Reading and Learning to Read (with MyEducationLab)

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Package
  • Copyright: 2009-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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With superior coverage of standards and an emphasis on comprehensive reading instruction, "Reading"" and Learning to Read, Seventh Edition, " remains an active learning tool that encourages teachers to teach reading in ways that are both meaningful and reflective. This book promotes a comprehensive approach to teaching reading and writing with an emphasis on research-based best practices, integrating technology, and accommodating the needs of diverse and struggling learners. This edition continues its commitment to preparing pre-service teachers for the ever-changing literacy classroom. A focus on meeting the standards of today's research-based environment and new concepts and practices that enhance professional development, as well as a wealth of practical examples and references that exemplify the IRA Standards for Reading Professionals, results in the most comprehensive and contemporary book on the market.

Table of Contents

Featuresp. xvii
Prefacep. xxi
Knowledge and Beliefs About Readingp. 1
The Importance of Belief Systemsp. 3
Different Beliefs, Different Instructional Decisionsp. 4
Reading Instruction and Teachers' Belief Systemsp. 7
How Teachers Come to Know About Reading and Learning to Readp. 11
Constructing Personal Knowledgep. 12
Constructing Practical Knowledgep. 12
Constructing Professional Knowledge and Expertisep. 13
Cognitive Insights into Reading and Learning to Readp. 16
The Alphabetic Principle and Learning to Readp. 16
Schema Theory and Reading Comprehensionp. 18
Metacognition and Learningp. 19
Self-Knowledgep. 21
Task Knowledgep. 21
Self-Monitoringp. 21
Reading from a Language Perspectivep. 22
Psycholinguistics and Readingp. 23
Graphophonemic Systemp. 23
Syntactic Systemp. 23
Semantic Systemp. 23
Sociolinguistics and Readingp. 24
Models of Readingp. 25
Bottom-Up Modelsp. 26
Top-Down Modelsp. 27
Interactive Modelsp. 28
What About Struggling Readers and Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs About Reading?p. 28
Summaryp. 29
Teacher Action Researchp. 29
Related Web Sitesp. 30
MyEducationLabp. 31
Approaches to Reading Instructionp. 32
Belief Systems and Approaches to Literacy Instructionp. 35
Beliefs About Reading Interviewp. 35
Theoretical Orientation to Reading Profilep. 38
Curriculum Perspectivesp. 38
Bottom-Up Curriculap. 40
Readers and Textbooksp. 40
The First-Grade Studiesp. 41
Top-Down Curriculap. 41
Some Principles Underlying Top-Down Practicesp. 41
Classroom Conditions For Learningp. 43
Instructional Approachesp. 43
The Basal Reading Approachp. 43
The Language-Experience Approachp. 45
Integrated Language Artsp. 46
Literature-Based Instructionp. 46
Technology-Based Instructionp. 47
Approaches and Strategies in Comprehensive Instructionp. 48
What About Struggling Readers and Approaches to Literacy Instruction?p. 53
Summaryp. 53
Teacher Action Researchp. 54
Related Web Sitesp. 54
MyEducationLabp. 55
Meeting the Literacy Needs of Diverse Learnersp. 56
The Complexity of Diversity in Literacy Classroomsp. 59
Linguistic Diversity in Literacy Classroomsp. 60
Instructional Beliefs About Linguistic Diversityp. 61
Instructional Principles for Students Speaking Diverse Languages and Dialectsp. 63
Instructional Strategies for Students Speaking Diverse Languagesp. 64
Sheltered English Adaptationsp. 66
Instructional Conversationsp. 66
