Research In Psychology: Methods and Design, 6th Edition

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-11-01
  • Publisher: Wiley
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The sixth edition provides psychologists with insight into the essential nature of experimental psychology and a solid grounding in its methods and practices. It has been updated to help them develop research ideas, hypotheses, and design studies. In addition, they'll find out how to carry them out, analyze results and draw reasoned conclusions from them. The chapters have also been updated with the important new developments in research methodologies and fascinating examples from recent studies to provide psychologists with the most up-to-date information in the field.

Table of Contents

Scientific Thinking in Psychology
Why Take This Course?
Ways of Knowing
Use of Reason
The Ways of Knowing and Science
Science as a Way of Knowing
Science Assumes Determinism
Science Makes Systematic Observations
Science Produces Public Knowledge
Origins-A Taste of Introspection
Science Produces Data-Based Conclusions
Science Produces Tentative Conclusions
Science Asks Answerable Questions
Science Develops Theories that Can Be Disproven
Psychological Science and Pseudoscience
Recognizing Pseudoscience
Associates with True Science
Classic Studies-Disproving Phrenology
Relies on Anecdotal Evidence
Sidesteps Disproof
Reduces Complex Phenomena to Overly Simplistic Concepts
The Goals of Research in Psychology
A Passion for Research in Psychology
Eleanor Gibson (1910-2002)
B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Ethics in Psychological Research
Classic Studies-Infants at Risk
Developing the APA Code of Ethics
Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans
Judging Benefits and Costs: The IRB
Informed Consent and Deception in Research
Ethics-Historical Problems with Informed Consent
Informed Consent and Special Populations
Treating Participants Well
Research Ethics and the Internet
Ethical Guidelines for Research with Animals
The Issue of Animal Rights
Origins-Antivivisection and the APA
Using Animals in Psychological Research
The APA Code for Animal Research
Justifying the Study
Caring for the Animals
Using Animals for Educational Purposes
Scientific Fraud
Data Falsification
Developing Ideas for Research in Psychology
Varieties of Psychological Research
Basic versus Applied Research
The Setting: Laboratory versus Field Research
Ethics-A Matter of Privacy
Quantitative versus Qualitative Research
Asking Empirical Questions
Operational Definitions
Developing Research from Observations of Behavior and Serendipity
Origins-Serendipity and Edge Detectors
Developing Research from Theory
The Nature of Theory
The Relationship between Theory and Data
Attributes of Good Theories
Classic Studies -Falsification and Der Kluge Hans
Misunderstandings About Theories
Developing Research from Other Research
Research Teams and the "What's Next?" Question
Replication and Extension
Creative Thinking in Science
Reviewing the Literature
Computerized Database Searches
Search Tips
Measurement and Data Analysis
What to Measure-Varieties of Behavior
Developing Measures from Constructs
Origins-Reaction Time: From Mental Chronometry to Mental Rotation
Evaluating Measures
Reliability and Validity
Scales of Measurement
Nominal Scales
Ordinal Scales
Interval Scales
Classic Studies-Measuring Somatotypes on an Interval Scale: Hoping for 4-4-4
Ratio Scales
Statistical Analysis
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
Ethics-Lying with Statistics
Inferential Statistics
Hypothesis Testing
Type I and Type II Errors
Inferential Analysis
Interpreting Failures to Reject H0
Going Beyond Hypothesis Testing
Effect Size
Confidence Intervals
Introduction to Experimental Research
Essential Features of Experimental Research
Origins-John Stuart Mill and the Rules of Inductive Logic
Establishing Independent Variables
Varieties of Independent Variables
Control Groups
Controlling Extraneous Variables
Measuring Dependent Variables
Manipulated versus Subject Variables
Drawing Conclusions When Using Subject Variables
Classic Studies-Bobo Dolls and Aggression
The Validity of Experimental Research
Statistical Conclusion Validity
Construct Validity
External Validity
Other Populations
Ethics-Recruiting Participants: Everyone's in the Pool
Other Environments
Other Times
A Note of Caution
Internal Validity
Threats to Internal Validity
Studies Extending Over a Period of Time
History and Maturation
Testing and Instrumentation
Participant Problems
Subject Selection Effects
Control Problems in Experimental Research
Between-Subjects Designs
The Problem of Creating Equivalent Groups
Random Assignment
Within-Subjects Designs
The Problem of Controlling Sequence Effects
Testing Once per Condition
Complete Counterbalancing
Partial Counterbalancing
Testing More Than Once per Condition
Reverse Counterbalancing
Block Randomization
Control Problems in Developmental Research
