9780312050238

Religions of the World

by ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780312050238

  • ISBN10:

    0312050232

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1993-02-15
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Summary

Religions of the Worldsurveys the major religions of the world today, as well as significant faiths of the past (Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Greek, Roman, and primal traditions) and provides writings by noted scholars, each of whom expands on his or her area of specialization.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Religion and Religions of the World 1(1)
Understanding Religion In The Context of Pluralism
1(1)
Developing A Cross-Cultural Model of Religion: Religious Needs and Satisfactions
2(2)
The Structure of Religion
4(1)
Relationships between Human Beings and Sacred Realities
4(3)
Describing Sacred Realities
4(3)
The Relationship between Religious Need and Religious Satisfaction
7(1)
Processes of Transformation
7(5)
Puberty Rites among the Bambara of Mali
8(1)
The Hindu Sacred Thread Ceremony
9(1)
The Eightfold Path as Transformation
9(1)
Calendar Rituals
9(1)
Sacred Places
10(1)
Religious Specialists
10(1)
Life after Death
11(1)
Cultural Traditions That Incorporate Systems of Symbols
12(4)
Changes in Religions
13(1)
Religious Traditions and Their Systems of Symbols
14(1)
Religion and Society
15(1)
How To Read This Book
16(1)
Questions to Ask
16(1)
Using Maps and Time Lines
17(4)
PART ONE Primal Religions and Religions of Antiquity
The Diversity and Vitalty of Primal Religions
21(26)
An Approach to Primal Religions
22(1)
Sacred Speech: Myths
23(1)
Sacred Acts: The Ritual Context
23(1)
Sacred Place: Situation in Time and Space
24(1)
Australian Aboriginal Religions
24(1)
Early Investigations
24(1)
Religion by Region
24(1)
Sacred Speech: Mythic Themes and Worldview
25(2)
Sacred Acts: Ritual Practice
27(1)
North American Religious Traditions
28(1)
Religion by Region
28(3)
Sacred Place and Worldview
31(1)
Sacred Acts: Ritual Practice
32(2)
Sacred Words: Narrative, Song, and Prayer
34(1)
African Religions
35(2)
Religion by Region
37(1)
Early Investigations
37(1)
Worldview
37(2)
Supreme Being
38(1)
Secondary Divinities
38(1)
An African Myth
39(1)
Ancestors: The Living Dead
39(1)
Sacred Acts: Ritual Practice
39(5)
Sacred Words: Mythic Themes
44(1)
Notes
45(2)
Religions of Antiquity
47(36)
Egyptian Religion
47(1)
Egypt in History
47(1)
Religious Life in Egypt
48(1)
Creation Myths
48(2)
The Cosmology of Hermopolis
49(1)
Overview of Egyptian Cosmologies
49(1)
Popular Deities and Beliefs
50(3)
Immortality and the Cult of Osiris
51(1)
Journey to the Underworld
51(2)
Akhenaton, the Religious Innovator
53(1)
The Legacy of Egyptian Religion
53(1)
Mesopotamia: Power Conflicts and Order
53(1)
Sumer and Akkad
54(2)
Religion in Sumer and Akkad
55(1)
Pluralism and Polytheism
55(1)
Babylonia and Assyria
56(2)
Religion in Babylonia and Assyria
57(1)
The Epic of Creation
57(1)
The Temple Cult
57(1)
Gilgamesh
58(1)
The Legacy of Mesopotamian Religion
58(1)
Zoroastrianism: The Battle Between Good And Evil
59(1)
Historical Roots
59(1)
Zarathustra's Career
59(1)
Early Zoroastrianism
60(1)
Beliefs of Early Zoroastrianism
60(1)
Later Zoroastrianism
61(1)
Manichaeism
62(1)
Zoroastrianism Today
