9780197533222

Race and Racisms A Critical Approach

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780197533222

  • ISBN10:

    0197533221

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Loose-leaf
  • Copyright: 2021-07-27
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

Race and Racisms: A Critical Approach, Third Edition, engages students in significant--and timely--questions related to racial dynamics in the U.S. and around the world. Written in accessible, straightforward language, the book discusses and critically analyzes cutting-edge scholarship in the
field. Organized into topics and concepts rather than discrete racial groups, the text addresses:

* How and when the idea of race was created and developed
* How structural racism has worked historically to reproduce inequality
* How we have a society rampant with racial inequality though most people do not consider themselves to be racist
* How race, class, and gender work together to create inequality and identities
* How immigration policy in the United States has been racialized
* How racial justice could be imagined and realized

Centrally focused on racial dynamics, Race and Racisms, Third Edition, incorporates an intersectional perspective, discussing the intersections of racism, patriarchy, and capitalism.

Author Biography


Tanya Maria Golash-Boza is Professor of Sociology at University of California-Merced.

Table of Contents


Contents
List of Excerpts
Letter from the Author
About the Author
Preface
1
THE ORIGIN OF THE IDEA OF RACE
Chapter Outline
Defining Race and Ethnicity
Race: The Evolution of an Ideology
Historical Precedents to the Idea of Race
Slavery before the Idea of Race
European Encounters with Indigenous Peoples of the Americas
Slavery and Colonization
Voices: The Spanish Treatment of Indigenous Peoples
research focus: Slave Fights and Runaway Communities in Colonial Angola
Exploitation in the Thirteen English Colonies
Voices: From Bullwhip Days
Slavery versus the Ideal of Freedom in the United States
GLOBAL VIEW: The Idea of Race in Latin American Nation-Making
The Indian Removal Act: The Continuation of Manifest Destiny
The Rise of Science and the Question of Human Difference
European Taxonomies
Scientific Racism in the Nineteenth Century
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
2
RACE AND CITIZENSHIP FROM THE 1840S TO THE 1920S
Chapter Outline
The Continuation of Scientific Racism
Measuring Brain Size
Intelligence Testing
Eugenics and Pseudoscience
Voices: Carrie Buck
Exclusionary Immigration and Citizenship Policies
Voices: Wong Foon Chuck: Making Home in the Borderlands between China, the United States, and Mexico
Excluding Asians
research focus: Chinese Exclusion and Gatekeeping Ideology
The Johnson-Reed Act (Immigration Act of 1924)
Birthright Citizenship and Naturalization for White People Only
Defining Whiteness in Court
Takao Ozawa v. United States (1922)
United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923)
How the Irish, Italians, and Jews Became White
The Irish
The Italians
The Jews
Structural Violence against Native Americans and African Americans
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
3
RACIAL IDEOLOGIES FROM THE 1920S TO THE PRESENT
Chapter Outline
Ideological Consistency and Change
Voices: Trayvon Martin
Overt Racism in the Mid-twentieth Century
Segregation
Mass Deportation of Mexicans and Mexican Americans
Internment of Japanese and Japanese Americans
Voices: Fred Toyosaburo Korematsu
The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment
The Civil Rights Movement and the Commitment to Change
Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Sit-Ins
Freedom Rides
Old versus New Racism: The Evolution of an Ideology
Biological Racism
Cultural Racism
Color-Blind Universalism
GLOBAL VIEW: Cultural Racism in Peru
Color-Blind Racism
Four Types of Color-Blind Racism
Rhetorical Strategies of Color-Blind Racism
The New Politics of Race
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
4
SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF RACE AND RACISM
Chapter Outline
Individual Racism and Institutional Racism
Individual Racism
Voices: Microaggressions
Institutional Racism
GLOBAL VIEW: Microaggressions in Peru
Systemic Racism and Structural Racism
Systemic Racism
Structural Racism
Voices: J. F. "Smitty" Smith
research focus: Systemic Racism and Hurricane Katrina
Racial Formation
Critique 1: Not Holding White People Accountable for Racial Inequality
Critique 2: Not Going Far Enough to Expose the Depths of Racism
Critique 3: Overlooking Parallels Between Jim Crow Racism and Racism Today
research focus: Examining Legitimized Racism against Indigenous Peoples
White Supremacy and Settler Colonialism
Islamophobia and Anti-Arab Racism
Intersectional Theories of Race and Racism
research focus: White Supremacy, Patriarchy, and Global Capitalism in Migration Studies
