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Reading, Writing and Learning in ESL A Resource Book for Teaching K-12 English Learners, Enhanced Pearson eText -- Access Card

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2016-01-05
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Reading, Writing and Learning in ESL will help you teach oral language, reading, writing, and the content areas to K-12 English learners. The text provides detailed strategies for motivating and teaching, including activities, student writing samples, and recommendations for using technology.

For courses in Literacy in English as a Second Language, Teaching Literacy to English Learners K-12.

Pearson eText is an easy-to-use digital textbook that you can purchase on your own or instructors can assign for their course. The mobile app lets you keep on learning, no matter where your day takes you -- even offline. You can also add highlights, bookmarks, and notes in your Pearson eText to study how you like.

NOTE: This ISBN is for the Pearson eText access card. Pearson eText is a fully digital delivery of Pearson content. Before purchasing, check that you have the correct ISBN. To register for and use Pearson eText, you may also need a course invite link, which your instructor will provide. Follow the instructions provided on the access card to learn more.

Author Biography

Suzanne Peregoy is Professor Emerita of Education, San Francisco State University, where she coordinated the M.A. and Reading/Language Arts Specialist Credential programs while also teaching courses in language and literacy development. She earned an M.A. in Spanish literature and linguistics from the University of California, Santa Barbara. Her Ph.D. in language and literacy from the University of California, Berkeley, focused on bilingual reading, second language acquisition, and language issues in American Indian education. Previously, Professor Peregoy taught ESL to adults.  She also taught primary grades in a Spanish-English bilingual education program, and directed a multicultural preschool program. Dr. Peregoy was active in writing California’s guidelines for preparing in-service teachers to work with English language learners. She has published articles on bilingual and second language literacy in the Journal of the National Association for Bilingual Education, The Reading Teacher, Canadian Modern Language Review, Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, and Theory into Practice. Dr. Peregoy is fluent in Spanish.


Owen Boyle is Professor Emeritus of Education, San Jose State University, where he coordinated the Bilingual and ESL Program, chaired the Language and Literacy Department, and headed the Reading Specialist Credential and M.A. programs in literacy. At San Jose State Professor Boyle taught courses in second language literacy, language acquisition and reading, multicultural literature, and reading assessment. He received his doctorate at the University of California, where he was Coordinator of the Learning from Text Program and researched and taught students. As Assistant Director of the Bay Area Writing Project (National Writing Project), Owen worked with teachers from all over the world including those from Germany, Panama, Alaska, and California. He served on the California State Superintendent’s panel that developed guidelines for preparing teachers of reading and was instrumental in developing a reading instruction test required for a California multiple subject teaching credential. He has published articles and research in Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, Bilingual Research Journal, Journal of the Association of Mexican-American Educators, Journal of College Reading and Learning, The Reading Teacher, and Reading Research and Instruction. He taught elementary and secondary school where he worked with second language learners for 12 years.

