Reflections Patterns for Reading and Writing

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2016-09-30
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


This innovative modes-based reader by reading expert Kathleen McWhorter supports an integrated approach to reading and writing with unique scaffolded instruction that guides students through comprehension, analysis, evaluation, and written response — skills students will need to be successful in college. Compelling reading selections drawn from widely taught academic disciplines let students practice the work they’re expected to do in other college courses. The second edition has been thoroughly revised with a new grammar handbook, expanded research coverage, new readings, and new features to provide stronger, more integrated reading and writing advice. Reflections can be packaged with LaunchPad Solo for Readers and Writers, allowing you to more efficiently track students’ progress with reading, writing, and grammar skills in an active learning arc that complements the book.

Author Biography

Kathleen T. McWhorter is professor emerita of humanities and former director of the Learning Skills Center at Niagara County Community College. She has also been on the faculty of the State University College at Buffalo. She is the author of a number of books on writing for freshmen-level students, including the popular guide Successful College Writing, Sixth Edition (Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2015), and the composition reader Reflections: Patterns for Reading and Writing (Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013). She has also written a number of textbooks on reading and writing for developmental students, including In Concert: Reading and Writing, Second Edition (2016); In Harmony: Reading and Writing, Second Edition (2016); Reading Across the Disciplines: College Reading and Beyond, Sixth Edition (2015); Academic Reading, Eighth Edition (2014); and Efficient and Flexible Reading, Tenth Edition (2014).

Table of Contents

McWhorter: Reflections, 2e
*New to this edition
Chapter 1. Succeeding in College
*Robinson Meyer, To Remember a Lecture Better, Take Notes by Hand
Strategies for College Success
      Manage Your Time
      Organize a Reading, Writing, and Study Area
      Develop Concentration Skills
      Manage Stress
Classroom Skills
      Polish Your Academic Image
      Demonstrate Academic Integrity
      Communicate with Your Instructors
      Use Electronic Tools Effectively
      Listen Carefully and Critically
      Ask and Answer Questions
      Work with Classmates
      Take Effective Notes in Class
      Manage Online Course Work
Chapter 2. Active Reading
Strategies for Active Reading
Before Reading: Previewing and Forming Prereading Questions
Morgan Lowrie, Comparing Online and Traditional Education
      Form Prereading Questions
Reading for Meaning: The Thesis Statement and Key Elements of Paragraphs
      Identify the Key Elements of Paragraphs
      Identify the Central Thought or Thesis Statement
Highlighting and Annotating
      Highlight Key Points
      Use Annotations
After Reading: Reviewing the Material
      Conduct an Immediate Review
      Write a Summary
      Draw a Graphic Organizer
      Create an Outline to Help You Study
Specialized Reading Strategies
      Look Closely at Unfamiliar Words
      Learn How to Handle Difficult Reading Material
      Use the Special Features of Your Textbooks
      Recognize the Importance of Visual Aids
Chapter 3. Critical Reading and Thinking Strategies
What Is Critical Thinking?
Strategies for Analyzing What You Read
      Examine the Author’s Purpose, Style, and Intended Audience
      Examine Word Choice
      Distinguish Fact from Opinion
      Analyze the Author’s Tone
      Look for Purposeful Omissions
      Make Reasonable Inferences
Strategies for Evaluating What You Read
      Identify Bias
      Evaluate Information Sources
      Evaluate the Reliability of Information
      Examine the Relevance and Sufficiency of Evidence 
      Recognize Assumptions
Analyzing and Evaluating Visual Aids 
      Photographs and Other Images
      Graphics and Tables 
Responding to Texts and Visual Aids with Journals and Response Papers
      Keep a Journal
      Write in Response to a Reading
Chapter 4. Prewriting: How to Find and Focus Ideas
Choosing a Topic
Narrowing a Topic
      Using a Branching Diagram
      Asking Questions to Narrow a Broad Topic
Thinking about Your Purpose, Audience, and Point of View
      Determining Your Purpose 
      Considering Your Audience
      Choosing a Point of View
Discovering Ideas to Write About
      Writing Assertions
      Visualizing or Sketching
      Researching Your Topic
Students Write 
Chapter 5. Developing and Supporting a Thesis
What Is a Thesis Statement?