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
5
RACISM IN THE MEDIA: THE SPREAD OF IDEOLOGY
Chapter Outline
Portrayals and Representations in Entertainment
Portrayals of Black People
Voices: Why Black-ish Is the Show We Need Right Now
Portrayals of Latinx People
Portrayals of Arabs and Arab Americans
Voices: Why We Hacked Homeland
Portrayals of Asians and Asian Americans
Portrayals of Native Americans
research focus
GLOBAL VIEW: Racial Stereotypes in Peruvian Television
New Media Representations
Video Games
Social Media
research focus: Kimberl? Crenshaw on Black Women's Lives Matter
Voices: #CiteBlackWomen
Media Images and Racial Inequality
Raced, Classed, and Gendered Media Images
Voices: From "What's Wrong with Cultural Appropriation? These 9 Answers Reveal Its Harm"
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
6
COLORISM AND SKIN-COLOR STRATIFICATION
Chapter Outline
The History of Colorism
research focus: Latinx Immigrants and the U.S. Racial Order
The Origins of Colorism in the Americas
The Origins of Colorism in Asia and Africa
The Global Color Hierarchy
Asia and Asian Americans
Voices: Neha Dixit
Latin America and Latinx People
Africa and the African Diaspora
research focus: Skin Tone and School Suspension
Voices: Why Black People Discriminate among Ourselves: The Toxic Legacy of Colorism
Skin Color, Gender, and Beauty
Voices: After #NotFairandLovely: Changing Thought Patterns Instead of Skin Tone
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
7
WHITE PRIVILEGE AND THE CHANGING U.S. RACIAL HIERARCHY
Chapter Outline
White Privilege
research focus: White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack
Whiteness, Class, Gender, and Sexuality
Voices: Explaining White Privilege to a Broke White Person
Whiteness and Racial Categories in Twenty-First-Century America
Latinx People and the Multiracial Hierarchy
Arab Americans, North Africans, Middle Easterners, and Their Place in the U.S. Racial Hierarchy
Voices: Arab American-AKA White without the Privilege
research focus The Limits of Whiteness
Multiracial Identification and the U.S. Racial Hierarchy
GLOBAL VIEW: Social, Cultural, and Intergenerational Whitening in Latin America
Changes in Racial and Ethnic Classifications
History of Racial and Ethnic Classifications
Are Latinx People a Race or Ethnicity?
Revisiting the Definitions of Race and Ethnicity
Racialized Assimilation
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
8
EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY
Chapter Outline
The History of Educational Inequality
Indian Schools
Segregation and Landmark Court Cases
Voices: Mary Tape
The Persistence of Racial Segregation in the Educational System
Affirmative Action in Higher Education
Educational Inequality Today
research focus: Native American/Alaska Native College Student Retention
The Achievement Gap: Sociological Explanations for Persistent Inequality
GLOBAL VIEW: Affirmative Action in Brazil
Parental Socioeconomic Status
Cultural Explanations: "Acting White" and Other Theories
Tracking
Social and Cultural Capital and Schooling
Voices: Andrew Yang's Problematic Reinforcement of the Model Minority Myth
Hidden Curricula and the School-to-Prison Pipeline
research focus: The Asian American Achievement Paradox
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
9
INCOME AND LABOR MARKET INEQUALITY
Chapter Outline
Income Inequality by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender
Dimensions of Racial Disparities in the Labor Market
Disparities among Women
COVID-19 and Racial Economic Disparities
Disparities among Asian Americans
Underemployment, Unemployment, and Joblessness
Voices: Foraging on the Margins of the Labor Market
Sociological Explanations for Income and Labor Market Inequality
Individual-Level Explanations
Voices: Latina Professionals as Radicalized Tokens: Lisa's Story
research focus: Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market
GLOBAL VIEW: Do Some Countries Discriminate More than Others?
Structural Explanations
Affirmative Action in Employment
Entrepreneurship and Self-Employment
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
10
INEQUALITY IN HOUSING AND WEALTH
Chapter Outline
Land Ownership after Slavery
Residential Segregation
The Creation of Residential Segregation
Voices: How America's Vast Racial Wealth Gap Grew: By Plunder
Discriminatory and Predatory Lending Practices
research focus: The Role of Real Estate in Creating Segregated Cities
Neighborhood Segregation Today
Wealth Inequalities
research focus: The Color of Wealth in the Nation's Capital
Inequality in Homeownership and Home Values
Wealth Inequality beyond Homeownership
Explaining the Wealth Gap in the Twenty-First Century
research focus: Ten Myths about Closing the Racial Wealth Gap
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