Response Protocolp. 66
Reading and Writing Practicesp. 68
Content Area Practicesp. 69
Thematic Teachingp. 69
Dialects and Reading Strategiesp. 70
Background Knowledge and Motivationp. 70
Culturally Relevant Materials and Motivationp. 70
Dialectical Miscuesp. 71
Using Language Experiencep. 71
Cultural Diversity in Literacy Classroomsp. 71
Instructional Beliefs About Cultural Diversityp. 72
Instructional Principles for Students from Diverse Culturesp. 72
Instructional Strategies for Culturally Diverse Studentsp. 74
Consider Yourself And Your Own Beliefs And Experiences With Other Culturesp. 74
Determining Cultural Expectationsp. 74
Validating Each Child's Experiencep. 75
Fostering Ethnic, National, and Global Identificationp. 76
Collaborative Communitiesp. 76
Technology-Enhanced Instructionp. 78
Image Makingp. 78
Choosing Quality Multicultural Literaturep. 78
Academic and Cognitive Diversity in Literacy Classroomsp. 80
Instructional Beliefs About Academic and Cognitive Diversityp. 81
Instructional Principles for Academic and Cognitive Diversityp. 83
Inclusionp. 83
Curriculum Compactingp. 84
Literacy Coachesp. 84
Instructional Strategies for Students with Diverse Academic and Cognitive Abilitiesp. 85
Inquiry Learningp. 85
Differentiated Instructionp. 86
New Literaciesp. 86
Response To Intervention (Rti)p. 87
Programs and Strategies for Struggling Readers Who Are Academically and Cognitively Diversep. 87
What About Struggling Readers and Their Diverse Academic and Cognitive Needs?p. 88
What About Standards, Assessment, and Diversity?p. 89
Summaryp. 89
Teacher Action Researchp. 90
Related Web Sitesp. 90
MyEducationLabp. 91
Early Literacy: From Birth to Schoolp. 92
Children's Development in Early Reading and Writingp. 95
Phases of Literacy Developmentp. 95
How Reading Developsp. 97
The Importance Of Family Interactionsp. 98
The Importance Of Literate Environmentsp. 100
How Writing Developsp. 101
The Importance Of Scribblingp. 102
The Importance Of Invented Spellingp. 105
Advantages Of Invented Spellingp. 105
Developmentally Appropriate Practicesp. 106
Creating Literate Learning Environmentsp. 107
Designing Literacy-Related Play Centersp. 108
Exploring Print Through Language Experiencesp. 112
Talking, Creating, Singing, And Dancingp. 112
Role Playing And Dramap. 114
Reading to Childrenp. 115
Sharing Booksp. 116
Repeating The Reading Of Favorite Storiesp. 116
Providing Assistance As Neededp. 117
What About Struggling Readers and Early Literacy?p. 118
What About Standards, Assessment, and Early Literacy?p. 119
Summaryp. 119
Teacher Action Researchp. 120
Related Web Sitesp. 121
MyEducationLabp. 121
Inviting Beginners into the Literacy Clubp. 122
Emergent Literacy Programs for Beginnersp. 124
Learning Literacy Through Storybooksp. 126
Big Books in U.S. Classroomsp. 127
Interactive Reading and Writingp. 129
Interactive Readingp. 131
Interactive Writingp. 133
Learning About the Relationships Between Speech and Printp. 134
Understanding the Uses of Written Languagep. 134
Perpetuating Usesp. 135
Regulatory, Authoritative-Contractual Usesp. 136
Instrumental Usesp. 136
Diversion Usesp. 137
Personal Usesp. 137
Connecting Speech and Print Through Language Experiencep. 138
Steps To Follow In Producing Languageexperience Storiesp. 139
The Value Of Language Experiencep. 140
Learning About Features of Written Languagep. 142
Linguistic Awarenessp. 142
The Concepts About Print Testp. 143
Observing Children's Emerging Literacy Accomplishmentsp. 143
Learning About Letters and Soundsp. 146
Recognizing Lettersp. 147