62(1)
The Greek Heritage
63(1)
Aegean Civilization: Crete and Mycenae
63(1)
The Homeric Age
64(2)
The Twelve Gods of Olympus
65(1)
Moira: The Influence of Fate
66(1)
Hesiod and the Creation Myths
66(1)
Greece in History
66(3)
Civic Religion and Festivals
68(1)
Folk Religion
69(1)
The Growth of Humanism
69(1)
The Mystery Religions
69(2)
The Eleusinian Mysteries
69(1)
Other Cults
70(1)
Roman Society And Religion
71(1)
The Emergence of Rome
71(1)
Roman Religion
72(3)
Basic Concepts
72(1)
Tradition and Innovation
72(1)
The Indo-European Heritage
73(1)
Priesthoods and Festivals
74(1)
Later Developments
74(1)
Northern European Mythologies
75(1)
The Celts
75(1)
The Druids
75(1)
The Germanic and Scandinvian Tribes
75(4)
The Twilight of the Gods
76(1)
Historical Sources
77(1)
Scandinavian Religions
77(2)
Notes
79(4)
PART TWO Religions of India
The Earliest Forms of Hinduism
83(19)
Geographic Setting
84(1)
India: A Land of Farmers
84(1)
India's Isolation and Stability
84(1)
The Quest for Inner Peace and Harmony
84(2)
The Indus Civilization
86(1)
Religion in the Indus Culture
87(2)
End of the Indus Civilization
89(1)
The Religion of The Vedas
89(1)
The Culture of the Early Aryas
89(1)
The Vedas
89(1)
The Rigveda
90(1)
The Samaveda and the Yajurveda
90(1)
The Fourth Veda
90(1)
The Vedic Worldview
90(7)
Rigveda 10.129: A Hymn of Creation
92(1)
The Devas or Vedic Gods
93(1)
The Pattern of the Srauta Sacrifice
94(3)
Rituals of the Vedic Age
97(1)
The Srauta Rites
97(1)
Later Literature of the Priestly Schools
98(1)
The Unity of Vedic Religion
98(1)
Vedic and Hebrew Ultimates Compared
99(1)
The Rise of the Concept of Brahman
99(1)
The Vedas in Later Hinduism
100(1)
Notes
101(1)
Classical Hinduism: The Way of Action
102(13)
Social Codes of the New Society
102(1)
The Caste System
103(2)
Origin of the Social Classes
103(1)
Duties of the Social Classes
104(1)
Manu on the Stages of Life
104(1)
Krishnapur: A Twentieth-Century Caste Community
105(3)
Karma and Rebirth
107(1)
The Rituals of Classical Hinduism
108(4)
Rites of the Rounds of Life
110(2)
The Hindu Temple and Its Rituals
112(1)
Rites of the Village Godlings
113(1)
The Place of Religious Practice in Hinduism
113(1)
Notes
114(1)
Classical Hinduism: The Way of Knowledge
115(13)
The Upanishads
115(7)
Discussions of Brahman
116(2)
The Search for an Undying Soul
118(2)
The Way of Knowledge in a Upanishad Text
120(2)
The Vedanta Tradition
122(5)
Levels of Knowledge
122(1)
Sankara's Doctrine of Maya
123(1)
The Sannyasi, Renouncer of the World
123(2)
Yoga
125(2)
Note
127(1)
Classical Hinduism: The Way of Devotion
128(15)
The Worship of Siva
129(2)
The Lingam and Yoni Emblem
129(1)
Siva as the One God
130(1)
The Saktas
131(1)
Tantrism
132(1)
The Worship of Vishnu
132(1)
Vishnu in the Vedic Age
132(1)
Origins of the Vaishnava Tradition
133(1)
The Bhagavadgita
133(2)
The Later Vaishnava Tradition
135(5)
The Identification of Krishna with Vishnu
135(1)
The Avatars
135(1)
Defenders of Vaishnava Belief
136(1)
The Cult of Gopala
137(1)
Krishna and the Gopis
138(2)
The Worship of Rama
140(1)
Action, Devotion, Knowledge: A Retrospect on the Three Ways
141(1)
Notes
142(1)
Modern Hinduism
143(8)
The British Presence
143(1)
The Brahmo Samaj
144(1)
The Arya Samaj
145(1)
Hindu Religious Nationalism
146(1)
Mahatma Gandhi
147(1)
Recent Religious Leaders