Table of Contents

Brief Table of Contents

1 English Learners in 21st-Century Classrooms

2 Language and Language Acquisition

3 Classroom Practices for Effective English Learner Instruction

4 The New Literacies and English Learners

5 Oral English Development in Second Language Acquisition

6 First Steps to Literacy: English Learners Beginning to Write and Read

7 Words and Meanings: English Learners’ Vocabulary Development

8 English Learners and Process Writing

9 Reading and Literature Instruction for English Learners

10 Content Reading and Writing: Prereading and During Reading

11 Content Reading and Writing: Postreading Strategies for Organizing and Remembering


Detailed Table of Contents

Preface xviii

1 English Learners in 21st-Century Classrooms 2

Who Are English Learners and How Can I Get to Know Them? 5

Learning about Your Students’ Languages and Cultures 7

Getting Basic Information When a New Student Arrives 7

Classroom Activities That Help You Get to Know Your Students 9

How Do Cultural Differences Affect Teaching and Learning? 11

Definitions of Culture 12

Who Am I in the Lives of My Students? 12

Becoming an Effective Participant—Observer in Your Own Classroom 13

Sociocultural Factors Affecting Language Use in the Classroom 16

Culturally Related Responses to Classroom Organization 18

Literacy Traditions from Home and Community 19

How Can I Ease New Students into the Routines of My Classroom? 20

First Things First: Safety and Security 21

Creating a Sense of Belonging 21

How Do Current Policy Trends Affect English Learner Education? 22

Academic Standards and Assessment 23

Common Core State Standards (CCSS) 23

English Language Development Standards and Assessment 25

Curriculum Standards, High-Stakes Testing, and “No Child Left Behind” 26

Socioeconomic Status: Predictor of Standardized Test Scores 27

Education Policy Specific to English Learners 28

Newer Technologies: Purposes, Policies, and Assessments 31

What Kinds of Programs Exist to Meet the Needs of English Learners? 32

English Learner Program Models 33

Research on Bilingual and ESL Programs Serving English Learners 35

Summary 37

Internet Resources 38

Activities 39


2 Language and Language Acquisition 40

How Have Language Proficiency and Communicative Competence Been Defined? 42

Language Use in Social Context: A Classroom Conversation 43

Bilingual Communicative Competence 46

Figurative Language 47

What Is Academic Language? 48

Contrasting Social and Academic Language 49

Academic Language Qualities 49

Academic Language Functions 50

Academic Language Linguistic Features 51

The Role of Background Knowledge in Academic Language Use 53

How Does Language Relate to Power, Social Standing, and Identity? 54

Language as an Instrument and Symbol of Power 55

Language or Dialect? 55

How a Dialect Becomes the “Standard” Language 56

How Language Variety Affects the Power and Prestige of Its Users 57

The Role of a Standard Language 58

Misuse of the Term Dialect 59

What Theories Have Been Proposed to Explain Language Acquisition? 60

First Language Acquisition Theories 60

Behaviorist Theory 60

Innatist Theory 61

Interactionist Theory 62

Summary of First Language Acquisition Theories 63

Second Language Acquisition Theories 64

Behaviorist Perspective 65

Innatist Perspective 65

Krashen’s Five Hypotheses 66

Interactionist Perspective 68

Summary of Second Language Acquisition Theories 69

What Are Some Traits and Sequences in English Language Acquisition? 70

Interlanguage and Fossilization 70

Developmental Sequences in English Language Acquisition 71

What Factors Influence Second Language Development in School? 73

Social Context of the Language Learning Environment 73

Primary Language Development 75

Age and the Interplay of Sociocultural and Psychological Factors 77

Sociocultural Factors 77

Personality Factors 78

Cognitive Factors 78

Teacher Expectations and Learner Errors 79

Summary 81

Internet Resources 82

Activities 82


3 Classroom Practices for Effective English Learner Instruction 84

How Do Curriculum Standards Serve English Learners? 88

How Is Instruction Differentiated to Meet the Varied Needs of English Learners? 90

How Is Sheltered Instruction (SDAIE) Planned and Implemented? 92

A Science Example with Fourth-Graders 93

A Literature Example with Kindergartners 95

A Social Science Example with High School Students 96

Planning for Differentiated, Sheltered English Instruction/SDAIE 99

Response to Intervention (RTI) 102

How Does Group Work Facilitate Content and Language Learning? 104

Collaborative Groups 104

Cooperative Learning Methods 106

Phases of Cooperative Group Development 107

Jigsaw 108

How Does Thematic Instruction Promote Content and Language Learning? 109

Organizing Thematic Instruction 110

Meaning and Purpose 110

Building on Prior Knowledge 110

Integrated Opportunities to Use Oral and Written Language for Learning Purposes 111

Scaffolding for Support 111

Collaboration 111

Variety 111

Functional and Academic Literacy Uses in Thematic Instruction 113

Creating Variety in Language and Literacy Uses 114

Scaffolding 116

Routines as Scaffolds 116

Literacy Scaffolds for English Learners 117

How Are English Learners Assessed? 119

Definition and Purposes of English Learner Assessment 119

Basic Concepts and Terms Used in Assessment 119

Identification and Placement of Students Needing Language Education Support Services 121

Re-Designation to Fully English Proficient 122

Limitations of Standardized Language Proficiency Tests 122

Program Evaluation 123

Principles of Classroom-Based Assessment 124

Keeping Cultural Considerations in Mind 125

Planning Systematic, Classroom-Based Assessment 125

Summary 126

Internet Resources 127

Activities 128


4 The New Literacies and English Learners 130

What Are the New Literacies for 21st-Century Technologies? 134

How Can We Help Students Use the Internet Effectively and Safely? 137

Comparing Online Reading and Traditional Reading 137

The Importance of Safe, Responsible, and Ethical Internet Use 139

Helping Students Evaluate Websites: Bias, Reliability, and Accuracy 139

How Can Teachers Use Technology to Differentiate Instruction for English Learners? 140

How May Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 Be Used for Academic Learning? 143

