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Reading and Learning to Read

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  • Edition: 10th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2018-02-28
  • Publisher: Pearson
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With a focus on helping elementary reading teachers master teaching skills that will help all children succeed,  Reading and Learning to Read includes philosophies, teaching strategies, and assessment practices reflecting and underscoring the concepts of evidence-based reading research and data-driven decision-making. The new 10th Edition is completely up to date; integrates the 2017 ILA Standards and Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative throughout the text; features the English Language Arts (ELA) standards respectively as they relate to the content in each chapter; and continues the focus on the applications of technology to literacy instruction, including new coverage of how transliteracies are transforming the way children comprehend and express their understanding of the world.

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Author Biography

Richard and Jo Anne Vacca are professors emeriti in the School of Teaching, Leadership, and Curriculum Studies in the College and Graduate School of Education, Health, and Human Services at Kent State University. They met as undergraduate English majors at SUNY–Albany and have been partners ever since. Jo Anne taught middle school language arts in New York and Illinois and received her doctorate from Boston University. Rich taught high school English and earned his doctorate at Syracuse University. He is a past president of the International Reading Association. The Vaccas have a daughter, Courtney; son-in-law, Gary; and grandsons, Simon, Max, and Joe. They volunteer, golf, and walk their toy poodles, Tiger Lily, Gigi, and Joely, in Vero Beach, Florida.

Mary Gove is an associate professor at Cleveland State University in the graduate literacy education program and served as a co-author on the early editions of Reading and Learning to Read. Her research interests include action research and how teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning influence classroom practice and teacher efficacy. Dr. Gove has also presented papers at various conferences and seminars worldwide. A recent area of focus for Dr. Gove has been ecological critical literacy (ECL), an approach to enhance how we read and critically think about published and broadcasted information about the present environmental depletion of natural resources.

Linda Burkey is a professor of education at the University of Mount Union in Alliance, Ohio. She is also the current appointee of the endowed Lester D. Crow Professorship in Education. Dr. Burkey teaches courses in the areas of reading methods, reading assessment, and special education. Prior to receiving her Ph.D. from Kent State University, Dr. Burkey taught special and elementary education. Her areas of interest in research include reading assessment and adolescent literacy. Dr. Burkey enjoys traveling and spending time with her family. She is a proud grandmother of Maura, Aubrey, and Ryan.

Lisa Lenhart is a professor of literacy in the College of Education at The University of Akron. She works with doctoral students and is the director of the Center for Literacy. As a former elementary school teacher and Title I reading teacher, Dr. Lenhart focuses her scholarship on early literacy development and has co-written several books, including Oral Language and Early Literacy in Preschool and Early Literacy Materials Selector (ELMS): A Tool for Review of Early Literacy Program Materials. Dr. Lenhart received her PhD from Kent State University. In her free time, Dr. Lenhart enjoys hiking and reading.  She is the mother of young adult daughters, Hannah and Emma.

Christine McKeon is a professor of early and middle childhood reading education at Walsh University in North Canton, Ohio. She holds a Ph.D. from Kent State University where she studied under the mentorship of Drs. Rich and Jo Anne Vacca. Chris is a former second-grade teacher and Title I reading teacher, as well as high school reading teacher. She is a former co-editor of the Ohio Reading Teacher, an IRA-affiliated professional journal. She has also authored and co-authored numerous professional literacy articles and chapters in contemporary professional publications. Dr. McKeon's current interests focus on technology and new literacies. She is especially grateful to her son, Jimmy, for designing the cover for the tenth edition of Reading and Learning to Read!