147(2)
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
148(1)
Svami Vivekananda
148(1)
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
148(1)
Rabindranath Tagore
148(1)
The Morale of Contemporary Hinduism
149(1)
Notes
150(1)
Jainism and Sikhism
151(14)
Jainism
151(1)
The Followers of the Victor
151(1)
Makers of the River Crossing
152(2)
Jain Philosophy and Cosmology
154(1)
Jain Ethics
154(1)
Jain Laity
155(1)
Jain Temples
155(1)
Sikhism
156(1)
The Way of the Disciples
156(1)
Early Sikhism
156(1)
The Sant Background and the Poet Kabir
156(1)
Nanak's Career
157(1)
Sikhism and Sufism
158(1)
The Founder's Teaching
158(1)
The Concept of God
159(1)
Later Sikhism
159(1)
Sikhism in the Modern Era
160(1)
Notes
161(4)
PART THREE Buddhism
The Rise of Buddhism
165(12)
The Life of The Buddha
165(4)
The Teachings of The Buddha: The Dharma
169(1)
The Four Noble Truths
169(1)
Suffering
169(1)
The Cause of Suffering
170(1)
The Cessation of Suffering
170(1)
The Path out of Suffering
170(1)
Correlated Buddhist Doctrines
170(1)
Pratitya Samutpada: Interdependent Arising
170(1)
Anatman: No Self
171(1)
Early Collected Teachings
171(1)
The Early Buddhist Community: The Sangha
171(1)
Buddhist Life Styles
171(4)
Buddhism, Upanishadic Hinduism, and Jainism on Salvation
172(1)
Forest Monks
173(1)
Settled Monastics
174(1)
Lay Supporters: Householders
174(1)
Early Buddhism and The ``New Society''
175(1)
Buddhism in the Mauryan Empire
175(1)
Note
176(1)
The Development of Buddhism in India
177(17)
The Buddha
178(4)
The Young Quail Jataka
178(2)
Theravada and Mahayana Attitudes toward the Buddha
180(2)
Dharma
182(1)
Conservative Doctrines: Abhidharma
182(1)
Mahayana Doctrines: Madhyamika and Yogacara
182(1)
Sangha and Community
183(5)
Conservative and Mahayana Communities
185(1)
The Mahayanist ``Thought of Enlightenment''
186(2)
Buddhism and Society in Classical India
188(1)
The Apogee and Decline of Indian Buddhism
188(1)
Conservative, Mahayana, and Vajrayana Buddhism
189(2)
Vajrayana Developments of Dharma
189(1)
Living Buddhas of Vajrayana
190(1)
New Vajrayana Practices
190(1)
The Vajrayana Sangha
191(1)
The Decline of Buddhism in India
191(2)
Notes
193(1)
Buddhism as a World Religion
194(29)
Buddhism Expansion
194(1)
Patterns in the Spread of Buddhism
194(1)
Buddhism In ``Greater India''
195(1)
Growth and Consolidation of Theravada Traditions
195(2)
Royal Traditions in Southeast Asia
197(1)
Buddhist Religious Monuments
197(1)
Theravada Culture in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia
198(1)
Religious Trends in Theravada Culture
199(1)
Developments in Buddhology
199(1)
Extensions of Dharma
200(1)
Sangha and Community Life
200(1)
Buddhism in Central Asia, China, And Japan
200(1)
Northwestern India and Central Asia
201(1)
China
202(2)
The Golden Age from Han to Tang
202(2)
From Tang to the Present
204(1)
Korea and Vietnam
204(1)
Japan
205(1)
Buddhist Trends in East Asia
206(4)
New Roles for Buddhas and Bodhisattvas
206(1)
Dharma: The Great Synthetic Schools
207(1)
Dharma: Other East Asian Schools
208(1)
Sangha: Patterns of Communal Life
209(1)
Sangha: The Laity
209(1)
Buddhism In Tibet
210(1)
The Establishment of Buddhism in Tibet
211(1)
The Reestablishment of Buddhism
211(1)
The Gelukpa Reform
211(1)
Religious Trends
212(1)
Buddhas and Bodhisattvas
212(1)