Using Web 1.0 for Classroom Learning 143

Scavenger Hunts 144

WebQuests 144

Individual and Group Research Projects 144

Using Web 2.0 for Classroom Learning 145

Blogs 146

Classroom Uses of Blogs 146

Wikis 148

Classroom Uses of Wikis 149

Podcasts and Videos 151

Classroom Uses of Podcasts and Videos 151

Social Networking 153

Classroom Sites Where You Can Restrict Access 153

Why and How You Might Use Social Networking in the Classroom 154

Teacher Networking Sites 155

What Are Some Additional Tools and Resources for Teachers? 155

RSS: Keeping Track of New Information on Your Favorite Sites 155

A Glimpse of the Future 156

Summary 157

Internet Resources 157

Activities 158


5 Oral English Development in Second Language Acquisition 160

Why Is an Integrated Approach to English Language Arts Important? 162

Functional Integration of Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing 162

Developmental Relationships among Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing 163

Oral Language in Perspective 165

Form, Function, and Social Context in Oral Language Use 166

What Traits Describe the Oral Proficiency of Beginning and Intermediate English Learners? 168

Second Language Oral Proficiency of Beginning English Learners 168

Second Language Oral Proficiency of Intermediate English Learners 170

What Are Some Strategies That Promote Oral Language Development? 172

Using Games for English Language Development 173

Podcasts to Enhance English Learning in Your Classroom 174

Songs 174

Drama 174

Dramatizing Poetry 175

Show and Tell 175

One Looks, One Doesn’t 176

Recording Students’ Re-Creations of Wordless Book Stories 177

Recording and Dubbing a Television Show 178

Choral Reading 178

Riddles and Jokes 179

What Are Some Academic Language Features of Oral Instruction in Math, Science, and Social Studies? 179

Academic Language Features of Mathematics 180

Academic Language Features of Science 181

Academic Language Features of Social Studies 182

Facilitating Oral Language Development during Academic Instruction 183

Teacher Talk during Academic Instruction 183

Scaffolding Student Use of Oral Language for Academic Purposes 183

How May We Assess English Learners’ Oral Language Competence? 185

The Student Oral Language Observation Matrix 185

Example of a SOLOM Observation and Scoring 187

Instructional Implications Based on Solom Scoring 190

Checklists and Anecdotal Observations 190

How May Content Instruction Be Differentiated to Promote Oral Language Development? 193

Summary 196

Internet Resources 196

Activities 197


6 First Steps to Literacy: English Learners Beginning to Write and Read 198

What Does Research Tell Us about Early Literacy Development? 202

Historical Overview of Early Literacy Instruction 204

Reading Readiness Perspective 204

Emergent Literacy Perspective 205

Balanced Comprehensive Literacy Perspective 206

Early Literacy Development in English as a Non-Native Language 207

Whole-Part-Whole Cycle for English Learners of All Ages 207

Special Needs of Older, Preliterate Learners 208

New Literacies and English Language Learners 210

Which Print Functions and Forms Are Acquired during Early Literacy Development? 210