Table of Contents

Brief Contents

Chapter 1            Knowledge and Beliefs about Reading 1

Chapter 2            Approaches to Reading Instruction 31

Chapter 3            Meeting the Literacy Needs of Diverse Learners 52

Chapter 4            Foundations of Language and Literacy 76

Chapter 5            Assessing Reading Performance 112

Chapter 6            Word Identification 150

Chapter 7            Reading Fluency 187

Chapter 8            Vocabulary Knowledge and Concept Development 212

Chapter 9            Comprehending Narrative Text 246

Chapter 10          Comprehending Informational Text 275

Chapter 11          Reading—Writing Connections 311

Chapter 12          Bringing Children and Text Together 342

Chapter 13          Instructional Materials 369

Table of Contents

Features xii

Preface xiv

1 Knowledge and Beliefs About Reading 1

The Importance of Belief Systems 4

    Different Beliefs, Different Instructional Decisions 5

         Differing Instructional Decisions 5

    Reading Instruction and Teachers’ Belief Systems 7

    National Initiatives 7

    Teacher Preparation 9

    Transliteracy 9

    Multiple Approaches to Reading Instruction 11

How Teachers Come to Know About Reading and Learning to Read 13

    Constructing Personal Knowledge 13

    Constructing Practical Knowledge 14

    Constructing Professional Knowledge and Expertise 14

Perspectives on Learning to Read 16

    Cognitive Insights into Reading and Learning to Read 17

         The Alphabetic Principle and Learning to Read 17

         Schema Theory and Reading Comprehension 19

         Metacognition and Learning 20

    Reading from a Language Perspective 22

         Psycholinguistics and Reading 23

         Sociolinguistics and Reading 24

Models of Reading 25

    Bottom-Up Models 26

    Top-Down Models 27

       Interactive Models 28

RTI for Struggling Readers 28

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Knowledge and Beliefs about Reading? 29

    Summary 29

    Teacher Action Research 29

    Through the Lens of the Common Core 30

2 Approaches to Reading Instruction 31

Belief Systems and Approaches to Literacy Instruction 33

    Beliefs About Reading 34

Curriculum Perspectives 36

    Bottom-Up Curricula 38

         Readers and Textbooks 38

    Top-Down Curricula 38

         Classroom Conditions for Learning 40

    Instructional Approaches 41

         The Basal Reading Approach 42

         The Language-Experience Approach 42

         Literature-Based Instruction Approaches 43

         Technology-Based Instruction 44

              Technology-Based Instructional

    Considerations 45

    Individualizing Instruction 46

    The Integrated Approach 47

    Expertise Matters More than Approach 47

RTI for Struggling Readers 49

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Approaches to Reading Instruction? 50

         Summary 50

         Teacher Action Research 50

         Through the Lens of the Common Core 51

3 Meeting the Literacy Needs of Diverse Learners 52

Linguistic Diversity in Literacy Classrooms 54

    Instructional Beliefs About Linguistic Diversity 55

    Instructional Principles for Students Speaking Diverse Languages and Dialects 55

    Instructional Strategies for Students Speaking Diverse Languages 57

         Sheltered English Adaptations 57

         Instructional Conversations 58

         Response Protocol 58

         Wordless Books 59

         Content Area Practices 60

    Dialects 61

         Code-Switching 61

         Dialectical Miscues 62

Cultural Diversity in Literacy Classrooms 62

    Instructional Beliefs About Cultural Diversity 62

    Instructional Principles for Students from Diverse Cultures 64

    Instructional Strategies for Culturally Diverse Students 64

         Determining Cultural Expectations 64

         Background Knowledge and Motivation 64

         Using Culturally Responsive Read-Alouds 65

         Choosing Quality Multicultural Literature 65

         Fostering Ethnic, National, and Global Identification 66

         Technology-Enhanced Instruction 66

Academic and Cognitive Diversity in Literacy Classrooms 67

    Instructional Beliefs About Academic and Cognitive Diversity 67

    Instructional Principles for Academic and Cognitive Diversity 68

         Inclusion 68

         Curriculum Compacting 69

         Differentiated Instruction 69

    Instructional Strategies for Students with Diverse Academic and Cognitive Abilities 70