Developing Phonemic Awarenessp. 148
Developing Phonemic Awareness In Childrenp. 150
Assessing Phonemic Awarenessp. 154
What About Struggling Readers and the Literacy Club?p. 156
What About Standards, Assessment, and the Literacy Club?p. 156
Summaryp. 157
Teacher Action Researchp. 158
Related Web Sitesp. 158
MyEducationLabp. 159
Assessing Reading Performancep. 160
Toward a Corroborative Framework for Decision Makingp. 163
Trends in Assessmentp. 164
High-Stakes Testingp. 164
Authentic Assessmentp. 165
Formal Assessmentp. 168
Standardized Testsp. 169
Types Of Test Scoresp. 170
Types Of Testsp. 171
Uses Of Standardized Test Resultsp. 171
Criterion-Referenced Testsp. 172
Informal Assessmentp. 173
Informal Reading Inventoriesp. 173
Administering An Irip. 174
Recording Oral Reading Errorsp. 175
Determining Reading Levelsp. 176
Analyzing Oral Reading Miscuesp. 177
Running Recordsp. 181
Administering A Running Recordp. 181
Analyzing Running Recordsp. 183
Portfolio Assessmentp. 186
Essential Elements of Portfoliosp. 186
Implementing Portfolios in the Classroomp. 187
Kidwatching While Teachingp. 193
Anecdotal Notesp. 193
Checklistsp. 194
Interviewingp. 195
Assessment Today and Tomorrowp. 196
What About Struggling Readers and Assessing Reading Performance?p. 196
What About Standards, Assessment, and Reading Performance?p. 197
Summaryp. 197
Teacher Action Researchp. 198
Related Web Sitesp. 198
MyEducationLabp. 199
Word Identificationp. 200
Defining Word Identificationp. 202
Phases of Development in Children's Ability to Identify Wordsp. 205
Approaches and Guidelines for Teaching Phonicsp. 207
Traditional Approachesp. 208
Analytic Phonics Instructionp. 208
Synthetic Phonics Instructionp. 209
Linguistic Phonics Instructionp. 209
Contemporary Approachesp. 209
Analogy-Based Instructionp. 212
Spelling-Based Instructionp. 212
Embedded Phonics Instructionp. 213
Guidelines For Contemporary Phonics Instructionp. 213
Strategies for Teaching Phonicsp. 215
Consonant-Based Strategiesp. 216
Letter Actionsp. 216
Favorite Foodsp. 217
Consonant Substitutionp. 217
Flip Booksp. 218
Making Wordsp. 218
Making And Writing Wordsp. 219
Cube Wordsp. 220
Digraph And Blend Actions And Food Associationsp. 220
Digraph Tongue Twistersp. 223
Analogy-Based Strategiesp. 223
The Analogy Strategyp. 224
Rimes In Nursery Rhymesp. 224
Making And Writing Words Using Letter Patternsp. 225
Hink Pinksp. 225
Spelling-Based Strategiesp. 226
Word Banksp. 226
Word Wallsp. 226
Word Sortingp. 227
Have-A-Gop. 227
Using Meaning and Letter-Sound Information to Identify Wordsp. 229
Strategies for Teaching Contextp. 229
Modified Cloze Passagesp. 230
Cloze With Choices Givenp. 230
Guessing Gamesp. 231
Inferring Word Meanings Through Context Cluesp. 231
Cross-Checking and Self-Monitoring Strategiesp. 231
Using Structural Analysis to Identify Wordsp. 233
Strategies for Teaching Structural Analysisp. 233
Word Study Notebookp. 233
Wall Chart Carouselp. 234
Compound Word Cupsp. 234
Contraction Searchp. 234
Rapid Recognition of Wordsp. 234
High-Frequency Wordsp. 235
Strategies for Teaching Function Wordsp. 237
Language-Experience Strategyp. 238
Word Wallsp. 238
Environmental Printp. 238
Word Gamesp. 239
Literature And Poetryp. 239
Teaching Key Wordsp. 239
Group Activities With Key Wordsp. 239
Balancing Word Identification Instructionp. 240
What About Struggling Readers and Word Identification?p. 241
What About Standards, Assessment, and Word Identification?p. 242
Summaryp. 243
Teacher Action Researchp. 244
Related Web Sitesp. 245
MyEducationLabp. 245
Reading Fluencyp. 246