Classic Studies-The Record for Repeated Measures
Problems with Biasing
Experimenter Bias
Controlling for Experimenter Bias
Participant Bias
Origins-Productivity at Western Electric
Controlling for Participant Bias
Ethics-Research Participants Have Responsibilities Too
Experimental Design I: Single-Factor Designs
Single Factor-Two Levels
Between-Subjects, Single-Factor Designs
Within-Subjects, Single-Factor Designs
Classic Studies-Psychology's Most Widely Replicated Finding?
Analyzing Single-Factor, Two-Level Designs
Single Factor-More Than Two Levels
Between-Subjects, Multilevel Designs
Origins-Nonlinear Results: The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve
Within-Subjects, Multilevel Designs
Presenting the Data
Types of Graphs
Analyzing Single-Factor, Multilevel Designs
Control Group Designs
Placebo Control Groups
Waiting List Control Groups
Ethics-Who's in the Control Group?
Yoked Control Groups
Experimental Design II: Factorial Designs
Factorial Essentials
Identifying Factorial Designs
Outcomes-Main Effects and Interactions
Main Effects
Interactions Sometimes Trump Main effects
Combinations of Main Effects and Interactions
Classic Studies-To Sleep, Perchance to Recall
Varieties of Factorial Designs
Mixed Factorial Designs
Factorials with Subject and Manipulated Variables: P x E Designs
Recruiting Participants for Factorial Designs
Ethics-On Being a Competent and Ethical researcher
Analyzing Factorial Designs
Origins-Factorials Down on the Farm
Correlational Research
Psychology's Two Disciplines
Origins-Galton's Studies of Genius
Correlation and Regression-The Basics
Positive and Negative Correlations
Assuming Linearity
Restricting the Range
Coefficient of Determination-r2
Regression Analysis-Making Predictions
Interpreting Correlations
Correlations and Causality
Third Variables
Caution: Correlational Statistics versus Correlational Research
Using Correlations
The Need for Correlational Research
Varieties of Correlational Research
Ethics-APA Guidelines for Psychological Testing
Classic Studies-The Achieving Society
Multivariate Analysis
Multiple Regression
Factor Analysis
Quasi-Experimental Designs and Applied Research
Beyond the Laboratory
Applied Psychology in Historical Context
Origins-The Hollingworths, Applied Psychology, and Coca-Cola
Design Problems in Applied Research
Quasi-Experimental Designs
Nonequivalent Control Group Designs
Regression and Matching
Interrupted Time Series Designs
Variations on the Basic Time Series Design
Research Using Archival Data
Program Evaluation
Classic Studies-Reforms as Experiments
Planning for Programs-Needs Analysis
Monitoring Programs-Formative Evaluation
Evaluating Outcomes-Summative Evaluation
Weighing Costs-Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
A Note on Qualitative Analysis
Ethics-Evaluation Research and Ethics
Small N Designs
Research in Psychology Began with Small N
Origins-Cats in Puzzle Boxes
Reasons for Small N Designs
Misleading Results from Statistical Summaries of Grouped Data
Practical Problems with Large N Designs
The Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Operant Conditioning
Applied Behavior Analysis
Ethics-Controlling Human Behavior
Small N Designs in Applied Behavior Analysis
Elements of Single-Subject Designs
Withdrawal Designs
Multiple Baseline Designs
Changing Criterion Designs
Other Designs
Evaluating Single-Subject Designs
Case Study Designs
Classic Studies-The Mind of a Mnemonist
Evaluating Case Studies
Observational and Survey Research Methodsl
Observational Research
Varieties of Observational Research
Naturalistic Observation
Participant Observation
Classic Studies-When Prophecy Fails
Challenges Facing Observational Methods
Absence of Control
Observer Bias
Participant Reactivity
Survey Research
Origins-Creating the "Questionary"
Probability Sampling
Random Sampling
Stratified Sampling
Cluster Sampling
Varieties of Survey Methods
Phone Surveys
Electronic Surveys
Written Surveys
Creating an Effective Survey
Types of Survey Questions or Statements
Assessing Memory and Knowledge
Adding Demographic Information
A Key Problem: Survey Wording
Surveys and Ethics
Ethics-Using and Abusing Surveys
What I Learned in My Research Methods Course
A Passion for Research in Psychology
Elliot Aronson
Elizabeth Loftus
Communicating the Results of Research in Psychology
Research Reports, APA Style
General Guidelines
Writing Style
Reducing Bias in Language
Avoiding Plagiarism
Main Sections of the Lab Report
Title Page
The Manuscript Page Header/Page Number
Running Head
APA Citation Format
Reporting the Data: Statistics
Portraying the Data: Tables and Figures
Presentations and Posters
Tips for Presenting a Paper
Tips for Presenting a Poster
Applications Exercises
A Sample Lab Report
The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association
Research and Publication
Answers to Selected End-of-Chapter Applications Exercises
Name index
Subject index
Summary of Research Examples
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