9781319361303

Rules for Writers With 2020 Apa Update

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781319361303

  • ISBN10:

    1319361307

  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Spiral Bound
  • Copyright: 2020-06-29
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Table of Contents


* = new to this edition or substantially revised


*Scavenger Hunt: Learning to Use Rules for Writers


The Writing Process


1 Exploring, planning, and drafting


a Assess the writing situation.


b Explore your subject.


c Draft and revise a working thesis statement.


*How to solve five common problems with thesis statements,


d Draft a plan.


e Draft an introduction.


f Draft the body.


g Draft a conclusion.


2 Revising, editing, and reflecting


a See revising as a social process.


b Use peer review: Revise with comments.


c Use peer review: Give constructive comments.


*How to write helpful peer review comments


d Highlights of one students peer review process


SAMPLE ROUGH DRAFT WITH PEER COMMENTS


e Approach global revision in cycles.


f Revise and edit sentences.


*How to improve your writing with an editing log


g Proofread the final manuscript.


h Format the final manuscript.


i Sample student revision


SAMPLE STUDENT REVISION


j Prepare a portfolio; reflect on your writing.


3 Building effective paragraphs


a Focus on a main point.


b Develop the main point.


c Choose a suitable pattern of organization.


d Make paragraphs coherent.


e If necessary, adjust paragraph length.


Academic Reading and Writing


4 Reading and writing critically


a Read actively.


Sample annotated article


*How to read like a writer


b Outline a text to identify main ideas.


c Summarize to deepen your understanding.


d Analyze to demonstrate your critical reading.


*How to draft an analytical thesis statement,


e Sample student writing: Analysis of an article


Sample analysis paper


Writing guide: HOW TO WRITE AN Analytical essay


5 Reading and writing about multimodal texts


a Read actively.


Sample annotated advertisement


b Summarize to deepen your understanding.


*How to write a summary of a multimodal text,


c Analyze to demonstrate your critical reading.


d Sample student writing: Analysis of an advertisement


Sample analysis of an advertisement


6 Reading arguments


a Distinguish between reasonable and fallacious argumentative tactics.


b Distinguish between legitimate and unfair emotional appeals.


c Judge how fairly a writer handles opposing views.


7 Writing arguments


a When writing arguments, identify your purpose and context.


b View your audience as a panel of jurors.


c In your introduction, establish credibility and state your position.


*How to draft a thesis statement for an argument


d Back up your thesis with persuasive lines of argument.


e Support your claims with specific evidence.


f Anticipate objections; counter opposing arguments.


g Build common ground.


h Sample student writing: Argument


Sample argument paper


WRITING GUIDE: HOW TO WRITE AN ARGUMENT ESSAY


Clarity


8 Prefer active verbs.


a Active versus passive verbs


b Active versus be verbs


c Subject that names the actor


9 Balance parallel ideas.


a Parallel ideas in a series


b Parallel ideas presented as pairs


c Repetition of function words


10 Add needed words.


a In compound structures


b that


c In comparisons


d a, an, and the


11 Untangle mixed constructions.


a Mixed grammar


b Illogical connections


c is when, is where, and reason . . . is because


12 Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers.


a Limiting modifiers


b Misplaced phrases and clauses


c Awkwardly placed modifiers


d Split infinitives


e Dangling modifiers


13 Eliminate distracting shifts.


a Point of view (person, number)