      Developing a Working Thesis Statement
      Writing an Effective Thesis Statement
      Placing the Thesis Statement
      Using an Implied Thesis
Supporting Your Thesis Statement with Evidence
      Choosing Types of Evidence
      Collecting Evidence to Support Your Thesis
      Choosing the Best Evidence
      Choosing Evidence for Academic Writing
      Using Sources to Support Your Thesis
Students Write
Chapter 6. Writing Effective Paragraphs
The Structure of a Paragraph
Writing a Topic Sentence
      A Topic Sentence Should Focus the Paragraph
      A Topic Sentence May Preview the Organization of the Paragraph
      A Topic Sentence Should Support Your Thesis
      A Topic Sentence Should Be Strategically Placed
Including Supporting Details
      Effective Paragraphs Have Unity
      Effective Paragraphs Are Well Developed
      Effective Paragraphs Provide Specific Supporting Details Arranged in a Logical Manner
Using Transitions and Repetition
Students Write
Analyzing the Writer’s Technique
Chapter 7. Drafting an Essay
The Structure of an Essay
Organizing Your Supporting Details
      Selecting a Method of Organization
      Preparing an Outline or a Graphic Organizer
Writing a Draft
Using Transitions and Repetition to Connect Your Ideas
      Using Transitional Expressions to Connect Ideas
      Using Repeated Words to Connect Ideas
Writing Your Introduction, Conclusion, and Title
      Writing a Strong Introduction
      Writing an Effective Conclusion
      Writing a Good Title
Students Write
       Analyzing the Writer’s Technique
Chapter 8 Revising Content and Organization
Useful Techniques for Revision
Key Questions for Revision
      Analyzing Your Purpose and Audience
      Evaluating Your Thesis Statement, Topic Sentences, and Evidence
      Evaluating Your Organization
      Evaluating Your Introduction, Conclusion, and Title
      Evaluating Your Paragraph Development
Working with Classmates to Revise Your Essay
      How to Find a Good Reviewer
      Suggestions for the Writer
      Suggestions for the Reviewer
Using Your Instructor’s Comments
      Revising an Essay Using Your Instructor’s Comments
      Using Your Instructor’s Comments to Improve Future Essays
Editing and Proofreading
      Editing Your Essay
   Proofreading Your Essay
Students Write 
      Christine Lee (student), A Trend Taken Too Far 
  Analyzing the Writer’s Technique
Chapter 9. Patterns: An Introduction
An Overview of Patterns
Combining Patterns
Writing an Essay That Combines Patterns
Guidelines for Using Chapters 10-18 
Chapter 10. Narration: Recounting Events
What Is Narration? 
      A Model Narration Essay 
      Alton Fitzgerald White, Right Place, Wrong Face
The Structure and Content of Narration Essays 
Understanding, Analyzing, and Evaluating Narration Essays 
      Understanding a Narration Essay
      Analyzing a Narration Essay 
      Evaluating a Narration Essay 
Writing Your Own Narration Essay 
      A Student Model Narration Essay 
      Mina Raine, Taking Back Control
      Responding to Raine’s Essay 
      Finding Ideas for Your Narration Essay 
      Choosing an Event or Incident for Your Narration Essay 
      Gathering Details about the Experience or Incident 
      Developing and Supporting a Thesis 
      Drafting Your Narration Essay 
      Revising Your Narration Essay 
      Editing and Proofreading Your Essay 
Readings for Practice, Ideas for Writing 
      Sherry Amatenstein, Talking a Stranger through the Night 
      *Roger Porter, A New Interpretation of Tears 
      *Anna Erelle, Excerpt from In the Skin of a Jihadist: A Young Journalist Enters the ISIS Recruitment Network 
      Ben Beekman and George Beekman, History of the Future 
Working with Narration as a Reader and Writer  
Chapter 11. Description: Portraying People, Places, and Things 
What Is Description? 