         Multisensory Phonics Strategies 70

         Technology-Based Diagnostic Strategies 70

         Inquiry Learning 71

         Transliteracies 71

RTI for Struggling Readers 73

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Diversity? 74

    Summary 74

    Teacher Action Research 74

    Through the Lens of the Common Core 75

4 Foundations of Language and Literacy 76

Literacy Development 78

    How Oral Language Develops 78

    How Reading Develops 80

         Phase 1: Awareness and Exploration 80

         Phase 2: Experimental Reading and Writing 80

         Phase 3: Early Reading and Writing 81

         Phase 4: Transitional Reading and Writing 81

         Phase 5: Independent and Productive Reading and Writing 81

    How Writing Develops 82

         The Importance of Scribbling 82

    Oral Language and Vocabulary 85

    Phonological Awareness 86

    Alphabet Knowledge 86

    Developmental Writing 86

    Print Knowledge 87

Literate Learning Environments 87

    Creating Literate Learning Environments at Home 87

    Creating Literate Environments in the Classroom 88

         Design of the Classroom Environment 88

         Literacy-Related Play Centers 90

Facilitating Language and Literacy 92

    Learning About Literacy Through Books 92

    Storybooks 92

    Nonfiction Books 93

    Big Books 94

    E-Books 94

    Class-Made Books 96

    Steps to Follow in Producing Language-Experience Stories 97

         Having Students Dictate Stories 97

Learning About the Relationships Between Speech and Print 99

Learning About Features of Written Language 100

Learning About Letters and Sounds 100

    Recognizing Letters 101

    Phonological Awareness 102

    Phonemic Awareness 102

         Developing Phonemic Awareness in Children 103

Assessing Language and Literacy in Young Children 105

    Assessing Print Knowledge 106

    Assessing Alphabet Knowledge 106

    Assessing Phonological Awareness and Phonemic Awareness 107

    Assessing Developmental Writing 109

RTI for Struggling Readers 109

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Beginning Readers and Writers? 110

