Behavior
81(1)
Detecting Inhibition
82(1)
External Inhibition and Disinhibition
82(1)
Indirect Measures of Inhibition
82(1)
Direct Measures of Inhibition
83(1)
Condition: Producing Inhibition
83(4)
Extinction
83(1)
Conditioned Inhibition Training
84(1)
Negative Contingency Training
84(1)
Inhibition of Delay
85(1)
Discrimination and Generalization
85(1)
Excitatory and Inhibitory Generalization Gradients
85(2)
Backward Conditioning
87(1)
Necessary Condition: for Inhibition
87(1)
Applying the Principles: Experimental Neurosis
88(1)
Summary
89(2)
Pavlovian Conditioning: Explanations
91(18)
The Rescorla-Wagner Theory
92(5)
Rescorla-Wagner Theory and Compound Stimuli
93(1)
Rescorla-Wagner Theory and Contingency
94(1)
Rescorla-Wagner Theory and Inhibition
95(1)
A Surprising Prediction
96(1)
Conditioning and Changes in CS Effectiveness
97(3)
Latent Inhibition
97(2)
Learned Irrelevance
99(1)
Another Look at Blocking
99(1)
Neuroscience and Learning: The Neural Mechanisms Underlying Changes in CS Processing
100(3)
Surprise and CS Salience
103(1)
Psychological Status of the Rescorla-Wagner Theory
103(1)
Rehearsal and Conditioning
103(2)
Blocking
105(1)
Effects of Single Event Exposure on Conditioning
105(1)
CS Preexposure (Latent Inhibition)
105(1)
US Preexposure
105(1)
Theories of Extinction
106(2)
Summary
108(1)
Pavlovian Conditioning: Storage and Response Output
109(23)
What Is Learned in Conditioning?
109(5)
Manipulating Representations
113(1)
Neuroscience and Learning: A Neural Distinction between URs and CRs
114(2)
Conditioned Inhibition: What Is Learned?
116(2)
The Pavlovian Conditioned Response (CR)
118(1)
The Adaptive Function of the Conditioned Response
119(2)
CRs That Oppose URs
121(1)
Opponent Process Theory
122(2)
Challenges to the Conditioned Opponent Model
124(1)
Role of Conditioning in Human Drug Abuse
125(1)
Using Conditioning Principles to Treat Addiction
126(3)
Extinction
126(1)
Counterconditioning
127(2)
Competing Response Training
129(1)
Association: The Process Unifying Diverse CRs
129(1)
Summary
130(2)
PART II Behavior-Event Learning: Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning: Basic Phenomena
132(33)
The Law of Effect
133(1)
The Behavior-Consequence Relation
134(1)
Some Methodological Issues
134(5)
Measuring the Operant Response
135(1)
The Conditioning Chamber
135(2)
What Is Operant Behavior?
137(1)
Which Operant Behaviors Should Be Studied?
138(1)
Conditioning and Extinction
139(1)
Creating Behavioral Units
140(2)
The Form of the Behavioral Unit
141(1)
Constrained Operant-Reinforcer Learning
142(2)
The Dancing Chicken
143(1)
The Miserly Raccoon
143(1)
Applying the Principles: Shaping New Behavior
144(2)
The Nature of Reinforcement
146(1)
Reinforcer Relativity
146(1)
Applying the Principles: Eliminating Behavior
147(3)
Neuroscience and Learning: The Neural Mechanisms of Reward
150(3)
Conditioned Reinforcement
153(5)
Establishing a Conditioned Reinforcer--Predictiveness
153(1)
Observing Responses
154(2)
Token Reinforcers
156(2)
The Function: of Conditioned Reinforcers
158(1)
Applications of Token Reinforcement
158(1)
Applying the Principles: Token Reinforcement in Education
159(1)
Negative Side Effects of Reinforcement?
160(3)
Summary
163(2)
Operant Conditioning: Causal Factors and Explanations
165(21)
What Produces Conditioning: Contiguity or Contingency?
166(5)
Evidence for Contiguity
166(1)
Superstition
167(1)
Another Look at Superstition
168(1)
Another Look at Contiguity and Conditioning
169(2)
Contingency Learning
171(4)
Contingency Learning in Infants
173(1)
Learned Helplessness
174(1)
Applying the Principles: Learned Helplessness and Depression
175(3)
Contingency Learning in General
178(4)
How Do Animals Form Contingency Judgments?
179(3)
Operant Conditioning: What Is Learned?
182(3)
Response-Reinforcer Learning
183(1)
Stimulus-Reinforcer Learning
184(1)
Stimulus-Response Associations
185(1)
Summary
185(1)
Aversive Control of Behavior: Punishment and Avoidance
186(29)
Conditioned Suppression
187(1)
Punishment
188(1)
The Effectiveness Of Punishment
189(6)
Does Punishment Work?
190(1)
Maximizing the Effects of Punishment
191(2)
Punishment and General Suppression
193(2)
Applying the Principles: Effectiveness of Punishment
195(2)
Negativity of Punishment
197(1)
Avoidance Behavior
197(2)
Discrete-Trial Signaled Avoidance
198(1)
Neuroscience and Learning: The Neural Mechanisms of Avoidance Learning
199(3)
Shock Postponement
201(1)
Theories of Aversive Control
202(10)
Two-Factor Theory
203(4)
Operant Theory
207(1)
Cognitive Theory
208(2)
Biological Theory
210(2)
Applying the Principles: Eliminating Avoidance Behavior
212(1)
Summary
213(2)
The Maintenance of Behavior: Intermittent Reinforcement, Choice, and Economics
215(32)
Schedules of Intermittent Reinforcement
217(1)
Fixed-Interval (FI) Schedules
217(1)
Variable-Interval (VI) Schedules
217(1)
Fixed-Ratio (FR) Schedules
218(1)
Variable-Ratio (VR) Schedules
218(1)
Can Schedules Of Reinforcement Maintain Behavior?