       A Model Description Essay 
       Jeremy MacClancy, Eating Chilli Peppers
The Structure and Content of Description Essays 
Understanding, Analyzing, and Evaluating Description Essays 
       Understanding a Description Essay 
       Analyzing a Description Essay 
       Evaluating a Description Essay 
Writing Your Own Description Essay 
       A Student Model Description Essay 
       *Madelieine Massey, Small Town New Orleans 
       Responding to Massey’s Essay 
       Finding Ideas for Your Description Essay 
       Choosing a Subject for Your Description Essay 
       Collecting Details That Describe Your Subject 
       Finding Comparisons and Choosing a Vantage Point 
       Creating a Dominant Impression 
       Drafting Your Description Essay 
       Revising Your Description Essay 
       Editing and Proofreading Your Essay 
Readings for Practice, Ideas for Writing 
       Richard Selzer, The Discus Thrower 
       *Jordan Kisner, Rain Is Sizzling Bacon, Cars Are Lions Roaring: The Art of Sound in Movies 
        Veronica Chambers, The Secret Latina 
        Louis Giannetti, Costumes 
Working with Description as a Reader and Writer  
Chapter 12.  Illustration: Explaining with Examples
What Is Illustration? 
         A Model Illustration Essay 
         Bill Bryson, Snoopers at Work
The Structure and Content of Illustration Essays
Understanding, Analyzing, and Evaluating Illustration Essays 
         Understanding an Illustration Essay 
         Analyzing an Illustration Essay 
         Evaluating an Illustration Essay 
Writing Your Own Illustration Essay 
         A Student Model Illustration Essay 
         *Kaitlyn Frey, Waste, Away!
         Responding to Frey’s Essay 
         Finding Ideas for Your Illustration Essay 
         Choosing a Subject for Your Illustration Essay 
         Gathering Examples for Your Illustration Essay 
         Developing and Supporting Your Thesis 
         Drafting Your Illustration Essay 
         Revising Your Illustration Essay 
         Editing and Proofreading Your Essay 
Readings for Practice, Ideas for Writing 
         *Michael Hanlon, What Happened to Innovation? 
         Cristina Rouvalis, Hey Mom, Dad, May I Have My Room Back? 
         Brent Staples, Just Walk On By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space 
         Patrick Frank, Issue-Oriented and Street Art 
Working with Illustration as a Reader and Writer  
Chapter 13.  Process Analysis: Explaining How Something Works or Is Done 
What Is Process Analysis? 
         A Model Process Analysis Essay 
         *Eric Rosenberg, How to Make Money with YouTube
The Structure and Content of Process Analysis Essays 
Understanding, Analyzing, and Evaluating Process Analysis Essays 
         Understanding a Process Analysis Essay 
         Analyzing a Process Analysis Essay 
         Evaluating a Process Analysis Essay 
Writing Your Own Process Analysis Essay 
         A Student Model Process Analysis Essay 
Aurora Gilbert, The Pleasures and Particulars of Philanthropy: How to Publicize Your Fund-Raising Event 
         Responding to Gilbert’s Essay 
         Finding Ideas for Your Process Analysis Essay 
         Choosing a Process for Your Essay 
         Developing and Supporting Your Thesis 
         Listing the Steps and Gathering Details 
         Drafting Your Process Analysis Essay 
         Revising Your Process Analysis Essay 
         Editing and Proofreading Your Essay 
Readings for Practice, Ideas for Writing 
        *Austin Netzley, 8 Steps to Pay Off $81, of Debt in Less Than 3 Years 
        *Scott Matteson, How Does Google Search Really Work? 
        *Carole Wade, Carol Tarvis, and Maryanne Garry, The Nature of Stress
Working with Process Analysis as a Reader and Writer  
Chapter 14.  Comparison and Contrast: Showing Similarities and Differences 
What Is Comparison and Contrast? 
