Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the USA

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2013-08-01
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Helps students understand and analyze race and ethnic issues


Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the USA applies contemporary theories to race and ethnic relations. The text explores issues inherent in race and ethnicity and then applies these issues to the four largest minority ethnic groups in the U.S. This foundation will enable readers to discuss how diversity will change in the future.


MySocLab is an integral part of the Schaefer program. Engaging activities and assessments provide a teaching and learning system that helps students discover sociology in their lives. With MySocLab, students can watch videos on sociological core concepts, explore real-world sociology through the new Social Explorer, and develop critical thinking skills through writing.


This learning program is available in a variety of formats and prices — digital and print. Pearson offers its titles on the devices students love through Pearson’s MyLab products, CourseSmart, Amazon, and more. To learn more about our programs, pricing options and customization.

Table of Contents

Features xiii

Preface xv

About the Author xxi


1 Exploring Race and Ethnicity in the United States 1


Highlights 2


Ranking Groups 4


Types of Groups 5


Racial Groups 5


Ethnic Groups 7


Religious Groups 7


Speaking Out: Problem of the Color Line, by W. E. B. Du Bois 8


Gender Groups 8


Other Subordinate Groups 9


Does Race Matter? 9


Biological Meaning 9


Absence of Pure Races 9


Intelligence Tests 10


Social Construction of Race 11


Biracial and Multiracial Identity: Who Am I? 12


Research Focus: Multiracial Identity 13


Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity 14


Stratification by Class and Gender 15


Theoretical Perspectives 15


Functionalist Perspective 15


Conflict Perspective 16


Labeling Theory 17


The Creation of Subordinate-Group Status 19


Migration 19


Annexation 19


Colonialism 20


The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status 21


Extermination 21


Expulsion 22


Secession 22


Segregation 23


Fusion 25


Assimilation 26


The Pluralist Perspective 27


Resistance and Change 28


2 Prejudice 33


Highlights 34


Prejudice and Discrimination 35


Merton’s Typology 36


LaPiere’s Study 36


Research Focus: Islamophobia 38


White Privilege 39


Theories of Prejudice 40


Scapegoating Theory 40


Authoritarian Personality Theory 40


Exploitation Theory 41


Normative Approach 41


Stereotypes 42


What Are Stereotypes? 42


Speaking Out: National Media Should Stop Using Obscene Words, by Tim Giago 43


Stereotyping in Action: Racial Profiling 44


Color-Blind Racism 45


The Mood of the Oppressed 46


Intergroup Hostility 48


Reducing Prejudice 51


Education 52


Mass Media 52


Avoidance versus Friendship 54


The Social Distance Scale 54


Equal Status Contact 54


Avoidance Via the Internet 55


Corporate Response: Diversity Training 56


3 Discrimination 62


Understanding Discrimination 64


Hate Crimes 65


What Are Hate Crimes? 65


Why Do Hate Crimes Carry Harsher Penalties? 66


Institutional Discrimination 67


Discrimination Today 68


Discrimination Hits the Wallet 68


Eliminating Discrimination 71


Wealth Inequality: Discrimination’s Legacy 73


Research Focus: The Unequal Wealth Distribution 74


Environmental Justice 75


Affirmative Action 76


Affirmative Action Explained 77


The Legal Debate 77


Speaking Out: The Enduring Relevance of Affirmative Action, by Randall Kennedy 79


Reverse Discrimination 80


The Glass Ceiling 81


4 Immigration and Ethnicity 87


Patterns of Immigration to the United States 88


Today’s Foreign-Born Population 89


Early Immigration 91


The Anti-Chinese Movement 91


Restrictionist Sentiment Increases 93


The National Origin System 93


Speaking Out: Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, by Judy Chu 94


The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act 96


Contemporary Social Concerns 97


The Brain Drain 97


Population Growth 98


Mixed-Status Families 99


Language Barriers 99


Illegal Immigration 102


Refugees 105


Ethnic Diversity 106


Studying Whiteness 106


Rediscovering Ethnicity 108


The Third-Generation Principle 108


Ethnic Paradox 109


Symbolic Ethnicity 109


Religious Pluralism 110


Research Focus: Blended Identity and Self-Identifying as “Muslim American”  and “Arab American” 111


