9780190663780

Race and Racisms A Critical Approach

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780190663780

  • ISBN10:

    0190663782

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2017-10-27
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Race and Racisms: A Critical Approach, Second Edition, engages students in significant--and timely--questions related to racial dynamics in the U.S. and around the world. Written in accessible, straightforward language, the book discusses and critically analyzes cutting-edge scholarship in the field. Organized into topics and concepts rather than discrete racial groups, the text addresses:

* How and when the idea of race was created and developed
* How structural racism has worked historically to reproduce inequality
* How we have a society rampant with racial inequality, even though most people do not consider themselves to be racist
* How race, class, and gender work together to create inequality and identities
* How immigration policy in the United States has been racialized
* How racial justice could be imagined and realized

Centrally focused on racial dynamics, Race and Racisms, Second Edition, also incorporates an intersectional perspective, discussing the intersections of racism, patriarchy, and capitalism.

Author Biography


Tanya Maria Golash-Boza is Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Merced.

Table of Contents


List of Excerpts
About the Author
Preface
Talking about Race outside the classroom

PART I: RACIAL IDEOLOGIES

1: The Origin of the Idea of Race
Defining Race and Ethnicity
Race: The Evolution of an Ideology
Historical Precedents to the Idea of Race
Slavery Before the Idea of Race
European Encounters with Indigenous Peoples of the Americas
Slavery and Colonization
--VOICES The Spanish Treatment of Indigenous Peoples
--RESEARCH FOCUS Slave Flights and Runaway Communities in Colonial Angola
Exploitation in the Thirteen English Colonies
The Legal Codification of Racial Differences
--VOICES From Bullwhip Days
Slavery versus the Ideal of Freedom in the United States
--GLOBAL VIEW: The Idea of Race in Latin American Nation-Making
The Indian Removal Act: The Continuation of Manifest Destiny
The Rise of Science and the Question of Human Difference
European Taxonomies
Scientific Racism in the Nineteenth Century
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

2: Race, Immigration, and Citizenship from the 1840s to the 1920s
The Continuation of Scientific Racism
Measuring Brain Size
Intelligence Testing
Eugenics
--VOICES Carrie Buck
Exclusionary Immigration and Citizenship Policies
The Chinese Exclusion Act
--RESEARCH FOCUS Chinese Exclusion and Gatekeeping Ideology
The Johnson-Reed Act (Immigration Act of 1924)
Birthright Citizenship and Naturalization for Whites Only
Defining Whiteness in Court
Takao Ozawa v. United States (1922)
United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923)
How the Irish, Italians, and Jews Became White
The Irish
The Italians
The Jews
Structural Violence against Native Americans and African Americans
Native Americans: Appropriating Lands, Assimilating Tribes
African Americans and the Struggle for Rights
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

3: Racial Ideologies from the 1920s to the Present
Ideological Consistency and Change
--VOICES Trayvon Martin
Overt Racism in the Mid-Twentieth Century
Segregation
Mass Deportation of Mexicans and Mexican Americans
Internment of Japanese and Japanese Americans
--VOICES Fred Toyosaburo Korematsu
Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment
The Civil Rights Movement and the Commitment to Change
Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Sit-Ins
Freedom Rides
Old Versus New Racism: The Evolution of an Ideology
Biological Racism
Cultural Racism
Color-Blind Universalism
--GLOBAL VIEW Cultural Racism in Peru
Color-Blind Racism
Four Types of Color-Blind Racism
Rhetorical Strategies of Color-Blind Racism
The New Politics of Race
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

4: Sociological Theories of Race and Racism
Individual Racism and Institutional Racism
Individual Racism
--VOICES Microaggressions
Institutional Racism
--GLOBAL VIEW Microaggressions in Peru
Systemic Racism and Structural Racism
Systemic Racism
Structural Racism
--RESEARCH FOCUS Systemic Racism and Hurricane Katrina
Racial Formation
Critique 1: Not Holding Whites Accountable for Racial Inequality
Critique 2: Not Going Far Enough to Expose the Depths of Racism
Critique 3: Overlooking Parallels Between Jim Crow Racism and Racism Today
--RESEARCH FOCUS Examining Legitimized Racism against Indigenous Peoples
White Supremacy and Settler Colonialism
--RESEARCH FOCUS Applying Settler Colonialism Theory
Islamophobia and Anti-Arab Racism
Intersectional Theories of Race and Racism
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