b Verb tense


c Verb mood, voice


d Indirect to direct questions or quotations


14 Emphasize key ideas.


a Coordination and subordination


b Choppy sentences


c Ineffective or excessive coordination


d Ineffective subordination


e Excessive subordination


f Other techniques


15 Provide some variety.


a Sentence openings


b Sentence structures


c Inverted order


16 Tighten wordy sentences.


a Redundancies


b Unnecessary repetition


c Empty or inflated phrases


d Simplifying the structure


e Reducing clauses to phrases, phrases to single words


17 Choose appropriate language.


a Jargon


b Pretentious language, euphemisms, doublespeak


c Slang, regional expressions, nonstandard English


d Levels of formality


e Sexist language


f Offensive language


18 Find the exact words.


a Connotations


b Specific, concrete nouns


c Misused words


d Standard idioms


e Clichs


f Figures of speech


Grammar


19 Repair sentence fragments.


a Subordinate clauses


b Phrases


c Other fragmented word groups


d Acceptable fragments


20 Revise run-on sentences.


a Revision with coordinating conjunction


b Revision with semicolon, colon, or dash


c Revision by separating sentences


d Revision by restructuring


21 Make subjects and verbs agree.


a Standard subject-verb combinations


b Words between subject and verb


c Subjects joined with and


d Subjects joined with or, nor, either . . . or, or neither . . . nor


e Indefinite pronouns


f Collective nouns


g Subject following verb


h Subject, not subject complement


i who, which, and that


j Words with plural form, singular meaning


k Titles of works, company names, words mentioned as words, gerund phrases


22 Make pronouns and antecedents agree.


*a Singular with singular, plural with plural (indefinite pronouns, generic nouns)


b Collective nouns


c Antecedents joined with and


d Antecedents joined with or, nor, either . . . or, or neither . . . nor


23 Make pronoun references clear.


a Ambiguous or remote reference


b Broad reference of this, that, which, and it


c Implied antecedents


d Indefinite use of they, it, and you


e who for persons, which or that for things


24 Distinguish between pronouns such as I and me.


a Subjective case for subjects and subject complements


b Objective case for objects


c Appositives


d Pronoun following than or as


e Subjects and objects of infinitives


f Pronoun modifying a gerund


25 Distinguish between who and whom.


a In subordinate clauses


b In questions


c As subjects or objects of infinitives


26 Choose adjectives and adverbs with care.


a Adjectives to modify nouns


b Adverbs to modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs


c good and well, bad and badly


d Comparatives and superlatives


e Double negatives


27 Choose appropriate verb forms, tenses, and moods in Standard English.


a Irregular verbs


b lie and lay


c -s (or -es) endings


d -ed endings


e Omitted verbs


f Verb tense


g Subjunctive mood


Multilingual Writers and ESL Topics


28 Verbs


a Appropriate form and tense


b Passive voice


c Base form after a modal


d Negative verb forms


e Verbs in conditional sentences


f Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives


29 Articles


a Articles and other noun markers


b When to use the


c When to use a or an


d When not to use a or an


e No articles with general nouns


f Articles with proper nouns


30 Sentence structure


a Linking verb between a subject and its complement


b A subject in every sentence


c Repeated nouns or pronouns with the same grammatical function


d Repeated subjects, objects, and adverbs in adjective clauses


e Mixed constructions with although or because


f Placement of adverbs


g Present participles and past participles as adjectives


h Order of cumulative adjectives


31 Prepositions and idiomatic expressions


a Prepositions showing time and place


b Noun (including -ing form) after a preposition


c Common adjective + preposition combinations


d Common verb + preposition combinations


Punctuation


32 The comma


a Independent clauses joined with and, but, etc.


b Introductory elements


c Items in a series


d Coordinate adjectives


e Nonrestrictive and restrictive elements


f Transitional expressions and other word groups


g Direct address, yes and no, interrogative tags, interjections


h he said etc.


i Dates, addresses, titles, numbers


33 Unnecessary commas


a Between two words, phrases, or subordinate clauses


b Between a verb and its subject or object


c Before the first or after the last item in a series


d Between cumulative adjectives, an adjective and a noun, or an adverb and an adjective


