Qualitative Reading Inventory, 6th Edition

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Spiral Bound
  • Copyright: 2016-01-04
  • Publisher: PEARSO
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Note: This is the bound book only and does not include access to the Enhanced Pearson eText. To order the Enhanced Pearson eText packaged with a bound book, use ISBN 0134539400.


The market-leading, reliable, and easy-to-use informal assessment instrument.

The QRI-6 continues to emphasize the authentic assessment of children’s reading abilities–from the earliest emergent readers to advanced readers. This popular resource provides graded word lists and numerous passages designed to assess a student’s oral reading accuracy, rate of reading, and comprehension of passage read orally and silently. Several unique features set it apart from other resources in the field, including narrative and expository passages at each level from pre-primer through high school, as well as all self-contained selections being highly representative of the structure and topics of materials found in basal readers and content-area textbooks. For example, passages at the pre-primer through second grade levels are presented with pictures, and maps and illustrations are part of the expository selections at fourth grade through high school levels.


The QRI-6 measures comprehension in several ways that allow an examiner to label a passage as familiar or unfamiliar to each student: by analyzing the student’s retelling or summarization; by looking at the student’s answers to explicit and implicit comprehension questions; through the answers to complex inference questions recommended by the Common Core State Standards; through the use of look-backs, which separate what readers remember from what they comprehend; and through the use of think-alouds at the sixth grade level and above to analyze the student’s thoughts during reading. These measurement tools presented in the QRI-6 contribute to its widespread popularity as a superb informal reading inventory. The Enhanced Pearson eText features embedded videos, audio clips, and forms & figures.


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Author Biography

Lauren Leslie is Professor Emerita at Marquette University where she directed the Hartman Literacy and Learning Center for over a decade. In addition to the Qualitative Reading Inventory she has published two other books with JoAnne Caldwell, both published by Pearson: The Content Area Reading Assessment: A formative measure of the Common Core State Standards (Pearson, 2015), and Intervention Strategies to Follow an Informal Reading Inventory: So what should we do now? (Pearson, 2013). She has published over 20 research articles and received (with Linda Allen) the Albert J. Harris Research Award from the International Reading Association in 2001. She also received the Bielefeld Award for Professional Achievement in teaching, research, and mentoring of women faculty and students at Marquette University in 2006.


JoAnne Schudt Caldwell is currently Professor Emerita at Cardinal Stritch University. She is co-author of Content Area Reading Assessment: A Formative Measure of the Common Core State Standards, Intervention Strategies to Follow Informal Reading Assessment; So What Do I Do Now? and Reading Problems: Assessment and Teaching Strategies. She is the author of Reading Assessment: A Primer for Teachers in the Common Core Era and Comprehension Assessment: A Classroom Guide. She received her PhD from Marquette University and in 2005 received an Achievement Award from that institution.

Table of Contents

QRI-6 Features of the eText vii

Preface ix


Section1 Description of the Qualitative Reading

Inventory-6 1

The Word Lists 1

The Passages 2

Level-Diagnostic Passages 2

Non-Think-Aloud Option 4

Inference-Diagnostic Passages 4


Section 2 A Research Perspective 5

Factors Related to Comprehension 5

Inferential Question Types 5

Text Structure 7

Prior Knowledge 9

Oral and Silent Reading Comprehension 10

Look-Backs 10

Retelling and Summarization 11

Think-Alouds 12

Factors Related to Word Identification 13

Knowledge of Letter–Sound Matching 13

Miscue Analysis 14

Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension 15

Fluency: Beyond Speed and Automaticity 16

Factors Related to the Use of an Informal Reading Inventory 17

Passage Leveling 17

Response to Intervention (RtI) 18

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) 20


Administration and Scoring of the QRI-6

Section 3 Administration and Scoring of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: Determining Reading Levels 22

How Are Reading Levels Determined? 22

The Independent Level 22

The Instructional Level 22

The Frustration Level 23

Level Variety 23

How Do I Go about Finding an Instructional Reading Level? 24

Determining Reader Strengths and Needs 25

Documenting Reader Growth 25


Section 4 Administration of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: Initial Activities 26

First Steps 26

Guidelines for Administration 27

Level-Diagnostic Passages 27

Inference-Diagnostic Passages 28


Section 5 Administration and Scoring of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: The Word Lists 29

Purposes for Administering the Word Lists 29

Estimating the Starting Point for Passage Administration 29

Estimating Automatic Word Identification 29

Estimating Knowledge of Letter–Sound Matches 30

Examining Knowledge of Vowel Patterns 30

Analyzing the Differences between Word Identification in Isolation and in Context 30