5: Racism in the Media: The Spread of Ideology
Portrayals and Representations in Entertainment
Portrayals of Blacks
--VOICES Why Black-ish Is the Show We Need Right Now
Portrayals of Latinos/as
Portrayals of Arabs and Arab Americans
--VOICES Why We Hacked Homeland
Portrayals of Asians and Asian Americans
Portrayals of Native Americans
--GLOBAL VIEW Racial Stereotypes in Peruvian Television
New Media Representations
Video Games
Social Media
--RESEARCH FOCUS Kimberlé Crenshaw on Black Women's Lives Matter
Media Images and Racial Inequality
Raced, Classed, and Gendered Media Images
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

6: Colorism and Skin-Tone Stratification
The History of Colorism
--RESEARCH FOCUS Latino Immigrants and the U.S. Racial Order
The Origins of Colorism in the Americas
The Origins of Colorism in Asia and Africa
The Global Color Hierarchy
Asia and Asian Americans
--VOICES The Fair-Skin Battle
Latin America and Latinos/as
Africa and the African Diaspora
--RESEARCH FOCUS Skin Tone and School Suspension
--VOICES Colorism and Creole Identity
Skin Color, Gender, and Beauty
--VOICES After #NotFairandLovely: Changing Thought Patterns Instead of Skintone
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

PART II: Policy and Institutions

7: White Privilege and the Changing U.S. Racial Hierarchy
White Privilege
--RESEARCH FOCUS White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack
Whiteness, Class, Gender, and Sexuality
--VOICES Explaining White Privilege to a Broke White Person
Whiteness and Racial Categories in Twenty-First-Century America
Latinos/as and the Multiracial Hierarchy
Arab Americans, North Africans, Middle Easterners, and Their Place in the U.S. Racial Hierarchy
--VOICES Arab American-AKA White Without the Privilege
Multiracial Identification and the U.S. Racial Hierarchy
Will the United States Continue to Be a White-Majority Society?
Changes in Racial and Ethnic Classifications
--GLOBAL VIEW Social, Cultural, and Intergenerational Whitening in Latin America
Revisiting the Definitions of Race and Ethnicity
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

8: Educational Inequality
The History of Educational Inequality
Indian Schools
Segregation and Landmark Court Cases
The Persistence of Racial Segregation in the Educational System
Affirmative Action in Higher Education
Educational Inequality Today
--RESARCH FOCUS Native American/Alaska Native College Student Retention
The Achievement Gap: Sociological Explanations for Persistent Inequality
--GLOBAL VIEW Affirmative Action in Brazil
Parental Socioeconomic Status
Cultural Explanations: "Acting White" and Other Theories
Tracking
Social and Cultural Capital and Schooling
--VOICES Moesha
Hidden Curricula and the School-to-Prison Pipeline
--RESEARCH FOCUS The Asian American Achievement Paradox
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

9: Income and Labor Market Inequality
Income Inequality by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender
Dimensions of Racial Disparities in the Labor Market
Disparities among Women
Disparities among Asian Americans
Underemployment, Unemployment, and Joblessness
--VOICES Jarred
Sociological Explanations for Income and Labor Market Inequality
Individual-Level Explanations
--VOICES Latina Professionals as Racialized Tokens: Lisa's Story
Structural Explanations
--RESEARCH FOCUS Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market
Affirmative Action in Employment
Entrepreneurship and Self-Employment
--GLOBAL VIEW Racial Discrimination in Australia
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

10: Inequality in Housing and Wealth
Land Ownership after Slavery
Residential Segregation
The Creation of Residential Segregation
Discriminatory and Predatory Lending Practices
--RESEARCH FOCUS The Role of Real Estate in Creating Segregated Cities
Neighborhood Segregation Today
--VOICES Sabriya Ihsan Williams on Neighborhood Stereotyping
Wealth Inequalities
--RESEARCH FOCUS The Color of Wealth in the Nation's Capital
Inequality in Homeownership and Home Values
Wealth Inequality Beyond Homeownership
Explaining the Wealth Gap in the Twenty-First Century
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