        A Model Comparison-and-Contrast Essay 
        Dave Barry, We’ve Got the Dirt on Guy Brains 
The Structure and Content of Comparison-and-Contrast Essays 
Understanding, Analyzing, and Evaluating Comparison-and-Contrast Essays 
       Understanding a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay 
       Analyzing a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay 
       Evaluating a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay 
Writing Your Own Comparison-and-Contrast Essay 
       A Student Model Comparison-and-Contrast Essay 
       Heather Gianakos, Border Bites
       Responding to Gianakos’s Essay 
       Finding Ideas for Your Comparison-and-Contrast Essay 
       Choosing a Basis of Comparison and a Purpose 
       Discovering Similarities and Differences and Generating Details 
       Developing and Supporting Your Thesis 
       Selecting Points of Comparison 
       Drafting Your Comparison-and-Contrast Essay 
       Revising Your Comparison-and-Contrast Essay 
       Editing and Proofreading Your Essay 
Readings for Practice, Ideas for Writing 
       *Sara Rashkin, What Kind of H2O Should You Drink? We Asked L.A.’s Only Water Sommelier 
       Deborah Tannen, Sex, Lies, and Conversation 
       Amy Chua, Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior 
       Carole Wade and Carol Tavris, Dealing with Cultural Differences 
Working with Comparison and Contrast as a Reader and Writer  
Chapter 15.  Classification and Division: Explaining Categories and Parts 
What Are Classification and Division? 
       A Model Classification Essay 
       Joshua Fruhlinger, Online Dating — Five Things to Avoid
The Structure and Content of Classification and Division Essays 
Understanding, Analyzing, and Evaluating Classification and Division Essays 
      Understanding a Classification or Division Essay 
      Analyzing a Classification or Division Essay 
      Evaluating a Classification or Division Essay 
Writing Your Own Classification or Division Essay 
      A Student Model Classification Essay 
      Maris Vasquez, A Profile of Facebook Users
      Responding to Vasquez’s Essay 
      Finding Ideas for Your Classification or Division Essay 
      Planning Your Classification or Division Essay 
      Choosing a Principle of Classification or Division 
      Choosing Categories or Parts 
      Identifying the Key Features of Each Category or Part 
      Developing and Supporting Your Thesis  
      Drafting Your Classification or Division Essay 
      Revising Your Classification or Division Essay 
      Editing and Proofreading Your Essay 
Readings for Practice, Ideas for Writing 
      Mindy Kaling, Types of Women in Romantic Comedies Who Are Not Real 
      David Bodanis, A Brush with Reality: Surprises in the Tube 
      *April Lynch, Barry Elmore, and Jerome Kotecki, Addiction 
Working with Classification and Division as a Reader and Writer  
Chapter 16.  Definition: Explaining What You Mean 
What Is Definition? 
       A Model Definition Essay 
*Roland Kelts, The Satori Generation
The Structure and Content of Definition Essays 
Understanding, Analyzing, and Evaluating Definition Essays 
       Understanding a Definition Essay 
       Analyzing a Definition Essay 
       Evaluating a Definition Essay 
Writing Your Own Definition Essay 
       A Student Model Definition Essay  
       *Sarah Frey, Woman of Many Talents
       Responding to Frey’s Essay 
       Finding Ideas for Your Definition Essay 
       Planning Your Definition Essay 
       Developing and Supporting Your Thesis 
       Drafting Your Definition Essay 
       Revising Your Definition Essay 
       Editing and Proofreading Your Essay 
Readings for Practice, Ideas for Writing 
       Lars Eighner, On Dumpster Diving 
       Bethe Dufresne, Gullible Travels 
       Stefany Anne Golberg, Can You See Me Now? Deaf America 
      *Dennis Wilcox, Glen Cameron, and Bryan Reber, The Cult of Celebrity 
Working with Definition as a Reader and Writer  
Chapter 17.  Cause and Effect: Using Reasons and Results to Explain 
What Are Causes and Effects? 
       A Model Cause-and-Effect Essay 
       Amy Tan, E. coli on the Rocks 
The Structure and Content of Cause-and-Effect Essays 
Understanding, Analyzing, and Evaluating Cause-and-Effect Essays 
       Understanding a Cause-and-Effect Essay 
       Analyzing a Cause-and-Effect Essay 
       Evaluating a Cause-and-Effect Essay 
Writing Your Own Cause-and-Effect Essay 
       A Student Model Cause-and-Effect Essay 
       Nathan Nguyen, Gambling on Our Future
       Responding to Nguyen’s Essay 
       Finding Ideas for Your Cause-and-Effect Essay 
       Selecting an Event to Write About 
       Discovering Causes and Effects 
       Identifying Primary Causes and Effects 
       Developing Your Thesis 
       Drafting Your Cause-and-Effect Essay 
       Revising Your Cause-and-Effect Essay 
       Editing and Proofreading Your Essay 
Readings for Practice, Ideas for Writing 
       *Katie Wheeling, Why Do Violent Videos Go Viral? 