Highlighting Literacy Functions in Your Classroom 211

Print Concepts Children Develop in the Emergent Literacy Phase 211

Exploring the Visual Form of Written Language 214

Alphabetic Writing Systems: Connecting Sounds and Symbols 215

Invented Spelling: Working Out Sound/Symbol Correspondences 217

How May Family and Community Nurture Early Literacy Development? 219

Family Practices That Promote Literacy Development 220

Family Literacy Programs 222

Promoting Parent Involvement in English Learners’ Schooling 224

Making Parent Involvement a School-Wide Goal 224

Taking School Activities Home 224

Which Classroom Strategies Promote Early Literacy Development? 225

Early Literacy Goals 225

Creating a Literacy-Rich Classroom Environment 226

Books, Books, Books! 226

Using Daily Routines to Highlight the Forms and Functions of Print 229

Morning Message 229

Classroom Rules and Procedures 229

Wall Dictionary 229

Reading Aloud to Students 230

Shared Writing and Reading Using the Language Experience Approach 232

Dialogue Journals 233

Helping Students Recognize and Spell Words Independently 233

Using Big Books to Teach Sight Words and Phonics 233

Strategies to Increase Students’ Sight Word Vocabulary 234

Phonics 235

Word Families 236

Invented Spelling and Word Recognition 238

Developmental Levels in Student Spelling 238

Summary of Early Literacy Instructional Strategies 242

How May English Learners’ Early Literacy Development Be Assessed? 243

How May Early Literacy Instruction Be Differentiated for English Learners? 244

Summary 247

Internet Resources 247

Activities 248


7 Words and Meanings: English Learners’ Vocabulary Development 250

What Does Research Show about English Learners’ Vocabulary Development? 252

What Kinds of Words Do Students Need to Know? 256

How Do Students Learn New Words? 258

How Do We Differentiate Vocabulary Assessment and Instruction? 263

English Language Proficiency Considerations 263

Primary Language Proficiency Considerations 264

Vocabulary Assessment Prior to Instruction 265

Planning Differentiated Vocabulary Instruction 266

Fifth-Grade Science Lesson: Differentiated Instruction 266

Dictionaries as a Resource for Differentiating Instruction 267

Picture Dictionaries 268

Bilingual Dictionaries 269

Monolingual Language Learner Dictionaries 269

What Are Some Beginning and Intermediate English Learner Characteristics and Teaching Strategies? 269

Beginning English Learner Characteristics and Teaching Strategies 270

Total Physical Response (TPR) 270

Web Tools for Learning Vocabulary 271

Read-Alouds 272

Word Cards 272

Word Wall Dictionary 272

Working with Idioms 273

Intermediate English Learner Characteristics and

Teaching Strategies 274

Word Wheels 274

Language Wheels for Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs, and Cognates 274

Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy 275

Word Wizard 275

Contextual Redefinition 276

List—Group—Label—Map for Elementary and Secondary Students 277

List 277

Group 277

Label 277

Vocabulary Journals 278

Teaching Students How to Use Dictionaries Effectively 278

Teaching Prefixes and Suffixes 279

Word Learning Strategies Older Students Found Useful 281

How Do We Assess ELs’ Vocabulary Progress? 282

Summary 282

Internet Resources 283

Activities 284


8 English Learners and Process Writing 286

What Does Research Tell Us about Writing in a Second Language? 289

What Is Process Writing and How Does It Benefit English Learners? 290

Students’ Responses to “I Remember” 293

How Does Process Writing Benefit English Learners? 295

What Are the Six Traits of Good Writing and How Can They Help English Learners? 295

Using Webtools with Process Writing: Blogs and Wikis 299

What Are Some Collaborative Contexts for Process Writing? 299

Peer Response Groups 300

A Sixth-Grade Class Works in Response Groups 303

Peer Editing Groups 304

Publishing Student Writing 305

What Are Some Beginning and Intermediate English Learner Characteristics and Teaching Strategies? 306

Description of Beginning Writers 307

Strategies to Assist Beginning Writers 308

Oral Discussion and Brainstorming Ideas 309

Partner Stories Using Pictures and Wordless Books 309

Concept Books: Creating a Teaching Library 310

Peek-a-Boo Books for Younger Students and Riddle Books for Older Students 310

Pattern Poems for Elementary and Secondary School Students 311

From Personal Journals to Dialogue Journals to Buddy Journals 311

Improvisational Sign Language 314

Life Murals 315

Clustering 315

Freewriting 316

Description of Intermediate Writers 317

Strategies for Intermediate Writers 319

Show and Not Tell 319

Sentence Combining 320

Sentence Shortening 321

Sentence Models 322

Student Examples of the Model 323

Voice 323

Mapping 324

How Can We Assess English Learners’ Writing Progress and Differentiate Instruction? 327

Portfolio Assessment 328

Balancing Goals: Fluency, Form, and Correctness 330

Balancing Instruction: Scaffolds, Models, and Direct Instruction 331

Helping Students Deal with Errors in Their Writing 331

Example of a Differentiated Lesson Plan for English Learners 333

Summary 335

Internet Resources 336

Activities 336


9 Reading and Literature Instruction for English Learners 338

What Does Research Tell Us about Reading in a Second Language? 341

Second Language Readers 342

What Role Does Background Knowledge Play in English Learners’

Reading Comprehension? 342

Reading Processes of Proficient Readers 343

What Is Metacognition? “Thinking about Thinking” 344

What Role Does Text Structure Play in Reading Comprehension? 344

Why Is Internet Reading Thought of as a New Literacy? 345

How Do Guided Reading, Literature Study, and Independent Reading

Promote Literacy? 346

Guided Reading 347

Literature Study: Response Groups 348

Steps That Prepare Students to Work in Response Groups 350

How Literature Response Benefits English Learners 351

How Can We Encourage Independent Reading? 351

Approaches to Independent Reading 351

Helping Students Choose Books of Appropriate Difficulty 354

What Are the Characteristics and Strategies for Beginning and Intermediate Second Language Readers? 356

