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9780143118053

Reading in the Brain The New Science of How We Read

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780143118053

  • ISBN10:

    0143118056

  • Edition: Reprint
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-10-26
  • Publisher: Penguin Books

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Summary

In this riveting investigation, Dehaene explores every aspect of the ability to read, from its origins to its neural underpinnings. A world authority on the subject, Dehaene reveals the hidden logic of spelling and describes pioneering research on how we process languages.

Author Biography

French scientist Stanislas Dehaene is the director of the Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit in Saclay, France, professor of experimental cognitive psychology at the College de France, a member of the French Academy of Sciences, and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.

Table of Contents

Introduction The New Science of Readingp. 1
From Neurons to Educationp. 2
Putting Neurons into Culturep. 3
The Mystery of the Reading Apep. 4
Biological Unity and Cultural Diversityp. 6
A Reader's Guidep. 7
How Do We Read?p. 11
The Eye: A Poor Scannerp. 13
The Search for Invariantsp. 18
Amplifying Differencesp. 21
Every Word Is a Treep. 21
The Silent Voicep. 25
The Limits of Soundp. 29
The Hidden Logic of Our Spelling Systemp. 31
The Impossible Dream of Transparent Spellingp. 34
Two Routes for Readingp. 38
Mental Dictionariesp. 41
An Assembly of Daemonsp. 42
Parallel Readingp. 46
Active Letter Decodingp. 47
Conspiracy and Competition in Readingp. 49
From Behavior to Brain Mechanismsp. 51
The Brains Letterboxp. 53
Joseph-Jules Déjerine's Discoveryp. 54
Pure Alexiap. 57
A Lesion Revealedp. 58
Modern Lesion Analysisp. 61
Decoding the Reading Brainp. 65
Reading Is Universalp. 69
A Patchwork of Visual Preferencesp. 72
How Fast Do We Read?p. 76
Electrodes in the Brainp. 78
Position Invariancep. 82
Subliminal Readingp. 88
How Culture Fashions the Brainp. 93
The Brains of Chinese Readersp. 97
Japanese and Its Two Scriptsp. 98
Beyond the Letterboxp. 100
Sound and Meaningp. 104
From Spelling to Soundp. 107
Avenues to Meaningp. 109
A Cerebral Tidal Borep. 113
Brain Limits on Cultural Diversityp. 116
Reading and Evolutionp. 119
The Reading Apep. 121
Of Monkeys and Menp. 123
Neurons for Objectsp. 125
Grandmother Cellsp. 129
An Alphabet in the Monkey Brainp. 133
Proto-Lettersp. 137
The Acquisition of Shapep. 141
The Learning Instinctp. 142
Neuronal Recyclingp. 144
Birth of a Culturep. 148
Neurons for Readingp. 150
Bigram Neuronsp. 153
A Neuronal Word Treep. 158
How Many Neurons for Reading?p. 160
Simulating the Reader's Cortexp. 163
Cortical Biases That Shape Readingp. 164
Inventing Readingp. 171
The Universal Features of Writing Systemsp. 173
A Golden Section for Writing Systemsp. 176
Artificial Signs and Natural Shapesp. 178
Prehistoric Precursors of Writingp. 180
From Counting to Writingp. 182
The Limits of Pictographyp. 184
The Alphabet: A Great Leap Forwardp. 190
Vowels: The Mothers of Readingp. 192
Learning to Readp. 195
The Birth of a Future Readerp. 197
Three Steps for Readingp. 199
Becoming Aware of Phonemesp. 200
Graphemes and Phonemes: A Chicken and Egg Problemp. 202
The Orthographic Stagep. 204
The Brain of a Young Readerp. 204
The Illiterate Brainp. 208
What Does Reading Make Us Lose?p. 210
When Letters Have Colorsp. 215
From Neuroscience to Educationp. 218
Reading Warsp. 219
The Myth of Whole-Word Readingp. 222
The Inefficiency of the Whole-Language Approachp. 225
A Few Suggestions for Educatorsp. 228
The Dyslexic Brainp. 235
What Is Dyslexia?p. 237
Phonological Troublep. 238
The Biological Unity of Dyslexiap. 243
A Prime Suspect: The Left Temporal Lobep. 246
Neuronal Migrationsp. 249
The Dyslexic Mousep. 251
The Genetics of Dyslexiap. 253
Overcoming Dyslexiap. 256
Reading and Symmetryp. 263
When Animals Mix Left and Rightp. 267
Evolution and Symmetryp. 269
Symmetry Perception and Brain Symmetryp. 270
Dr. Orton's Modern Followersp. 274
The Pros and Cons of a Symmetrical Brainp. 276
Single-Neuron Symmetryp. 277
Symmetrical Connectionsp. 280
Dormant Symmetryp. 284
Breaking the Mirrorp. 288
Broken Symmetry ... or Hidden Symmetry?p. 289
Symmetry, Reading, and Neuronal Recyclingp. 293
A Surprising Case of Mirror Dyslexiap. 294
Toward a Culture of Neuronsp. 301
Resolving the Reading Paradoxp. 303
The Universality of Cultural Formsp. 304
Neuronal Recycling and Cerebral Modulesp. 306
Toward a List of Cultural Invariantsp. 308
Why Are We the Only Cultural Species?p. 312
Uniquely Human Plasticity?p. 314
Reading Other Mindsp. 315
A Global Neuronal Workspacep. 317
Conclusion The Future of Readingp. 325
Acknowledgmentsp. 329
Notesp. 331
Bibliographyp. 346
Indexp. 376
Figure Creditsp. 387
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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