       *Hara Estroff Marano, Why We Procrastinate 
       *Fred Pearce, TV as Birth Control: Defusing the Population Bomb
       *Joan Salge Blake, Kathy D. Munoz, and Stella Volpe, What Factors Contribute to Hunger around the World?  
Working with Cause and Effect as a Reader and Writer  
Chapter 18.  Argumentation: Supporting a Claim
What Is an Argument?  
        A Model Argument Essay  
        Lisa M. Hamilton, Eating Meat for the Environment
The Structure and Content of Argument Essays 
Understanding, Analyzing, and Evaluating Argument Essays 
        Understanding an Argument Essay 
        Analyzing an Argument Essay 
        Evaluating an Argument Essay 
Writing Your Own Argument Essay 
        A Student Model Argument Essay  
        James Sturm, Pull the Plug on Explicit Lyrics
        Responding to Sturm’s Essay 
        Finding Ideas for Your Argument Essay 
        Selecting an Issue to Write About 
        Considering Your Audience 
        Developing a Claim in Your Thesis 
        Considering Opposing Viewpoints 
        Drafting Your Argument Essay 
        Revising Your Argument Essay 
        Editing and Proofreading Your Essay 
Readings for Practice, Ideas for Writing 
       *Soujourner Truth, Ain’t I a Woman?
       Sebastian Junger, Why Would Anyone Miss War? 
       *Brittney Cooper, The Racial Parenting Divide: What Adrian Peterson Reveals about Black vs. White Child-Rearing 
       *Robert Reich, Why We Should Raise the Minimum Wage 
       *Reihan Salam, The Fight Against 15  
        Peter Bregman, How (and Why) to Stop Multitasking 
        David Silverman, In Defense of Multitasking 
Working with Argument as a Reader and Writer  
Chapter 19.  Finding and Using Sources
Primary and Secondary Sources 
How to Locate Sources 
        Locating Useful Library Sources 
        Doing Research on the World Wide Web 
Evaluating Sources for Relevance and Reliability 
        Questions for Evaluating Sources for Relevance 
        Questions for Evaluating Sources for Reliability 
Working with Text: Reading Sources 
Extracting Information from Sources 
        Gathering Necessary Citation Information 
        Systems of Note-Taking 
        Writing Summary Notes 
        Writing Paraphrases 
        Recording Quotations 
        Avoiding Plagiarism 
        What Counts as Plagiarism 
        How to Avoid Plagiarism 
*Chapter 20.  Documenting Your Sources
Documenting Sources in MLA Style  
        MLA-Style In-Text Citations 
        MLA-Style List of Works Cited 
        Some MLA-Style Models  
        Sample Pages from an MLA-Style Paper  
*Documenting Sources in APA Style 
        *APA-Style In-Text Citations 
        *APA-Style List of References 
        *Some APA-Style Models  
        *Sample Pages from an APA-Style Paper  
*Review of Basic Grammar 
        *1 Parts of Speech 
        *2 Sentence Structure 
*Writing Correct Sentences 
        *3  Sentence Fragments 
        *4  Run-on Sentences and Comma Splices 

        *5  Subject-Verb Agreement 
        *6  Verb Forms 
        *7  Pronoun Problems 
        *8  Shifts and Mixed Constructions 
        *9  Adjectives and Adverbs 
        *10 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers 
*Using Punctuation and Mechanics Correctly
       *11  End Punctuation 
       *12  Commas 
       *13  Semicolons 
       *14  Colons 
       *15  Quotation Marks, Ellipses, and Brackets 
       *16  Apostrophes 
       *17  Dashes 
       *18  Capitalization and Italics/Underlining 
*Answers to Even-Numbered Exercises in Handbook 

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