Defining Oral Reading Fluencyp. 249
Immediate Word Identificationp. 249
Automaticityp. 250
Predictability of Reading Materialsp. 251
Developing Oral Reading Fluencyp. 252
Repeated Readingsp. 252
Paired Repeated Readingsp. 255
Peer Tutoringp. 255
Automated Readingp. 257
Choral Readingp. 258
Reader's Theaterp. 260
Involving Parentsp. 264
Routines for Fluency Developmentp. 265
Monitoring Oral Reading Fluencyp. 265
Developing Silent Reading Fluencyp. 269
Sustained Silent Readingp. 270
Putting SSR into Actionp. 271
What About Struggling Readers and Reading Fluency?p. 272
What About Standards, Assessment, and Reading Fluency?p. 272
Summaryp. 273
Teacher Action Researchp. 274
Related Web Sitesp. 274
MyEducationLabp. 275
Vocabulary Knowledge and Concept Developmentp. 276
The Relationship Between Vocabulary and Comprehensionp. 279
Experiences, Concepts, and Wordsp. 281
Words as Labels for Conceptsp. 282
Words and Concepts: A Closer Lookp. 282
Class, Example, and Attribute Relationshipsp. 283
Principles to Guide Vocabulary Instructionp. 285
Select Words That Children Will Encounter While Reading Literature and Content Materialp. 286
Key Wordsp. 286
Useful Wordsp. 286
Interesting Wordsp. 287
Vocabulary-Building Wordsp. 287
Teach Words in Relation to Other Wordsp. 287
Teach Students to Relate Words to Their Background Knowledgep. 288
Teach Words in Prereading Activities to Activate Knowledge and Use Them in Postreading Discussion, Response, and Retellingp. 288
Teach Words Systematically and in Depthp. 289
Awaken Interest in and Enthusiasm for Wordsp. 289
Best Practice: Strategies for Vocabulary and Concept Developmentp. 290
Relating Experiences to Vocabulary Learningp. 291
Using Context for Vocabulary Growthp. 292
Developing Word Meaningsp. 292
Synonymsp. 293
Antonymsp. 293
Multiple-Meaning Wordsp. 294
Classifying and Categorizing Wordsp. 294
Word Sortsp. 295
Categorizationp. 296
Concept Circlesp. 297
Semantic Mappingp. 297
Analogiesp. 299
Paired-Word Sentence Generationp. 299
Developing Word Meanings Through Stories and Writingp. 301
Semantic Analysis To Writingp. 301
Predictogramp. 303
Developing Independence in Vocabulary Learningp. 304
Dictionary Usagep. 305
Self-Selection Strategyp. 305
Word Knowledge Ratingp. 306
What About Struggling Readers and Vocabulary Knowledge?p. 306
What About Standards, Assessment, and Vocabulary Knowledge?p. 307
Summaryp. 307
Teacher Action Researchp. 308
Related Web Sitesp. 308
MyEducationLabp. 309
Reading Comprehensionp. 310
Scaffolding the Development and Use of Comprehension Strategiesp. 313
Active Comprehension and Asking Questionsp. 313
Reciprocal Questioning (ReQuest)p. 316
Question-Answer Relationships (QARs)p. 318
Questioning the Author (QtA)p. 319
Reciprocal Teachingp. 321
Think-Aloudsp. 322
Developing Readers' Awareness of Story Structurep. 324
Elements in a Storyp. 325
Mapping a Story for Instructional Purposesp. 326
Building a Schema for Storiesp. 329
Read, Tell, And Perform Stories In Classp. 330
Don't Teach The Language Of Story Grammar As An End In Itselfp. 330
Show Relationships Among Story Partsp. 331
Reinforce Story Knowledge Through Instructional Activitiesp. 331
Guiding Interactions Between Reader and Textp. 333
Directed Reading-Thinking Activityp. 336
KWL (What Do You Know? What Do You Want to Find Out? What Did You Learn?)p. 338
Discussion Websp. 340
Story Impressionsp. 342
Reading Comprehension and the Webp. 344
What About Struggling Readers and Reading Comprehension?p. 345
What About Standards, Assessment, and Reading Comprehension?p. 346
Summaryp. 347