11: Racism in the Criminal Justice System
Mass Incarceration in the United States
The Rise of Mass Incarceration
Mass Incarceration in a Global Context
--GLOBAL VIEW Prisons in Germany and the Netherlands
Race and Mass Incarceration
--VOICES Earl Washington
The Inefficacy of Mass Incarceration
Mass Incarceration and the War on Drugs
Race, Class, Gender, and Mass Incarceration
Institutional Racism in the Criminal Justice System
Racial Profiling
--VOICES Sandy Bland
Sentencing Disparities
The Ultimate Sentence: Racial Disparities in the Death Penalty
--VOICES Troy Davis
The Economics of Mass Incarceration
Private Prisons
The Prison-Industrial Complex
Beyond Incarceration: Collateral Consequences
The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Families and Children
The Lifelong Stigma of a Felony: "The New Jim Crow"
--RESEARCH FOCUS Can Felons Get Jobs?
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

12: Health Inequalities, Environmental Racism, and Environmental Justice
The History of Health Disparities in the United States
Involuntary Experimentation on African Americans
Explaining Health Disparities by Race and Ethnicity Today
Socioeconomic Status and Health Disparities by Race/ Ethnicity
Segregation and Health
--RESEARCH FOCUS Health and Social Inequity in Alameda County, California
The Effects of Individual Racism on Health
Life-Course Perspectives
Culture and Health
--GLOBAL VIEW Health and Structural Violence in Guatemala
Genetics, Race, and Health
Environmental Racism
Environmental Justice
--VOICES The Holt Family of Dickson, Tennessee
--VOICES The Flint Water Crisis
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

13: Racism and Nativism in Immigration Policy
--VOICES Robert Bautista-Denied Due Process
The Racialized History of U.S. Immigration Policy
Race and the Making of U.S. Immigration Policies: 1790 to 1924
--GLOBAL VIEW Whitening and Immigration Policy in Brazil
Nativism Between 1924 and 1964: Mass Deportation of Mexicans and the McCarran Internal Security Act
The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act and the Changing Face of Immigration
Latin American and Caribbean Immigration
Illegal Immigration and Policy Response
The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) and Nativism
Proposition 187 and the Lead-Up to IIRIRA
The 1996 Laws and the Detention and Deportation of Black and Latino Immigrants
--VOICES Hector, a Guatemalan Deportee
Immigration Policy and Nativism in the Twenty-First Century
--VOICES The Zarour Family
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

PART III: Contesting and Comparing Racial Injustices

14: Racial Justice in the United States Today
Perspectives on Racial Justice
Recognition, Responsibility, Reconstruction, and Reparations
Civil Rights
Human Rights
Struggles for Racial Justice
Racial Justice and the Foreclosure Crisis
--VOICES Fighting Against Foreclosures: A Racial Justice Story
DREAMers and the Fight for Justice
Racial Justice and Empathy
--VOICES Three Leadership Lessons from Opal Tometi
Moving Beyond Race
Intersectional Analyses: Race, Class, Gender
Racism and Capitalism
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

15: Thinking Globally
How Do Other Countries Differ from the United States in Racial Dynamics?
Race and Racism in France
French Colonies in Africa
The French Antilles
African Immigration to France
Discrimination and Racial and Ethnic Inequality in France Today
--VOICES Justice for Theo
Race and Racism in South Africa
Colonialism in South Africa: The British and the Dutch
The Apartheid Era (1948-1994)
--VOICES South African Coloured Identity
The Persistence of Inequality in the Post-Apartheid Era
--RESEARCH FOCUS The Politics of White Youth Identity in South Africa
Race and Racism in Brazil
Portuguese Colonization and the Slave Trade in Brazil
Whitening Through Immigration and Intermarriage
The Racial Democracy Myth in Brazil and Affirmative Action
--VOICES Brazil's Color Bind
Racial Categories in Brazil Today
--RESEARCH FOCUS Radical Ideology and Black-White Interracial Marriages in Rio de Janeiro
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
Talking about Race

Glossary
References
Credits
Index

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