    Summary 110

    Teacher Action Research 111

    Through the Lens of the Common Core 111

5 Assessing Reading Performance 112

Toward a Collaborative Framework for Decision Making 114

Trends in Assessment 115

    High-Stakes Testing 116

    Authentic Assessment 118

    Technology in Assessment 120

Formal Assessment 121

    Standardized Tests 121

         Types of Test Scores 122

         Types of Tests 123

         Uses of Standardized Test Results 124

    Criterion-Referenced Tests 125

Informal Assessment 126

    Informal Reading Inventories 126

         Administering an IRI 127

         Recording Oral Reading Errors 127

         Determining Reading Levels 128

    Analyzing Oral Reading Miscues 129

    Running Records 133

         Administering a Running Record 134

         Analyzing Running Records 135

    Kidwatching While Teaching 137

         Anecdotal Notes 138

         Checklists 139

         Interviewing 140

    Other Informal Assessments 141

Portfolio Assessment 142

    Essential Elements of Portfolios 143

    Implementing Portfolios in the Classroom 143

Assessment Today and Tomorrow 145

RTI for Struggling Readers 147

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Reading Performance? 147

    Summary 148

    Teacher Action Research 148

    Through the Lens of the Common Core 149

6 Word Identification 150

Defining Word Identification 152

Phases of Development in Children’s Ability to Identify Words 154

Approaches and Guidelines for Teaching Phonics 156

    Traditional Approaches 157

         Analytic Phonics Instruction 157

         Synthetic Phonics Instruction 157

         Syllables 158

    Contemporary Approaches 159

         Analogy-Based Phonics Instruction 160

         Embedded Phonics Instruction 160

         Guidelines for Contemporary Phonics Instruction 161

Strategies for Teaching Phonics 162

    Consonant-Based Strategies 162

         Multisensory Activities 162

         Consonant Substitution 163

         Flip Books 163

         Making Words 163

         Word Ladders 164

         Cube Words 164

    Analogic-Based Strategies 165

         Poetry 166

         Making and Writing Words Using Letter Patterns 166

    Spelling-Based Strategies 166

         Word Banks 166

         Word Walls 167

         Word Sorting 167

Using Meaning and Letter–Sound Information to Identify Words 168

    Strategies for Teaching Context 168

         Cloze Passages 169

         Cloze with Choices Given 169

         Guessing Games 170

         Semantic Gradients and Context Clues 170

    Cross-Checking and Self-Monitoring Strategies 171

Using Structural Analysis to Identify Words 173

    Strategies for Teaching Structural Analysis 173

         Word Study Notebook 173

         Wall Chart Carousel 174

         Compound Word Cups 174

         Contraction Search 174

Rapid Recognition of Words 175

    High-Frequency Words 175

    Teaching Function Words 178

         Incremental Rehearsal 178

         Language-Experience Strategy 178

         Word Walls 179

         Environmental Print 179

         Word Games 179

         Literature and Poetry 179

    Teaching Key Words 179

         Group Activities with Key Words 179

Organizing Word Identification Instruction 180

    Principle 1 180

    Principle 2 181

    Principle 3 181

Balancing Word Identification Instruction 182

RTI for Struggling Readers 184

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Word Identification? 184

    Summary 185

    Teacher Action Research 186

    Through the Lens of the Common Core 186

7 Reading Fluency 187

Defining Oral Reading Fluency 189

    Accuracy in Word Decoding 190

    Automatic Processing 191

    Prosody 191

    Predictability of Reading Materials 192

Developing Oral Reading Fluency 192

    Strategies for Groups of Students 194

         Choral Reading 194

         Echo Reading 195

         Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI) 195

         Reader’s Theater 196

         Fluency Idol 198

    Strategies for Pairs and Individual Students 198

         Repeated Readings 198

         Paired Repeated Readings 199

         The Fluency Development Lesson 200

         Peer Tutoring 201

         Automated Reading 201

         The Oral Recitation Lesson 202

    Involving Parents 203

         What Parents Can Do to Help at Home 204

Assessing Oral Reading Fluency 205

    Accuracy and Automaticity 205

    Prosody 206

Silent Reading Fluency 208

    Developing Silent Reading Fluency 208

RTI for Struggling Readers 210

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Reading

Fluency? 210

    Summary 211

    Teacher Action Research 211

    Through the Lens of the Common Core 211

8 Vocabulary Knowledge and Concept Development 212

The Relationship Between Vocabulary and Comprehension 215

Experiences, Concepts, and Words 216

    Words as Labels for Concepts 217

    Words and Concepts: A Closer Look 218

    Class, Example, and Attribute Relationships 219

Principles to Guide Vocabulary Instruction 221

    Principle 1: Select Words That Children Will Encounter While Reading Text and Content Material 221

         Key Words 221

         Useful Words 222

         Interesting Words 222

         Vocabulary-Building Words 222

    Principle 2: Teach Words in Relation to Other Words 222

    Principle 3: Teach Students to Relate Words to Their Background Knowledge 223

    Principle 4: Teach Words in Prereading Activities to Activate Knowledge and Use Them in Postreading     Discussion, Response, and Retelling 224

    Principle 5: Teach Words Systematically and in Depth 225

    Principle 6: Awaken Interest in and Enthusiasm for Words 226

Best Practice: Strategies for Vocabulary and Concept Development 227

    Relating Experiences to Vocabulary Learning 228

    Using Context for Vocabulary Growth 228

    Developing Word Meanings 229

         Synonyms 229

         Antonyms 230

         Words with Multiple Meanings 231

    Classifying and Categorizing Words 231

         Word Sorts 232

         Categorization 233

         Concept Circles 233

         Semantic Mapping 234

         Analogies 235

         Paired-Word Sentence Generation 237

    Developing Word Meanings Through Stories and Writing 237

         Semantic Analysis to Writing 238

         Predictogram 240

    Developing Independence in Vocabulary Learning 240

         Dictionary Usage 241

         Self-Selection Strategy 242

         Word Knowledge Rating 242

RTI for Struggling Readers 243

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Vocabulary

Development? 244

    Summary 244

    Teacher Action Research 245

    Through the Lens of the Common Core 245

9 Comprehending Narrative Text 246

Developing Readers’ Awareness of Story Structure 248

    Elements in a Story 249

    Mapping a Story for Instructional Purposes 249

    Building a Schema for Stories 251

         Read, Tell, and Perform Stories in Class 251

         Show Relationships Between Story Parts 251

         Reinforce Story Knowledge Through Instructional Activities 251

Scaffolding the Development and Teaching of Reading Comprehension Strategies 254

    Active Comprehension and Asking Questions 255

    Reciprocal Questioning (ReQuest) 258

    Question–Answer Relationships (QARs) 259

    Questioning the Author (QtA) 260

    Close Reading 263

    Reciprocal Teaching 265

    Think-Alouds 265

Guiding Interactions Between Reader and Text 267

    Directed Reading–Thinking Activity 267

    Discussion Webs 268

    Text Connections 270

         Text-to-Self 270

         Text-to-Text 270

         Text-to-World 270

    Technology and Twenty-First-Century Reading Comprehension Skills 271

RTI for Struggling Readers 272

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Reading Comprehension? 273

    Summary 274

    Teacher Action Research 274

    Through the Lens of the Common Core 274

10 Comprehending Informational Text 275

What Is Informational Text, and What Makes It Challenging? 279

    Factors in Judging the Difficulty of Textbooks and Other Informational Text 281

         How Difficult Is the Text to Understand? 281

         How Usable Is the Informational Text? 281

         How Interesting Is the Informational Text? 282

    Readability and Text Complexity 283

Organizing Informational Text Instruction 284

    Informational Text Circles 284

    Jigsaw 285

         Jigsaw Strategy in an Elementary Classroom 286

    Idea Sketches 287

    Sticky-Note Folders 288

Using Literature and Nonfiction Trade Books Across the Curriculum 289

    Benefits of Using Literature and Nonfiction Trade Books 290

         Intense Involvement 291

         Schema Building 291

         Abilities and Interests 291

         Vocabulary Building 292

Instructional Strategies for Engaging Students in Reading Informational Text Prior to Reading 293