The Dharma
212(1)
The Sangha and Society: Continuity and Enrichment
212(1)
Authority in the Tibetan Tradition
213(1)
Buddhism in the Modern Era
213(1)
Reform Movements
214(1)
Buddha
214(1)
Dharma
214(1)
Sangha
214(1)
The Communist Challenge
215(1)
Buddhism in Non-Communist Asia
216(1)
Expansion in Indonesia and India
217(1)
Expansion in the West
217(1)
Buddhism and the Future
218(1)
Notes
218(5)
PART FOUR Religions of China and Japan
Roots of Religion In China
223(15)
The Unity of Chinese Religions
224(1)
China's Early Religious History
225(1)
The Shang Dynasty
225(1)
The Zhou Dynasty
226(3)
Zhou Deities and the Dao
227(1)
Social Order and Natural Order
228(1)
Yin and Yang
228(1)
Ultimacy
229(1)
The Age of The Hundred Philosophers
229(1)
Confucius: The Ritualization of Life
230(3)
Li and Social Order
230(1)
Ren and Humaneness
231(1)
The Confucian Sage and the Glorification of the Past
232(1)
The Ideal Man and the Ideal Woman
232(1)
Mencius, Disciple of Confucius
233(1)
Lao-zi and the Beginnings of Daoism
234(2)
Naturalness
236(1)
Zhuang-zi and the Daoist Life
236(1)
Notes
237(1)
Three Visions of Harmony: Confucian, Daoist, Buddhist
238(8)
The Han Dynasty (202 B. C. E.--220 C. E.)
238(1)
Popular Religion during the Han
239(2)
Popular Daoism
240(1)
Religion in the Period of Disunity (220--589)
241(1)
The Retired Intellectuals
242(1)
The Buddhist Contribution to Chinese Life and Culture
242(1)
Cultural Flowering in the Tang Dynasty (618--907)
243(3)
Neo-Confucianism: From The Classical Era To Modern Times
246(13)
The Revival of Confucianism
246(2)
The School of Mind
248(1)
Traditional China under Confucianism
248(3)
Religion and the State
249(1)
The Imperial or official Level
249(2)
The Popular Level
251(1)
The Family Level
251(1)
Specificially Religious Institutions
251(1)
China in a Period of Revolutionary Change
251(1)
Contract with the West
251(1)
Cultural and Religious Crisis in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
252(2)
The Tai Ping Rebellion
253(1)
China in the Twentieth Century
254(4)
Religion under the Communist Regime
254(1)
Religious Aspects of Maoism
255(1)
Maoism and the Transformation of Culture
256(2)
The Present Situation
258(1)
Notes
258(1)
Japan's Religions: From Prehistory to Modern Times
259(24)
The Japanese Religious Character
259(1)
Overview of Japanese Religious History
260(1)
The Shinto Substratum of Japanese Religiosity
260(1)
Shinto as a ``Little Tradition''
261(1)
The Nature of the Kami
262(1)
Shinto Mythology
262(2)
Belief in Many Gods and One Principle
263(1)
A Creation Myth: The Priomordial Parents
264(1)
Shinto Ritual
264(3)
Matsuri
264(2)
Shamanic Rituals
266(1)
Religion and Society in Early Japan
267(1)
Religion in the Classical Period
267(1)
The Cofluence of Shinto, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism
268(1)
Shinto-Buddhist Syncretism
269(2)
The Jingu-ji System
269(2)
The Medieval Period
271(1)
The Rise of New Buddhist Sects
271(2)
The Reunification of Japan
273(2)
Effects of the Closing of Japan
274(1)
The National Scholar Movement
274(1)
The Modern Period
275(2)
State Shinto
276(1)
Japan's New Religions
277(1)
Japanese Religion since World War II
278(1)
Shrine Shinto
278(1)
Notes
279(4)
PART FIVE Judaism
God, Torah, And Israel: The Beginnings
283(25)
Hebrew Beginnings (c. 2000--1000 B. C. E.)