e Before and after restrictive or parenthetical elements


f Before essential concluding adverbial elements


g After a phrase beginning an inverted sentence


h Other misuses


34 The semicolon


a Between independent clauses not joined with a coordinating conjunction


b Between independent clauses linked with a transitional expression


c In a series containing internal punctuation


d Misuses


35 The colon


a Before a list, an appositive, or a quotation


b Conventional uses


c Misuses


36 The apostrophe


a Possessive nouns


b Possessive indefinite pronouns


c Contractions


d Not for plural numbers, letters, abbreviations, words as words


e Misuses


37 Quotation marks


a Direct quotations


b Quotation within a quotation


c Titles of short works


d Words as words


e With other punctuation marks


f Misuses


38 End punctuation


a The period


b The question mark


c The exclamation point


39 Other punctuation marks


a The dash


b Parentheses


c Brackets


d The ellipsis mark


e The slash


Mechanics


40 Abbreviations


a Titles with proper names


b Familiar abbreviations


c Conventional abbreviations


d Units of measurement


e Latin abbreviations


f Plural of abbreviations


g Misuses


41 Numbers


a Spelling out


b Using numerals


42 Italics


a Titles of works


b Names of ships, spacecraft, and aircraft


c Foreign words


d Words as words, letters as letters, numbers as numbers


43 Spelling


a Spelling rules


b Words that sound alike


c Commonly misspelled words


44 The hyphen


a Compound words


b Hyphenated adjectives


c Fractions and compound numbers


d With certain prefixes and suffixes


e To avoid ambiguity or to separate awkward double or triple letters


f Word division


45 Capitalization


a Proper vs. common nouns


b Titles with proper names


c Titles and subtitles of works


d First word of a sentence


e First word of a quoted sentence


f First word after a colon


Grammar Basics


46 Parts of speech


a Nouns


b Pronouns


c Verbs


d Adjectives


e Adverbs


f Prepositions


g Conjunctions


h Interjections


47 Sentence patterns


a Subjects


b Verbs, objects, and complements


48 Subordinate word groups


a Prepositional phrases


b Verbal phrases


c Appositive phrases


d Absolute phrases


e Subordinate clauses


49 Sentence types


a Sentence structures


b Sentence purposes



Research


50 Thinking like a researcher; gathering sources


a Manage the project.


b Pose questions worth exploring.


*How to enter a research conversation


c Map out a search strategy.


d Search efficiently; master a few shortcuts to finding good sources.


*How to go beyond a Google search


e Conduct field research, if appropriate.


f Write a research proposal.


51 Managing information; taking notes responsibly


a Maintain a working bibliography.


b Keep track of source materials.


c Take notes carefully to avoid unintentional plagiarism.


*How to take notes responsibly


*How to avoid plagiarizing from the web


52 Evaluating sources


a Think about how sources might contribute to your writing.


b Select sources worth your time and attention.


c Read with an open mind and a critical eye.


*How to detect fake news and misleading sources


d Construct an annotated bibliography.


Writing guide: Annotated bibliography


Writing Papers in MLA Style


53 Supporting a thesis


a Form a working thesis.


b Organize your ideas.


c Draft an introduction for your thesis.


d Use sources to inform and support your argument.


54 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism


a Understand how the MLA system works.


b Understand what plagiarism is.


c Use quotation marks around borrowed language.


d Put summaries and paraphrases in your own words.


*How to be a responsible research writer


55 Integrating sources


a Summarize and paraphrase effectively.


*How to paraphrase effectively


b Use quotations effectively.


*c Use signal phrases to integrate sources.


d Synthesize sources.


56 Documenting sources in MLA style


*a MLA in-text citations


*b MLA list of works cited


c MLA information notes


57 MLA manuscript format; sample research paper


a MLA manuscript format


b Sample MLA research paper


Writing Papers in APA Style


58 Supporting a thesis


a Form a working thesis.


b Organize your ideas.


c Use sources to inform and support your argument.


59 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism


a Understand how the APA system works.


b Understand what plagiarism is.


c Use quotation marks around borrowed language.


d Put summaries and paraphrases in your own words.


60 Integrating sources


a Summarize and paraphrase effectively.


b Use quotations effectively.


c Use signal phrases to integrate sources.


d Synthesize sources.


61 Documenting sources in APA style


*a APA in-text citations


*b APA list of works cited


62 APA manuscript format; sample paper


a APA manuscript format


b Sample APA research paper


Appendixes


*Models of professional writing


Glossary of usage


Answers to exercises


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