9781319059491

REAL COMMUNICATION

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781319059491

  • ISBN10:

    131905949X

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2017-10-06
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Summary

Real Communication uses the liveliest stories from real people and the world around us as the foundation for teaching the theory and skills of human communication available today. Professors and students alike have fallen in love with the authors’down-to-earth writing style and commitment to providing the most current scholarship that reflects the world we live in, from the challenges that arise with pervasive digital media to new ways for understanding listening goals. They also appreciate how Real Communication weaves together the discipline's different strands with "Connect," a feature that shows students how to apply concepts across interpersonal, small group, and public speaking contexts.

Table of Contents

Part One. Basic Communication Processes
Chapter 1. Communication: Essential Human Behavior
           We Must Communicate: Functions Essential to Living
                       Expressing Affiliation
                       Managing Relationships
                       Influencing Others
                       Real Communicators: What Job Will You Hold?
           How We Communicate
                       Characteristic of Communication
                       Assessing Communicative Value
           Communicating Competently
                       Competent Communication is Process-Oriented
                       Competent Communication is Appropriate and Effective
                       Competent Communication Involves Ethical Decisions
                       Competent Communication Involves Communication Skills
                       Wired for Communication: E-Mail Etiquette: How Not to Communicate with Your Professor
                       Competent Communication Involves Using Technology
                       What About You? Assessing Your Competence 
           Modeling Communication 
                       The Linear Model 
                       The Interaction Model 
                       The Competent Communication Model 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: Friends with Money
           The Study of Communication 
                       Communication Across Cultures: Judging Sex and Gender 


Chapter 2. Communicating in a Digital Age
           Digital Origins
                       Then and Now
                       What About You? How Attached Are You to Social Media?
                       Ongoing Dynamic Changes
           Qualities of Digital Channels
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: The Distracted Notetaker
                       Synchronicity of Messages
                       Media Richness and Naturalness
                       Communication Across Cultures: Mobile Apps Compete for World Influence
                       Message Privacy and Control
           The Power of the Crowd
                       Information Sharing
                       Social Support
                       Social Causes
                       Real Communicator: Heather Wight
           Overcoming Digital Challenges
                       Digital Disparities
                       Feeding Insecurities and Obsessions
                       Wired for Communication: Selfies as Visual Communication, Self-Promotion…and Self-Delusion
                       Cyber Attacks
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool

Chapter 3. Perceiving the Self and Others
           Perception: Making Sense of Your World
                       Schemas: Organizing Perceptions 
                       Attributions: Interpreting Your Perceptions
                       Improving Your Perceptions 
           Perception in a Diverse World 
                       The Cultural Context 
                       Communication Across Cultures: Perceptions of Hair Color: A Gray Area 
                       Perceptual Barriers 
           Cognitions About Ourselves 
                       What About You? Need for Cognition Scale 
                       Self-Concept: Who You Think You Are 
                       Self-Esteem: How You Feel About Yourself 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: Ethics and the Self-Concept 
                       Self-Efficacy: Assessing Your Own Abilities 
                       Assessing Our Perceptions of Self 
                       Real Communicator: Lisa M. Turay, CSJ 
           Behavior: Managing Our Identities
                       Self-Presentation 
                       Self-Disclosure 
                       Managing Feedback
                       Technology: Managing the Self and Perceptions 
                       Wired for Communication: Avatars: Virtual Personas and Perception 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool 

Chapter 4. Verbal Communication
           The Nature of Language
                       Language Is Symbolic 
                       Thought Informs Language 
                       Language Is Ruled by Grammar 
           The Functions of Language 
                       Using Language as a Means of Control
                       Using Language to Share Information 
                       Using Language to Express Feelings 
                       Using Language to Express Creativity 
                       Using Language as Ritual 
           Language and Meaning 
                       Words Have Multiple Meanings 
                       Abstraction 
           Problematic Uses of Language 
                       Hateful and Hurtful Language 
                       Labeling 
                       Biased Language 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: Résumé Language
                       Profanity and Civility 
           Language is Bound by Context 
                       Situational Context 
                       Communication Across Cultures: Teaching Twain 
                       Relational Context 
                       Wired for Communication: Speaking in Code 
                       Cultural Context 
                       Real Communicator: Matt Burgess 
                       Mediated Contexts 
                       What About You? Beliefs about “Talk” 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool 