Procedures for Administering the Word Lists 30

General Procedures 30

Instructions to the Student 31

The Beginning Point 31

Recording Student Responses: Accuracy and Automaticity 31

Procedures for Scoring the Word Lists 33

Estimating the Starting Point for Passage Administration 33

Estimating Automatic Word Identification 33

Reading by Analogy: Comparing Knowledge of Low-and High-Frequency Vowel Patterns 34

Additional Diagnostic Uses of the Word Lists 35


Section 6 Administration and Scoring of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: The Passages 36

Purposes for Administering the Passages 36

Components of Assessment 36

Assessment of Prior Knowledge 36

Assessment of Oral Reading Miscues 36

Assessment of Comprehension through Unaided Recall 37

Assessment of Comprehension through Look-Backs 37

Assessment of Comprehension through Think-Alouds 37

Passage Selection 37


Section 7 Administration and Scoring of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: Word Identification in Context: Oral Reading 39

Recording Oral Reading Miscues 39

Counting Oral Reading Miscues 41

Counting Total Accuracy 41

Counting Total Acceptability: What Is a Meaning-Change Miscue? 43

Analyzing Oral Reading Miscues: Miscue Analysis 45

Recording Miscues 45

Counting Miscues 47

Analyzing the Miscues 48

Evaluating Automaticity 48

Evaluating Prosody 50


Section 8 Administration and Scoring of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: Comprehension 51

Level-Diagnostic Passages 51

Questions 51

Criteria for Determining Reading Levels 52

Retelling 53

General Procedures 53

Scoring 53

Retelling Examples 53

Analysis of Retelling 56

Inference-Diagnostic Passages 57

General Procedures 58

Scoring 58

Interpretation of Ambiguous Answers 59

Summarizing 60

General Procedures 60

Scoring and Analysis 60

Jennie’s Summary 62

Peter’s Summary 63

Summary 63


Section 9 Administration and Scoring of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6: Assessing Strategic Reading 64

Look-Backs 64

Think-Alouds 65


Section 10 Summarizing and Analyzing Results of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6 67

Recording Word Identification in Isolation Scores 67

Recording Oral Reading in Context Scores 67

Recording Silent Reading Scores 69

Recording Scores on the Inference-Diagnostic Passages 69

Example of Completed Student Profile Sheet 70

Analyzing the Results 71

Questions about a Student’s Reading Behavior 72

Student Examples 74

Writing the Report 76


Section 11 Specific Uses of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6 77

The Classroom Teacher: Using the QRI-6 to Estimate Individual Instructional Reading Level 77

The Classroom Teacher: Using the QRI-6 to Estimate Reading Level and Monitor Progress through Group Administration 78

The Classroom Teacher: Using the QRI-6 to Estimate Ability in Answering Inferential Questions 79

The Reading or Special Education Specialist Assessment: Using the QRI-6 to Determine Reading Level 80

Using the QRI-6 to Indicate Growth and Monitor Progress 80

Using the QRI-6 to Describe Specific Reading Behaviors as a Guide for Intervention Instruction 81

Using the QRI-6 to Assess the Common Core State Standards’ Foundational Skills 83

Using the New Inference Passages Grade 4 through

High School 83


Word Lists and Elementary Grade: Level-Diagnostic Passages

Section 12 Test Materials: Level Diagnostic

Passages 85

Student Word Lists 86

Examiner Word Lists 91

Pre-Primer 1 Passages

I Can (Narrative) 98

I See (Narrative) 104

Pre-Primer 2 Passages

Just Like Mom (Narrative) 109

People at Work (Expository) 114

Pre-Primer 3 Passages

Lost and Found (Narrative) 117

Spring and Fall (Narrative) 118

Examiner Copies 119

Primer Passages

A Night in the City (Narrative) 131

Fox and Mouse (Narrative) 135

The Pig Who Learned to Read (Narrative) 139

Who Lives Near Lakes? (Expository) 142

Living and Not Living (Expository) 143

Examiner Copies 144

Level One Passages

The Surprise (Narrative) 154

Marva Finds a Friend (Narrative) 158

The Bear and the Rabbit (Narrative) 161

Air (Expository) 164

The Brain and the Five Senses (Expository) 165

Examiner Copies 166

Level Two Passages

The Family’s First Trip (Narrative) 179

The Lucky Cricket (Narrative) 180

Father’s New Game (Narrative) 184

Whales and Fish (Expository) 187

Seasons (Expository) 188

Examiner Copies 189

Level Three Passages

A Special Birthday for Rosa (Narrative) 204

The Friend (Narrative) 206

A New Friend from Europe (Narrative) 208

Cats: Lions and Tigers in Your House (Expository) 210

Where Do People Live? (Expository) 211

Wool: From Sheep to You (Expository) 212

Examiner Copies 213

Level Four Passages

Amelia Earhart (Narrative) 233

Tomie dePaola (Narrative) 234

Early Railroads (Expository) 235

Plant Structures for Survival (Expository) 236

Examiner Copies 237

Level Five Passages

Margaret Mead (Narrative) 250

Patricia McKissack (Narrative) 251

Farming on the Great Plains (Expository) 252

How Does Your Body Take in Oxygen? (Expository) 253

Examiner Copies 254

Middle School & High School:

Level-Diagnostic Passages

Level Six Passages

The Mining Boom (Modeling Passage for Think-Alouds) 270

Examiner Copy 271

Abraham Lincoln 273

The Early Life of Lois Lowry 274

The Lifeline of the Nile 275

Building Pyramids (Think-Aloud Passage) 276

Temperature and Humidity 277

Clouds and Precipitation (Think-Aloud Passage) 278

Examiner Copies 280

Upper Middle School Passages


Jaime Escalanté: Teacher Extraordinaire 305

Social Studies

Immigration—Part 1 307

Immigration—Part 2 (Think-Aloud Passage) 309


Life Cycles of Stars—Part 1 311

Life Cycles of Stars—Part 2 (Think-Aloud Passage) 313

Examiner Copies 315

High School Passages


Where the Ashes Are—Part 1 338

Where the Ashes Are—Part 2 341

Social Studies

World War I—Part 1 344

World War I—Part 2 347


Characteristics of Viruses—Part 1 350

Characteristics of Viruses—Part 2 353

Examiner Copies 355


Inference-Diagnostic Passages

Section 13 Inference-Diagnostic Materials 392

Grade 4

Cynthia Rylant: The Development of an Author (Biography) 393

Linking East and West (Social Studies) 395

How Do Organisms Compete for Resources?

(Science) 398

Examiner Copies 401

Grade 5

Jane Goodall, Goddess of the Apes (Biography) 414

The Rise of Cattle Drives (Social Studies) 416

The Body’s Transportation System (Science) 419

Examiner Copies 422

Grade 6

The Legacy of Jim Thorpe (Biography) 434

From Dynasty to Dynasty (Social Studies) 437

What Causes Weather? (Science) 440

Examiner Copies 443

Middle School

Malcolm X: The Development of a Separatist (Biography) 456

A Wave of Nativism (Social Studies) 460

What Is a Comet? (Science) 463

Examiner Copies 465

High School

The Life of Georgia O’Keeffe: The Artist and the Woman (Biography) 480

America Adjusts to Peace (Social Studies) 484

The Kingdoms of Life (Science) 487

Examiner Copies 490


Section 14 Technical Development of the Qualitative Reading Inventory-6 506

Piloting the New Materials for the QRI-6 506

Previous Pilots 507

Development and Analysis of the Word-Identification Tests 508

Analysis of the Word-List Data 508

Reading by Analogy 509

Development and Analysis of the Prior-Knowledge Assessments 509

Identification of Concepts 509

Analyses of Correlations between Prior Knowledge and Other Test Components 510

Development and Analysis of the Measures of Comprehension: Level-Diagnostic Materials 510

Analyses of the Measures of Comprehension on Level-Diagnostic Passages 511

Development of the Think-Aloud Procedure 513

Development and Analysis of the Measures of Comprehension: Inference-Diagnostic Materials 514

Analyses of the Measures of Comprehension on the Inference/Diagnostic Materials 514

Development of the Passages 516

Quantitative Measures of the Difficulty of the Level-Diagnostic Passages 516

Development of the Pre-Primer through Third Grade Passages 519

Development of the Fourth through Sixth Grade Passages 520

Quantitative Measures of the Difficulty of the Inference-Diagnostic Passages 520

Comparing the Quantitative Measures of the Difficulty of the Inference/Diagnostic Materials to the Difficulty of the Level/Diagnostic Materials 521

Development of the Upper Middle School and High School Passages 521

Empirical Validation 521

Comparing Passages New to the QRI-5 to Previous Passages 521

Comparability of Level/Diagnostic vs. Inference/Diagnostic Passages at the Same Readability Level 525

The Relationship between Oral Reading Accuracy and Comprehension 525

The Pillars of Excellence in Educational Assessment 525

Reliability and Validity 525

Issues of Validity of an Informal Reading Inventory 526

Issues of Reliability of an Informal Reading Inventory 531

Cautions in Interpretation 535

Test-Retest and Alternate Form Reliability 535

References 537

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