5 Native Americans 119


Early European Contacts 121


Treaties and Warfare 122


The Allotment Act 123


The Reorganization Act 124


Reservation Life and Federal Policies 125


Legal Claims 126


The Termination Act 127


Employment Assistance Program 127


Collective Action 128


Protest Efforts 129


Collective Action: An Overview 130


American Indian Identity 131


Sovereignty 131


Individual Identity 132


Native Americans Today 132


Speaking Out: Powwows and Karaoke, by Chris Eyre 133


Economic Development 134


Tourism 135


Casino Gambling 135


Education 137


Research Focus: Learning the Navajo Way 138


Healthcare 139


Religious and Spiritual Expression 140


Environment 141


6 African Americans 145


Slavery 147


Slave Codes 147


The Attack on Slavery 148


Slavery’s Aftermath 149


Reflecting on Slavery Today 150


The Challenge of Black Leadership 151


The Politics of Accommodation 151


The Niagara Movement 152


Reemergence of Black Protest 153


The Civil Rights Movement 155


Struggle to Desegregate the Schools 155


Civil Disobedience 156


Urban Violence and Oppression 158


Black Power 159


Education 160


School Segregation 161


Higher Education 162


The Economic Picture 163


The Middle Class 163


Research Focus: Moving on Up, or Not 164


Employment 165


Family Life 166


Challenges to Family Stability 166


Strengths of African American Families 167


Housing 168


Criminal Justice 169


Speaking Out: The New Jim Crow,  by Michelle Alexander 171


Healthcare 172


Politics 173


7 Latinos 178


Latino Identity 180


The Economic Picture 181


The Political Presence 182


Religion 183


Mexican Americans 184


The Immigrant Experience 186


Family Life 188


Research Focus: The Latino Family Circle: Familism 188


Puerto Ricans 189


The Bridge Between the Island and the Mainland 190


The Island of Puerto Rico 191


Issues of Statehood and Self-Rule 192


Speaking Out: Puerto Ricans Cannot Be Silenced, by Luis Gutierrez 193


The Social Construction of Race 194


The Island Economy 194


Cuban Americans 195


Immigration 195


The Current Picture 196


Central and South Americans 198


Immigration 198


The Current Picture 199


8 Asian Americans 203


Diversity among Asian Americans 205


Political Activity and Pan-Asian Identity 207


Chinese Americans 208


Early Settlement Patterns 208


Occupational Profile of Chinese Americans 209


Chinatowns Today 210


Organizational Life 210


Social Problems 211


Family Life 212


Asian Indians 213


Immigration 213


The Current Picture 214


Filipino Americans 214


Immigration Patterns 214


Research Focus: Arranged Marriages in America 215


The Current Picture 216


Korean Americans 217


Historical Background 217


The Current Picture 218


Japanese Americans 220


Early Japanese Immigration 220


The Wartime Evacuation 221


Executive Order 9066 221


The Camps 222


The Evacuation: What Does It Mean? 224


The Economic Picture 225


Family Life 226


Southeast Asian Americans 227


The Refugees 227


The Current Picture 228


Case Study: A Hmong Community 229


Hawai’i and Its People 230


Historical Background 230


The Current Picture 231


Speaking Out: Recognizing Native Hawaiians, by Daniel Akaka 232


9 Diversity: Today and Tomorrow 237


Speaking Out: That Latino “Wave” Is Very Much American, by Galina Espinoza 240


Has The Post-Racialism Era Arrived? 240


The Glass Half Empty 241


Is There a Model Minority? 243


Acting White, Acting Black, or Neither 245


Persistence of Inequality 245


Research Focus: Challenge to Pluralism: The Shark’s Fin 247


Talking Past One Another 248


Glossary 255


References 259


Photo Credits 000


Index 275

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