Chapter 5. Nonverbal Communication
           The Nature of Nonverbal Communication 
                       Nonverbal Behavior Is Communicative 
                       Nonverbal Communication Can be Intentional and Unintentional 
                       Nonverbal Communication Is Ambiguous 
                       People Trust Nonverbal Communication More Than Verbal Communication
           Functions of Nonverbal Communication 
                       Reinforcing Verbal Messages 
                       Substituting for Verbal Messages 
                       Contradicting Verbal Messages 
                       Managing Impressions and Regulating Interactions 
                       Creating Immediacy 
                       Deceiving Others 
                       What About You? Nonverbal Immediacy Scale 
           Nonverbal Communication Codes 
                       Gestures and Body Movements 
                       Real Communicator: Octavia Spencer 
                       Facial Expressions 
                       Eye Behavior 
                       Voice 
                       Physical Appearance
                       Space and Environment 
                       Communication Across Cultures: What Nurses Wear 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: The Job Killer Tat 
                       Touch 
                       Time Orientation 
           Influences on Nonverbal Communication 
                       Culture and Nonverbal Communication 
                       Mediated Nonverbal Communication 
                       Wired for Communication: War Games Without Weapons, Sometimes Without Words 
                       The Situational Context 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool 


Chapter 6. Communication and Culture
           Understanding Culture 
                       Culture Is Learned 
                       Culture Is Expressed Through Communication 
                       Intercultural Communication Matters 
           Communication and Cultural Variations 
                       High- and Low-Context Cultures 
                       Real Communicator: Vanessa Gonzalez 
                       Collectivist and Individualist Orientations 
                       Comfort with Uncertainty 
                       Masculine and Feminine Orientations 
                       Approaches to Power Distance 
                       Time Orientation 
                       Value of Emotional Expression 
                       What About You? Cultural Values Assessment 
           Understanding Group Affiliations 
                       Co-Cultural Communication
                       Social Identity and Intergroup Communication 
                       Wired for Communication: Online Gamers: Women are Hard-core, Too 
                       Communication Across Cultures: The It Gets Better Project
           Intercultural Communication Challenges 
                       Anxiety 
                       Ethnocentrism 
                       Discrimination 
           Improving Intercultural Communication 
                       Mindfulness
                       Openness to Other Cultures 
                       Effective Intergroup Contact 
                       Appropriate Accommodation
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: That’s Not a Soy Substitute 
                       Practice at Using Your Skills 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool 


Chapter 7. Listening
           How We Listen 
                       The Listening Process 
                       Communication Across Cultures: A Quick Lesson in Deaf Etiquette 
                       Listening Goals 
                       What About You? Assess Your Listening Style 
           The Value of Listening Well 
                       Effective Listening Helps Your Career 
                       Effective Listening Saves Time and Money 
                       Effective Listening Creates Opportunities 
                       Effective Listening Strengthens Relationships 
                       Effective Listening Accomplishes Your Goals 
           Listening Challenges 
                       Environmental Factors 
                       Biological Factors
                       Hearing and Processing Challenges 
                       Multitasking 
                       Motivational Factors 
                       Wired for Communication: Don’t Touch That Smartphone
                       Negative Attitudes About Listening
                       Real Communicator: Tammy Lin 
           Unethical Listening 
                       Defensive Listening 
                       Biased Listening 
                       Self-Absorbed Listening 
                       Pseudolistening 
           Listening Contexts 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: Listening When You’re Sick of Hearing
                       The Relational and Situational Listening Contexts 
                       The Cultural Listening Context 
                       The Technology Listening Context 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool 