11
RACISM AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
Chapter Outline
Mass Incarceration in the United States
The Rise of Mass Incarceration
Mass Incarceration in a Global Context
GLOBAL VIEW: Prisons in Germany and the Netherlands
Race and Mass Incarceration
The Inefficacy of Mass Incarceration
Voices: How Can We Reconcile Prison Abolition with #MeToo?
Mass Incarceration and the War on Drugs
Race, Class, Gender, and Mass Incarceration
Voices: The #SayHerName Social Movement
Institutional Racism in the Criminal Justice System
Racial Profiling
Black Lives Matter
Voices: Sandy Bland
Sentencing Disparities
The Ultimate Sentence: Racial Disparities in the Death Penalty
Voices: Troy Davis
The Economics of Mass Incarceration
Private Prisons
The Prison-Industrial Complex
Beyond Incarceration: Collateral Consequences
The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Families and Children
The Lifelong Stigma of a Felony: "The New Jim Crow"
research focus: Can Felons Get Jobs?
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
12
HEALTH INEQUALITIES, ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM, AND ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE
Chapter Outline
The History of Health Disparities in the United States
Involuntary Experimentation on African Americans
Explaining Health Disparities by Race and Ethnicity Today
Socioeconomic Status and Health Disparities by Race/Ethnicity
research focus: Racial Capitalism: A Fundamental Cause of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Inequities in the United States
Segregation and Health
Voices: I'm Sick of Asking the Children of Flint to Be Resilient
The Effects of Individual Racism on Health
Life-Course Perspectives
Culture and Health
GLOBAL VIEW: Health and Structural Violence in Guatemala
research focus: Race, Disability, and Poverty
Genetics, Race, and Health
Environmental Racism
Environmental Justice
Voices: The Holt Family of Dickinson Tennessee
Voices: The Flint Water Crisis
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
13
RACISM, NATIVISM, AND IMMIGRATION POLICY
Chapter Outline
Voices: Robert Bautista-Denied Due Process
The Racialized History of U.S. Immigration Policy
Race and the Making of U.S. Immigration Policies: 1790 to 1924
GLOBAL VIEW: "Culling the Masses: The Democratic Origins of Racist Immigration Policy in the Americas," by Maria Duenas
Nativism Between 1924 and 1964: Mass Deportation of Mexicans and the McCarran Internal Security Act
The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act and the Changing Face of Immigration
Illegal Immigration and Policy Response
The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) and Nativism
Proposition 187 and the Lead-Up to IIRIRA
The 1996 Laws and the Detention and Deportation of Black and Latinx Immigrants
Voices: Hector, a Guatemalan Deportee
Immigration Policy and Nativism in the Twenty-First Century
Voices: The Zaroour Family
research focus: "The Refugee Crisis at the United States-Mexico Border," by Maria Duenas
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
14
RACIAL JUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATES TODAY
Chapter Outline
Perspectives on Racial Justice
Recognition, Responsibility, Reconstruction, and Reparations
Civil Rights
Human Rights
Voices: How the Murders of Ahmaud Arbery, Breonna Taylor, and George Floyd Reignited a Movement
Struggles for Racial Justice
Racial Justice and the Foreclosure Crisis
Voices: Fighting against Foreclosures: A Racial Justice Story
DREAMers and the Fight for Justice
Racial Justice and Empathy
Voices: Three Leadership Lessons from Opal Tometi
Moving beyond Race
Intersectional Analyses: Race, Class, Gender
Racism and Capitalism
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding
15
THINKING GLOBALLY
Race and Racisms in France, South Africa, and Brazil
Chapter Outline
How Do Other Countries Differ from the United States in Racial Dynamics?
Race and Racism in France
French Colonies in Africa
The French Antilles
African Immigration to France
Discrimination and Racial and Ethnic Inequality in France Today
Voices: Justice for Theo
Race and Racism in South Africa
Colonialism in South Africa: The British and the Dutch
The Apartheid Era (1948-1994)
Voices: South African Coloured Identity
The Persistence of Inequality in the Post-Apartheid Era
research focus: The Politics of White Youth Identity in South Africa
Race and Racism in Brazil
Portuguese Colonization and the Slave Trade in Brazil
Whitening through Immigration and Intermarriage
The Racial Democracy Myth in Brazil and Affirmative Action
Voices: Brazil's Color Bind
Racial Categories in Brazil Today
research focus: Radical Ideology and Black-White Interracial Marriages in Rio de Janeiro
Conclusion and Discussion
Check Your Understanding

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