    Determining the Structure of Informational Text 293

    Frame of Reference 295

         Skimming 296

    Organizers 296

    Anticipation Guides 296

    Brainstorming 297

Extending Content Learning Through Reading and Writing 298

    Close Reading 298

         Focus on Close Reading 298

    KWL 299

    Point-of-View Guides 300

    Idea Circles 302

    Curriculum-Based Reader’s Theater 302

         Using Think-Alouds 303

Digital Literacy 305

    Informational Text and the Internet 306

    Internet Inquiry 306

    Online Reading Comprehension Skills 307

RTI for Struggling Readers 307

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Content Area Texts? 308

    Summary 309

    Teacher Action Research 309

    Through the Lens of the Common Core 310

11 Reading–Writing Connections 311

Relationships Between Reading and Writing 313

    The Writing–Spelling Connection 314

         Invented Spelling 314

         Later Developmental Spelling Phases 315

Creating Environments for Reading and Writing 315

    Encouraging Classroom Writing 316

Connecting Reading and Writing 318

    Using Journals (and E-Mail Correspondence) for Written Conversation 319

         Dialogue Journals 319

         Buddy Journals 320

         Electronic Mail (E-Mail) Conversations 320

    Using Journals to Explore Texts 320

         Double-Entry Journals 321

         Reading Journals 323

         Response Journals 323

    Alternative Strategies That Motivate Students to Write 324

         Gathering Ideas 324

    Multigenre Projects 325

         Writing Nonfiction 325

         Plot Scaffolds 325

Organizing Writing Instruction 327

    The Writing Process 327

         Brainstorming 328

         Drafting 328

         Revising 328

         Editing 329

         Publishing 329

    The Qualities of Exemplary Writing 331

    The Writing Workshop 333

         A Day in the Life of Our Writing Workshop 335

    Guided Writing Instruction 335

Reading–Writing–Technology Connections 336

    Electronic Text Production and Publishing 336

    Online Communications 337

    Online Resources for Writing 337

RTI for Struggling Readers 339

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Reading–Writing Connections? 339

    Summary 340

    Teacher Action Research 340

    Through the Lens of the Common Core 341

12 Bringing Children and Text Together 342

Supporting a Community of Readers 344

Surrounding Children with Text 347

    Selecting a Classroom Collection of Books 347

         Choosing Classroom Texts 348

         Determining Good Text 349

         Text with Multicultural Perspectives 350

         Designing the Classroom Library 351

    Listening to Text 352

         Choosing Texts to Read Aloud 352

         Preparing to Read Aloud 353

         Setting the Mood 353

         Introducing the Story 354

         Activities After Reading Aloud 354

    Storytelling 354

         Selecting the Story to Tell 354

         Preparing a Story for Telling 355

    Helping Students Select Books 356

Organizing for Text-Based Instruction 357

    Core Books 357

    Literature Units 358

    Literature Circles 358

         Student-Led Literature Circles: How and What to Share 359

         Adapting Literature Circles for the

    Primary Grades 360

    Media Literacy 360

         Integration of the Internet 361

Encouraging Responses to Text 362

    Sparking Discussion with Book-Talks 364

    Engaging in Free Response 364

    Exploring Response Options in Literature Journals 365

RTI for Struggling Readers 366

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Text? 367

    Summary 367

    Teacher Action Research 368

    Through the Lens of the Common Core 368

13 Instructional Materials 369

Basal Readers 372

    A Look Back 372

    Anatomy of Basal Readers 373

         Student Books 374

         Leveled Readers 374

         Teacher’s Editions 374

         Workbooks 375

         Assessments 375

         Technology and Online Learning 375

         Intervention 376

    Making Instructional Decisions with Basals 376

Trade Books 378

    The Case for Trade Books 378

    Leveling Trade Books 379

Technology 379

    Electronic Books 381

    Online Games 382

    Online Word Processors 382

    Apps 382

Evaluating Reading Materials 383

RTI for Struggling Readers 386

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Instructional Materials? 387

    Summary 387

    Teacher Action Research 387

    Through the Lens of the Common Core 388

Appendix A Beliefs About Reading Interview 389

Appendix B Text and Phonics 394

Appendix C Recommended Books for

Multicultural Reading Experiences 395

Glossary 401

References 408

Name Index 428

Subject Index 433

Supplemental Materials

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