284(1)
Judaism as a Middle Eastern Religion
284(1)
The Hebrew Bible: Source of the Tradition
285(3)
Books of the Bible
286(1)
Distinctive Themes
286(2)
The Patriarchal Age
288(1)
Abraham and the Nomadic Life
288(1)
The Covenant
289(1)
The Age of Moses
289(2)
The God of the Mosaic Covenant
291(2)
Israel in Canaan: The Judges (1200--1020 B. C. E.)
293(1)
Canaanite Influences
293(1)
The Struggle against Assimilation
294(1)
Monarchy, Exile, And The Restoration of Judah (c. 1000--200 B. C. E.)
294(2)
The Rise of the Prophets
296(1)
Nathan
296(1)
Elijah
296(1)
The Writing Prophets
296(6)
Amos (783--743 B. C. E.)
297(1)
Isaiah (c. 742--701 B. C. E.)
298(1)
Jeremiah (628--c. 586 B. C. E.)
299(2)
The Second Isaiah (550--539 B. C. E.)
301(1)
The Historical Role of the Prophets
301(1)
The Axial Age
302(1)
Religious Faith after Exile
302(3)
Ezra and Nehemiah
303(1)
Worship in the Temple
304(1)
Tensions within the Covenant Community
305(1)
The Foundation of Judaism
306(1)
Notes
307(1)
From The Hellenistic Age to The Dawn of Modernity: Diaspora
308(21)
The Hellenistic Age
308(1)
Wisdom Literature
308(1)
The Maccabean Revolt
309(1)
Philo and the Jews of Alexandria
309(1)
Developments In Judea
310(1)
Factions: Pharisees and Sadducees
310(1)
Rebellion against the Romans
311(1)
The Growth of the Rabbinic Tradition
312(2)
The Beginnings of Rabbinic Leadership
312(1)
The Centrality of the Synagogue
312(2)
The New Babylonian Diaspora
314(1)
Creation of the Talmud
315(1)
The Rabbinic Mind
315(2)
Halacha and Agada
316(1)
Rabbinic Judaism: The Religion of Torah
317(1)
Response to the Christian Challenge
318(1)
The Synagogue Liturgy
318(1)
Judaism's Encounter with Islam
318(1)
Karaism
319(1)
Saadia's Response
320(1)
Judaism in Muslim Spain
320(3)
Judah Halevi
321(1)
Moses Maimonides
321(2)
Kabbalah: Jewish Mysticism
323(1)
The Zohar
323(1)
European Communities of The Diaspora
323(1)
Renaissance Italy
323(1)
Northwestern and Central Europe
324(1)
Eastern Europe
325(2)
The Shtetl
326(1)
Hasidism
326(1)
The Varieties of Medieval Judaism
327(1)
Notes
328(1)
Modern Times: Persecution, Divisions, New Worlds
329(16)
Ghettos and the Dawn of Modernity
329(2)
Moses Mendelssohn
330(1)
The French Revolution and the Jews
330(1)
Responses to Modernity
331(3)
Reform Judaism and Abraham Geiger
331(1)
Orthodoxy and Samson Raphael Hirsch
332(1)
Positive-Historical Judaism and Zecharias Frankel
332(1)
Haskalah in Eastern Europe
333(1)
The Rise of Zionism
333(1)
Cultural Zionism
334(1)
Judaism in America
334(1)
Reform Judaism
334(1)
The Conservative Movement
334(1)
Orthodoxy in the United States
335(1)
The Diminution of Differences
335(1)
The Holocaust
335(1)
The Rebirth of Israel
336(1)
Modes of Jewish Witness
337(1)
The Jewish Calendar Year
338(1)
The Voice of Jewish Women
338(3)
Notes
341(4)
PART SIX Christianity
The Formation of The Church
345(24)
Christian Origins
345(1)
Background: Roman Context, Jewish Worldview
345(1)
Christianity's Roots in Judaism
346(1)
Jesus of Nazareth
346(5)
Stories about Jesus
346(2)
Key Teachings of Jesus
348(2)
Death and Resurrection
350(1)
The Spread of the Faith
351(3)
Paul of Tarsus
351(3)
The First Christian Communities
354(1)
The Early Church
354(1)
Christian Identity
354(2)
Delay of the Parousia
354(1)
Challenges to the Faith
354(1)
The Catholic Response