Part Two. Interpersonal Communication
Chapter 8. Developing and Maintaining Relationships
           Types of Interpersonal Relationships 
                       Family Relationships 
                       Friendship and Social Relationships 
                       Wired for Communication: Is This Relationship Real? 
                       Romantic Relationships 
                       Online Relationships 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: Money, Family, and Paying the Bills 
           Why We Form Relationships 
                       Proximity 
                       Attractive Qualities 
                       Similarity 
                       Personal and Social Needs 
           Managing Relationship Dynamics 
                       Costs and Rewards 
                       What About You? Assessing the Costs and Rewards of a Relationship 
                       Reducing Uncertainty 
                       Dialectical Tensions 
           Self-Disclosure and Interpersonal Relationships 
                       Social Penetration  
                       Managing Privacy 
                       Real Communicator: May Hui 
                       Strategic Topic Avoidance 
           Stages of a Relationship 
                       Initiating Stage 
                       Exploratory Stage 
                       Intensification Stage 
                       Stable Stage 
                       Declining Stage 
                       Communication Across Cultures: Grieving Relationships
                       Repair Stage 
                       Termination Stage 
                       Reconciliation 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool


Chapter 9. Managing Conflict in Relationships
           Understanding Conflict 
                       Unproductive Conflict 
                       Productive Conflict 
           Conflict Triggers 
                       Inaccurate Perceptions 
                       Incompatible Goals 
                       Relational Transgressions 
                       Provocation 
           Factors Affecting Conflict 
                       Power Dynamics 
                       Attitudes Toward Conflict 
                       Communication Climate 
                       Culture and Conflict 
                       Communication Channel 
                       Wired for Communication: Locking Down Trolls versus Free Speech 
           Strategies for Managing Conflict
                       Escapist Strategies 
                       Communication Across Cultures: Yours, Mine, and Both of Ours 
                       Competitive Strategies 
                       Cooperative Strategies 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: The Accidental Relationship Counselor
                       What About You? Self-Assessment on Conflict Management Styles 
           Reconciliation 
                       Apology 
                       Forgiveness 
                       Real Communicator: Anonymous 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool 


Part Three. Group and Organizational Communication
Chapter 10. Communicating in Groups
           Understanding Groups 
                       Characteristics of Groups 
                       Types of Groups 
                       Wired for Communication: Smart Mobs: What Flash Mobs and Political Protests Have in Common 
                       Stages of Group Development 
                       Real Communicator: Bambi Francisco Roizen 
           Complexity of Group Communication 
                       Size of Groups 
                       The Formation of Cliques 
                       Social Loafing 
                       What About You? Are You a “Social Loafer”? 
                       Group Networks 
           Understanding Group Roles 
                       Task Roles 
                       Social Roles 
                       Antigroup Roles 
                       Role Conflict 
                       Status 
           Group Climate 
                       Cohesion 
                       Communication Across Cultures: The International American Pastime 
                       Norms 
                       Clarity of Goals 
                       Individual Differences 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: Sketchy Behavior 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool


Chapter 11. Leadership and Decision Making in Groups
           Understanding Group Leadership 
                       Sources of Power 
                       Communication Across Cultures: Gender Judo 
                       Shared Leadership 
                       Group Leadership Behavior 
                       Leadership Qualities 
                       What About You? What Type of Leader Are You? 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: Leading the Interns
                       Unethical Leadership 
           Culture and Group Leadership 
                       Cultural Variations
                       Gender and Leadership 
           Decision Making in Groups 
                       Groupthink 
                       The Problem-Solving Process 
           Leadership in Meetings 
                       Planning Meetings Effectively 
                       Managing Meetings Effectively 
                       Real Communicator: Aaron Tolson 
                       Using Meeting Technology Effectively 
                       Wired for Communication: Robots are here to stay 
           Evaluating Group Performance 
                       Informational Considerations 
                       Procedural Effectiveness 
                       Interpersonal Performance 
                       Individual Performance
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool 