Teacher Action Researchp. 347
Related Web Sitesp. 348
MyEducationLabp. 349
Reading-Writing Connectionsp. 350
Relationships Between Reading and Writingp. 352
Creating Environments for Reading and Writingp. 355
Connecting Reading and Writingp. 356
Using Journals (and E-Mail Correspondence) for Written Conversationp. 357
Dialogue Journalsp. 357
Buddy Journalsp. 359
Electronic Mail (E-Mail) Conversationsp. 360
Using Journals to Explore Textsp. 362
Double-Entry Journalsp. 363
Reading Journalsp. 364
Response Journalsp. 365
Alternative Strategies That Motivate Students to Writep. 366
Gathering Ideasp. 366
Multigenre Projectsp. 366
Writing Notificationp. 367
Plot Scaffoldsp. 367
Establishing a Predictable Structure for Writingp. 370
Organizing the Writing Workshopp. 370
Guiding Writing (and Observing Reading)p. 372
Rehearsingp. 373
Draftingp. 373
Revisingp. 373
Editingp. 375
Publishingp. 376
Reading-Writing-Technology Connectionsp. 376
Word Processingp. 379
Desktop Publishing and Multimedia Authoringp. 380
Children's Books and Technologyp. 381
What About Struggling Readers and Reading-Writing Connections?p. 383
What About Standards, Assessment, and Reading-Writing Connections?p. 383
Summaryp. 384
Teacher Action Researchp. 384
Related Web Sitesp. 387
MyEducationLabp. 387
Bringing Children and Literature Togetherp. 388
Supporting a Community of Readersp. 391
Surrounding Children with Literaturep. 392
Selecting a Classroom Collection of Booksp. 393
Choosing Classroom Literaturep. 394
Determining Good Literaturep. 395
Literature With Multicultural Perspectivesp. 396
Why Multicultural Literature?p. 396
Criteria For Selecting Multicultural Literaturep. 400
Designing The Classroom Libraryp. 400
Listening to Literaturep. 401
Choosing Literature To Read Aloudp. 401
Preparing To Read Aloudp. 402
Setting The Moodp. 402
Introducing The Storyp. 402
Activities After Reading Aloudp. 403
Allowing Others To Present Literaturep. 403
Storytellingp. 403
Selecting The Story To Tellp. 403
Preparing A Story For Tellingp. 404
Helping Children Select Booksp. 405
Organizing for Literature-Based Instructionp. 407
Core Booksp. 407
Literature Unitsp. 407
Reading Workshopsp. 407
Sparking Interestp. 408
Minilessonsp. 408
Status-Of-The-Class Reportp. 408
Sustained Silent Readingp. 408
Individual Reading Conferencesp. 408
Group Sharing Timep. 408
Literature Circlesp. 408
Student-Led Literature Circles: How And What To Sharep. 410
Adapting Literature Circles For The Primary Gradesp. 411
Integration Of The Internetp. 413
Encouraging Responses to Literaturep. 413
Sparking Discussion with Book Talksp. 415
Engaging in Free Responsep. 416
Exploring Response Options in Literature Journalsp. 417
What About Struggling Readers and Literature?p. 419
What About Standards, Assessment, and Literature?p. 420
Summaryp. 420
Teacher Action Researchp. 421
Related Web Sitesp. 422
MyEducationLabp. 423
Basal Readers and Instructional Materialsp. 424
The First Basalsp. 427
Basal Programs Todayp. 427
Characteristics of Basal Readersp. 433
Appearancep. 435
Illustrationsp. 435
Stereotypingp. 435
Language Stylep. 435
Workbooksp. 436
Lesson Frameworkp. 436
Motivation And Background Buildingp. 438
Guided Reading (Silent And Oral)p. 439
Skill Development And Practicep. 439
Follow-Up And Enrichmentp. 439
Making Instructional Decisionsp. 440
Modifying Lessonsp. 441
Instructional Materialsp. 442
Electronic Materialsp. 444
World Wide Webp. 444
E-Mail, Discussion Groups, And Blogsp. 444
Word Processorsp. 444
Software Programsp. 445
Electronic Booksp. 445
Educational Gamesp. 445