355(1)
Persecution and Martyrdom
356(5)
The Church and the World
356(2)
Three Accounts of the Eucharist
358(1)
The Christian Response
359(1)
Constantine and the Edict of Milan
360(1)
The Imperial Church
361(1)
Assimilation to the World
361(1)
Church and State
361(1)
Worship
362(1)
The Ascetic Movement
362(2)
Early Christian Asceticism
362(1)
Monastic Foundations
363(1)
The Rule of Saint Benedict
364(1)
Issues around the Person of Jesus Christ
364(3)
Arianism
364(1)
Christology
365(2)
Augustine
367(1)
The Nature of Sin and Grace: The Pelagian Controversy
367(1)
The Nature of the Church: The Donatist Controversy
368(1)
Notes
368(1)
The Vision of Christendom
369(20)
Early Middle Ages
369(1)
The Fall of Rome and the Rise of the Church
369(2)
Missions and Missionaries
370(1)
The Rise of Islam
371(1)
The Vision of Christendom
371(6)
The Feudal World
372(1)
Medieval Theology
373(1)
Interpretations of the Eucharist
374(1)
Lay Religion
374(1)
Medieval Monasticism
375(2)
Emperor and Pope
377(1)
Gregorian Reform
377(1)
The Crusades
378(1)
Late Middle Ages
378(1)
The New Urban World
378(8)
New Religious Orders
379(1)
Jewish-Christian Relations
380(2)
Cathedrals
382(1)
Universities and Scholasticism
382(2)
Mysticism
384(1)
Mysticism
385(1)
Challenges to Christendom
386(2)
Decline of the Papacy
386(1)
Renaissance
387(1)
The Call for Reform
388(1)
Notes
388(1)
The Splintering of The Vision
389(18)
Reformation Movements
389(1)
State of the Church
389(1)
Martin Luther and Reformation in Germany
390(2)
Justification by Grace through Faith
390(1)
Authority of Scripture
391(1)
Priesthood of All Believers
391(1)
The Course of the Reformation
391(1)
Reformation in Switzerland
392(2)
Zwingli and the Lord's Supper
392(1)
Calvin and the Sovereignty of God
393(1)
Worship
394(1)
Protestantism and the Laity
394(1)
Royal Reformation in England
394(2)
Political Reform
394(1)
Theological Reform
395(1)
The Radical Reformation
396(1)
Catholic Reformation
397(3)
Council of Trent
397(1)
Monastic Reform
398(1)
Missions and Missionaries
398(1)
Theresa of Avila, Interior Castle
399(1)
The Age of Absolutism
400(1)
Development of the Orthodoxies
401(1)
Eucharistic Theology
401(1)
Predestination
401(1)
Puritans in England
401(2)
John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress
402(1)
British North America
403(1)
Evangelical Revival
404(2)
Pietism and the Great Awakening
404(1)
Evangelical Revival in England
405(1)
Notes
406(1)
Christianity in The Modern World
407(20)
Revolution and Religious Revivial
407(4)
Enlightenment and Secularization
408(1)
The Second Great Awakening
409(1)
The Temperance Movement
409(2)
Liberalism and Conservatism
411(2)
Social Gospel
411(1)
The Conservative Response
412(1)
Reaction and Renewal
413(5)
Liturgical Renewal
413(1)
Theological Renewal
414(1)
Liberation Theology
415(1)
Christianity in a Time of Crisis
416(1)
The Women's Movement
416(2)
The Modern Roman Catholic Church
418(1)
The Church in Russia
419(1)
Response to the Global Village
420(3)
Expansion of Christianity
420(2)
Pluralism
422(1)
Ecumenism
422(1)
Conclusion
423(1)
Notes
423(4)
PART SEVEN Islam
The Beginning: The World of Muhammad
427(20)
Arabia on The Eve of Islam
427(2)
Pre-Islamic Religion
429(1)
A Community in Transition
429(2)
Religion and the Growth of Cities
430(1)