Beginning Second Language Readers: Characteristics and Strategies 356

Language-Experience Approach 356

Providing Quality Literature for Beginners 359

Pattern Books 360

Illustrating Stories and Poems 362

Shared Reading with Big Books 362

Directed Listening-Thinking Activity 363

Readers’ Theater 365

Story Mapping 366

Intermediate Second Language Readers: Characteristics and Strategies 367

Cognitive Mapping 368

Directed Reading-Thinking Activity 369

Literature Response Journals 372

Developing Scripts for Readers’ Theater 374

Adapting Stories into Plays and Skits for Live or Video presentations 374

How Do We Assess Second Language Readers’ Progress? 375

Assessing with Materials Students Bring to Class 376

Informal Assessment 377

Miscue Analysis 377

Miscue Procedure 377

Interpreting Miscues 379

Informal Reading Inventories 384

Determining Independent, Instructional, and Frustration Reading Levels 384

Independent Reading Level 384

Instructional Reading Level 385

Frustration Reading Level 385

Running Records 385

Procedures for Running Records 386

Strengths of Running Records 386

Other Reading Assessment Resources 387

Portfolio Assessment 387

Student Self-Assessment 389

How Do We Differentiate Reading and Literature Instruction? 389

Summary 392

Internet Resources 393

Activities 394


10 Content Reading and Writing: Prereading and During Reading 396

What Does Research Tell Us about Content Area Reading and Writing for English Learners? 401

Looking Closely at the Reading Process of Mature Readers 402

Resources That English Learners Bring to Reading in English 405

How Do Readers Interact with Longer, More Complex Texts? 408

Aesthetic and Efferent Interactions with Texts 408

Effects of Text Structure on Comprehension and Memory 409

Cohesive Ties/Signal Words 412

Headings and Subheadings 413

Teaching Text Structure: A Classroom Example 413

Literary Structure 414

Discussion of Story Elements 415

Metacognition and Learning from Text 415

How Can We Match Students with Texts for Optimal Learning? 416

Evaluating Students’ Interaction with Text Using the Group Reading Inventory 416

Evaluating Your Own Interaction with One Text 418

Which Strategies Promote Reading Comprehension? 420

Prereading Strategies: Developing Motivation, Purpose, and Background Knowledge 421

Teacher Talk: Making Purposes Clear 421

Field Trips and Films 422

Simulation Games 422

Using Newer Technologies to Enhance Comprehension 423

Experiments 423

Developing Vocabulary before Students Read a Text 423

Structured Overviews 424

Preview Guides 424

Anticipation Guides 425

During Reading Strategies: Monitoring Comprehension 427

Using Headings and Subheadings 427

Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) 428

Guided Reading 429

ReQuest Procedure 430

Vocabulary Strategies during Reading 431

Using Clustering to Develop Vocabulary in Context 431

Jigsaw Procedure 433

Learning Logs 433

How Can We Assess Students and Differentiate Instruction for Content Reading? 434

Summary 436

Internet Resources 436

Activities 437


11 Content Reading and Writing: Postreading Strategies for Organizing and Remembering 438

Which Postreading Strategies Are Effective with English Learners and Why? 441

Semantic Feature Analysis for Vocabulary Development after Reading 441

Strategies to Organize and Remember Information 442

Rehearsing 443

Venn Diagrams 443

Mapping 444

Reciprocal Teaching 445

Summarizing and Rehearsing Information with Mapping 446

How Can Writing Be Used as a Learning Tool across the Curriculum? 447

Journals and Learning Logs 447

Developing Teacher- and Student-Generated Topics in Content Areas 447

Photo Essays: Combining Direct Experience, the Visual Mode, and Writing 450

Written and Oral Collaborative Research Projects 452

K-W-L, a Strategy That Fosters Thinking before, during, and after Reading 454

How Do Theme Studies Provide a Meaningful Learning Context for English Learners? 455

Introducing the Topic and Choosing Study Questions 455

Organizing Instruction 458

Instructional Modifications for English Learners 460

How Can Content Learning Be Assessed? 462

Portfolio Assessment 462

Selecting Materials for the Portfolio 462

Evaluating Portfolios 462

Using Multiple Measures for Assessment 465

How May Content Area Instruction Be Differentiated for English Learners? 465

Summary 469

Internet Resources 470

Activities 471

Supplemental Materials

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