Chapter 12. Communicating in Organizations
           Approaches to Managing Organizations 
                       Classical Management Approach 
                       Human Relations Approach 
                       Human Resources Approach 
                       The Systems Approach 
           Communicating Organizational Culture 
                       Organizational Storytelling 
                       Real Communicator: Kibibi Springs 
                       Learning About Organizational Culture 
           Relational Contexts in Organizations 
                       Supervisee Relationships 
                       Mentor–Protégé Relationships 
                       Peer Relationships 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: More Than Friends at Work 
           Organizational Challenges
                       Workplace Conflict 
                       Using Technology 
                       Wired for Communication: Working Here, There, and Everywhere 
                       Globalization 
                       Work–Life Balance 
                       Communication Across Cultures: Work–Life Balance: Around the Globe and Around the Block 
                       Sexual Harassment 
                       What About You? Are You Off Balance? 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool 

Part Four. Public Speaking
Chapter 13. Preparing and Researching Presentations
           The Power of Public Speaking 
           Clarify the General Purpose of Your Speech 
                       Informative Speeches 
                       Persuasive Speeches 
                       Special-Occasion Speeches 
           Analyze Your Audience 
                       Considering Audience Expectations and Situational Factors
                       Considering Audience Demographics and Psychographics Anticipating Your Audience’s Response 
                       What About You? Assessing Your Audience Analysis
                       Real Communicator: Matt Schermerhorn 
           Choose Your Topic 
                       Finding a Topic That Intrigues You 
                       Brainstorming and Clustering
                       Narrowing Your Topic 
                       Determining the Specific Purpose of Your Speech 
                       Developing a Thesis Statement 
           Research the Topic 
                       Types of Information to Consider 
                       Communication Across Cultures: Human Trafficking: Art, Survival, and Advocacy 
                       Researching Supporting Material 
                       Wired for Communication: The Library in the Sky 
                       Evaluating Supporting Material 
           Ethical Speaking: Take Responsibility for Your Speech 
                       Recognizing Plagiarism 
                       Taking Accurate Notes 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: Didn’t I Already Say That?
                       Speaking Ethically and Responsibly 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool


Chapter 14. Organizing, Writing and Outlining Presentations
           Organizing Your Speech Points 
                       Identifying Your Main Points 
                       Supporting Your Main Points
                       Arranging Your Points 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: The Ethics of Using Research 
                       Connecting Your Points 
                       Communication Across Cultures: Evidence, Popular Culture, and the “CSI Effect” 
           Using Language That Works 
                       Respect Your Audience 
                       Keep It Simple 
                       Use Vivid Language 
                       Incorporate Repetition, Allusion, and Comparisons 
           Crafting a Strong Introduction 
                       Capture Your Audience’s Attention 
                       Introduce Your Purpose and Thesis 
                       Preview Your Main Points 
                       Connect with Your Audience 
           Crafting a Strong Conclusion 
                       Signal the End 
                       Reinforce Your Topic, Purpose, and Main Points 
                       Make an Impact
                       Real Communicator: Mark Weinfeld 
                       Challenge the Audience to Respond 
           Outlining Your Speech 
                       Wired for Communication: Bullets on the Brain 
                       Essentials of Outlining 
                       Styles of Outlines 
                       From Preparation Outline to Speaking Outline 
                       What About You? Assessing Your Outlining Skills 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool


Chapter 15. Delivering Presentations
           Understand and Address Anxiety 
                       Identify Anxiety Triggers 
                       What About You? Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety
                       Build Your Confidence 
                       Wired for Communication: Face Your Public Speaking Fears in Virtual Reality 
           Methods of Delivery 
                       Speaking from Manuscript 
                       Speaking from Memory 
                       Speaking Spontaneously
                       Speaking Extemporaneously 
           Guidelines for Effective Delivery 
                       Effective Vocal Delivery 
                       Effective Visual Delivery 
                       Communication Across Cultures: You Sound Like You’re From . . .
                       Connecting with Your Audience 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: Judging Speeches 
                       Additional Guidelines for Online Speech Delivery                       
                       Real Communicator: Tonya Graves 
           Effective Presentation Aids 
                       The Function of Presentation Aids 
                       Types of Presentation Aids 
           Practicing Your Speech 
                       Remember Your Speaking Outline 
                       Practice Using Presentation Aids 
                       Simulate the Situation 
                       Practice Your Delivery 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool 