Muhammad's Life and Message
431(1)
Early Revelations
432(1)
Muhammad and Monotheism
433(3)
The Meaning and Purpose of Human Existence
433(1)
Social Reform
434(1)
Eschatological Visions
435(1)
The Muslim Community
436(1)
Early Development
436(1)
Early Meccan Opposition to Muhammad
436(1)
The Medinan Years
437(2)
The Struggle against Mecca
438(1)
Muhammad's Triumph
439(1)
Islam at the Death of the Prophet
439(1)
The Qur'an and The Five Pillars of Islam
439(1)
The Qur'an
440(1)
The Problem of Interpretation
440(1)
The Human Example
441(1)
The Five Pillars
441(5)
The Profession of Faith
441(1)
Ritual Prayer
442(1)
The Ramadan Fast
443(1)
Almsgiving
444(1)
Pilgrimage to Mecca
444(2)
Notes
446(1)
Islam's Classical Period: Religious Law, Theology, And Mysticism
447(19)
The Early Expansion: Arabia to Spain
447(1)
The First Four Caliphs (632--661)
447(2)
Early Policy toward Non-Muslims
449(1)
The Umayyad Dynasty (661--750)
450(1)
The Abbasid Caliphate (750--1258)
451(1)
Religious Law (Fiqh)
452(1)
Sources of Fiqh
452(3)
The Qur'an
452(1)
Muhammad's Sunna and the Ahadith
453(1)
Qiyas, or Analogical Reasoning
454(1)
Ijma, or Consensus
454(1)
The Four Ways of Conduct or Schools of Law
455(1)
A System of Theology (Kalam)
455(1)
The Mutazilites
455(1)
The Problem of the Divine Attributes
455(1)
God's Justice
456(1)
The Rise of Sunni Theology
456(1)
The Philosophers and the Orthodox Reaction
457(2)
The Mystical Path
459(1)
The Early Ascetics
459(3)
Sufism as the Inner Dimension of Prophecy
459(1)
Love of God
459(2)
A Famous Mystic
461(1)
The Crisis of Sufism
462(1)
Ibn-Arabi's Speculative Mysticism
462(1)
Sufi Brotherhoods
463(1)
Sufism in the Modern World
464(1)
The Spirit of Islam
464(1)
Seeds of Disunity
465(1)
Notes
465(1)
Shiism, Regional Developments, And The Modern Period
466(27)
The Shiite Alternatives
466(1)
The Caliphal Claim of Ali and His Descendants
466(1)
The Twelver Tradition
467(5)
The Twelve Imams: Their Status and Functions
467(1)
Ghadir al-Khumm
468(2)
The Hidden Imam
470(1)
The Martyrdom Motif
470(1)
Law, Theology, and Sufism
471(1)
Twelver Shiism and Politics
471(1)
The Ismailis or Seveners
472(1)
Some Characteristic Ismailite Doctrines
472(1)
The Zaydites
473(1)
Challenges to Abbasid Unity
473(1)
The Mughul and Ottoman Empires
474(1)
The Delhi Sultanate and the Mughuls
474(2)
Sons of Shah Jahan
475(1)
The Decline of Mughul Power
476(1)
Shah Wali Allah's Religious Reform
476(1)
Sayyid Ahmad and the Way of Muhammad
477(1)
The Expansion and Long Decline of the Ottoman Turks
477(2)
Ottoman Religious Policies
478(1)
Early Confrontations with Modernity
479(1)
The Wahhabi Movement
479(1)
Islam and The Modern World
480(1)
The Challenge of the West
480(1)
Regional Developments
481(2)
Modern Egypt
481(1)
The Ottoman Empire and Pan-Islamism
481(1)
Saudi Arabia
482(1)
Palestine
482(1)
Turkey
482(1)
Rethinking the Bases of Islam
483(3)
Muhammad Abduh of Egypt
483(1)
Amir Ali
484(1)
Muhammad Iqbal
485(1)
The Modernist Challenge in Law
486(1)
The End of Western Colonialism
487(1)
Arab Nationalism, Israel, and Oil
487(1)
Pakistan
487(1)
Black Nationalism in Africa
487(1)
The Black Muslims of the United States
488(1)
Militant Revivalism
489(2)
Notes
491(2)
Glossary 493(9)
Bibliography 502(11)
Index 513

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