218(1)
Patterns of Behavior Maintained by Reinforcement Schedules
219(2)
Schedules of Reinforcement in the Natural Environment
221(3)
Fixed Ratios
221(1)
Variable Ratios
222(1)
Variable Intervals
222(1)
Fixed Intervals
222(2)
The Study of Choice: Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement
224(7)
The Matching Law
225(1)
The Matching Law in Operation
226(5)
Applying the Principles: Procrastination
231(3)
Matching and Maximizing
232(2)
Neuroscience and Learning: Electrical Brain Stimulation Can Be Used to Study Choice Behavior and Matching
234(3)
Choice and Foraging
236(1)
Operant Behavior and Economics
237(7)
The Concept of Demand
238(2)
Demand and Income
240(1)
Substitutability of Commodities
241(1)
Open and Closed Economic Systems
242(2)
Summary
244(3)
PART III Complex Learning Processes
Stimulus Control of Operant Behavior
247(28)
Pervasiveness of Stimulus Control Phenomena
248(1)
Discrimination and Generalization
249(1)
Procedure: for Studying Stimulus Control
250(3)
The Process of Discrimination
253(8)
Predictiveness and Redundancy
253(2)
Discrimination Training as a Stimulus Selector
255(1)
Discrimination Training and Incidental Stimuli
256(3)
Attention in Discrimination Learning
259(2)
The Process of Generalization: Excitation and Inhibition
261(1)
The Peak Shift
261(1)
Neuroscience and Learning: The Neural Mechanisms of Auditory Discrimination Learning
262(7)
Transportation and the Nature of Perceptual Judgment
265(4)
Compound Stimulus Control
269(4)
Configural Stimulus Control
270(1)
Positive Patterning
271(1)
Negative Patterning
272(1)
Biconditional Discrimination
272(1)
Summary
273(2)
Interactions between Pavlovian and Operant Conditioning
275(23)
Distinguishing Pavlovian and Operant Conditioning
276(7)
Operant Conditioning of Reflexive Responses
278(1)
Pavlovian Conditioning of Voluntary Behavior
279(1)
The Omission Procedure
280(3)
Pavlovian Contingencies and Operant Behavior
283(6)
Types of Pavlovian-Operant Combinations
285(2)
Studies of Pavlovian Contingencies and Operant Behavior
287(2)
Pavlovian Conditioned States as Information
289(1)
Pavlovian and Operant Conditioning: One Underlying Process?
290(6)
Competition between Operant Responses and Pavlovian CSs
291(2)
Occasion Setting in Pavlovian and Operant Conditioning
293(3)
Summary
296(2)
Behavior and Conceptualization
298(20)
Discrimination and Generalization In a New Light
299(1)
From Discrimination and Generalization to Conceptualization
300(2)
Natural Concepts
302(5)
Presence versus Absence of Objects from Natural Concepts
302(1)
Discriminating Objects in Multiple Natural Concepts
303(4)
Conceptualization Via Primary or Secondary Generalization
307(3)
Nonsimilarity-based Conceptualization by Pigeons
308(1)
Joint Category Learning by Pigeons
308(2)
Abstract Concepts
310(7)
Matching-to-sample by Pigeons
311(1)
Oddity Learning by Pigeons
312(3)
Same-different Learning by Pigeons
315(2)
Summary
317(1)
Memory and Cognition
318(38)
Remembering and Language
320(1)
Remembering and Knowing
321(1)
Delayed Matching-to-Sample
321(14)
Basic Methods and Findings
323(3)
Trace Theory
326(2)
Complexity and Flexibility of Memory
328(7)
Memory Loss?
335(1)
Selective Attention
336(3)
Spatial Memory
339(5)
Neuroscience and Learning: The Neural Mechanisms of Spatial Learning
344(2)
Control By Time
346(5)
Control By Number
351(3)
Summary
354(2)
Human Learning and Cognition: Learning about Causes
356
Conditioning and Causation
357(1)
Causality Detection
357(2)
David Hume and Causality
357(1)
Causation as a Psychological Impression
358(1)
Conditions of Causation
358(1)
A Mechanical Model of Causality Perception
358(1)
Factors that Affect Causal Judgments
358(1)
Comparative Psychology of Causal Association
359(1)
Empirical Investigations of Human Causality Detection
359(7)
Contingency
359(7)
Applying the Principles: Inhibition in Human Contingency Judgments
366(2)
Reconciling Disparate Results
366(1)
Temporal Contiguity
367(1)
Applying the Principles: The Illusion of Control
368(7)
Cue Competition
371(4)
Applying the Principles: Blocking in Human Learning
375(1)
Learning and Cognition: A Theoretical Perspective
376(1)
Applying the Principles: Why People Believe Weird Things
377(1)
Summary
378
References 1(32)
Credits 33(2)
Name Index 35(6)
Subject Index 41

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