Chapter 16. Informative Speaking
           The Goals of Informative Speaking  
                       Meeting the Audience’s Informational Needs  
                       Informing, Not Persuading 
                       Speaking Appropriately and Ethically  
           Topics for Informative Presentations 
                       People 
                       Places 
                       Communication Across Cultures: Let’s Talk About Sex 
                       Objects and Phenomena 
                       Events
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: Ulterior Motives 
                       Processes 
                       Concepts 
                       Issues 
                       Plans and Policies 
           Approaches to Conveying Information 
                       Description 
                       Demonstration 
                       Wired for Communication: Talk Amongst Yourselves 
                       Definition 
                       Explanation 
                       What About You? Informative or Persuasive? 
           Guidelines for Informative Speeches
                       Create Information Hunger
                       Make It Easy
                       Real Communicator: K. C. Ellis 
           Sample Student Informative Speech: Social Media, Social Identity and Social Causes
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool


Chapter 17. Persuasive Speaking
           The Goals of Persuasive Speaking 
                       Developing a Persuasive Topic and Thesis 
                       Propositions of Fact 
                       What About You? Persuasion Resistance 
                       Propositions of Value 
                       Propositions of Policy 
           Understanding Your Audience 
                       Your Audience’s Existing Attitudes
                       Your Audience’s Readiness to Change
                       Your Audience’s Needs
                       Your Audience’s Motivation and Interest
                       Wired for Communication: Interactive Advertising: Persuasion for a Millennial Audience 
           Strategies for Persuasive Speaking 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: Sensitivity or Free Speech? 
                       Ethos 
                       Logos 
                       Communication Across Cultures: Persuading Across Borders 
                       Pathos 
           Avoiding Logical Fallacies 
                       Real Communicator: Katie McGill 
           Organizing Patterns in Persuasive Speaking 
                       Problem–Solution Pattern 
                       Refutational Organizational Pattern 
                       Comparative Advantage Pattern 
                       Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
                       Sample Student Persuasive Speech: Preventing Cyberbullying 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool 


Appendix A. Interviewing 
           The Nature of Interviews 
           Types of Interviews
                       Information-Gathering Interviews 
                       Persuasive Interviews 
                       Appraisal Interviews 
                       Exit Interviews 
                       Selection Interviews 
           Interview Format 
                       The Opening
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: Surveys: Interviewing at Large 
                       The Questions 
                       Real Communicator: Cynthia Guadalupe Inda 
                       The Conclusion 
           Roles and Responsibilities in Interviews 
                       Interviewer Responsibilities 
                       Interviewee Responsibilities
                       Shared Responsibilities 
                       Communication Across Cultures: Cultural Competence in Social Work 
           The Job Interview 
                       Get the Interview 
                       Wired for Communication: Pre-Presenting Yourself: Your Online Persona
                       Conduct the Interview
                       What About You? How Well Do You Interview? 
           REAL REFERENCE: A Study Tool 


Appendix B. Mass and Mediated Communication
           The Nature of Mass Media 
                       Types of Mass Communication 
                       The Pervasiveness of Media
           Understanding Mass Media Messages 
                       The Business of Media 
                       Evaluating Communication Ethics: Music Piracy 
                       Free Speech and Media Bias 
                       Communication Across Cultures: The Sesame Effect 
           Effects of Mass Media 
                       Selectivity and the Active Audience 
                       Influences on Attitudes and Behaviors 
           Mass Communication in a Digital Age
                       Mass Self-Communication 
                       Wired for Communication: New Life through Digital Media?
                       Media Personalization 
                       Ineffective Participation 
           Competent Media Consumers
                       Monitor Your Media Use and Exposure 
                       Consider the Source of Media Messages 
                       Be Aware of Media Effects 
                       Understand the Grammar of Media 
                       Real Communicator: Molly Ludwig
                       What About You? How Engaged Are You With Digital



 


 


 
 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 



 

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