Beliefs About Reading and Instructional Materialsp. 445
Selecting Reading Materialsp. 446
Evaluating Reading Materialsp. 448
What About Struggling Readers and the Basal Reader?p. 451
What About Standards, Assessment, and the Basal Reader?p. 451
Summaryp. 452
Teacher Action Researchp. 452
Related Web Sitesp. 453
MyEducationLabp. 453
Making the Transition to Content Area Textsp. 454
Why Are Content Area Textbooks Difficult?p. 457
Factors in Judging the Difficulty of Textbooksp. 459
How Difficult Is The Text To Understand?p. 459
How Usable Is The Text?p. 460
How Interesting Is The Text?p. 460
Readabilityp. 461
Limitationsp. 461
Fry Readability Graphp. 461
Using Literature and Nonfiction Trade Books Across the Curriculump. 463
Some Uses and Benefits of Literature and Nonfiction Trade Booksp. 463
Intense Involvementp. 463
Schema Buildingp. 464
Abilities And Interestsp. 464
Vocabulary Buildingp. 465
Planning to Use Literature and Informational Text in Content Area Learningp. 466
The Single-Discipline Modelp. 466
The Interdisciplinary Modelp. 467
The Integrative Literature Modelp. 467
Additional Considerations for Implementing Literature and Informational Text in the Content Areasp. 468
Informational Text Typesp. 468
Reading The Textsp. 469
Strategies For Teaching Reading Comprehension With Informational Textsp. 469
Learning with Electronic Textsp. 472
Strategies Before Readingp. 473
Previewing and Skimmingp. 473
Skimmingp. 475
Organizersp. 475
Anticipation Guidesp. 476
Brainstormingp. 478
Extending Content Learning Through Reading and Writingp. 479
Point-of-View Guidesp. 479
Idea Circlesp. 479
Curriculum-Based Reader's Theaterp. 482
I-Chartsp. 482
Internet Inquiryp. 484
What About Struggling Readers and Content Area Texts?p. 487
What About Standards, Assessment, and Content Area Texts?p. 488
Summaryp. 488
Teacher Action Researchp. 489
Related Web Sitesp. 490
MyEducationLabp. 491
Managing and Organizing an Effective Classroomp. 492
Improving Instructionp. 494
Classroom Teachers of Readingp. 495
Standardsp. 495
Instructional Practicesp. 495
Collaborative and Cooperative Learningp. 497
Cooperative Learning And The Teacher's Rolep. 498
Explicit Instruction And The Teacher's Rolep. 499
Individualizing Instructionp. 500
What Is Individualized Instruction in Reading?p. 500
Influences of Individualized Instructionp. 501
Groupsp. 501
Materialsp. 502
Putting It All Together: Organizing a Classroom Communityp. 503
Multiage Classroomsp. 504
Creating a Physical Environmentp. 505
Learning Centersp. 507
Room Diagramsp. 508
Student Schedulesp. 508
Record Keepingp. 510
Portfolio Systemsp. 512
Technology in the Literate Classroomp. 512
Technology-Based Instructional Considerationsp. 515
What About Struggling Readers and Managing and Organizing an Effective Classroom?p. 516
What About Standards, Assessment, and Managing and Organizing an Effective Classroom?p. 517
Summaryp. 518
Teacher Action Researchp. 518
Related Web Sitesp. 519
MyEducationLabp. 519
Beliefs About Reading Interviewp. 521
The DeFord Theoretical Orientation to Reading Profile (TORP)p. 527
Reading and Writing Accomplishments of Young Children by Grade Levelp. 531
Trade Books That Repeat Phonic Elementsp. 535
Annotated Bibliography of Read-Aloud Books for Developing Phonemic Awarenessp. 537
Recommended Books for Multicultural Reading Experiencesp. 541
International Reading Association Standards for Reading Professionalsp. 549
Glossaryp. 551
Referencesp. 559
Name Indexp. 577
Subject Indexp. 581
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