Science K-8 An Integrated Approach

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  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-07-10
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Packed with the science content future teachers must know, and based on the premise that integrated learning by inquiry is the cornerstone of effective science teaching, the eleventh edition of this classic again focuses on the four developmental components of both teaching and learning-thewhy, what, how,andhow wellof teaching. Unique to this text are complete content outlines covering the big ideas of life, earth, and phyisical science. Teachers can use these outlines and sequence concepts to build science units with an assurance they will be complete. Content correlates with NSES standards, while being ideally balanced between the attention span of kindergartners and the genuine interest of eighth graders, addressing the full range of learners in between. Includes thorough coverage of the relationship among curriculum standards, assessment, and high-stakes achievement testing. Thorough, current science content fills in any gaps in students fundamental science knowledge and readies them for current science curriculum standards. Includes up-to-date lists of science-oriented websites.For future elementary and/or middle school teachers.

Table of Contents

Teaching Science K-8p. 1
Teaching Science in Grades K-8: Then and Nowp. 2
Reasons for Science in the K-8 Curriculump. 4
In the Beginningp. 4
Pestalozzi and Object Teachingp. 4
The Nature Study Movementp. 4
Landmarks in the Development of the K-8 Science Curriculump. 4
John Deweyp. 5
School Restructuringp. 5
Gerald S. Craigp. 5
Yearbooks of the National Society for the Study of Educationp. 5
The National Curriculum Development Projects of the 1960sp. 6
Back to the Basicsp. 7
Decade of the Reportsp. 7
The Final Decade of the 20th Centuryp. 8
Key Trends and Practices Todayp. 8
Focus on Science and Technology Literacyp. 8
Focus on Curriculum Standardsp. 9
Preparing Students for High-Stakes Testing: When All Students Are Expected to Do Well on a Mandated Assessment, Then All Should Be Given Equal Opportunity to Prepare for Itp. 10
Problems and Issues That affect the School Science Programp. 11
The Integrated Approachp. 12
Curriculum Integrationp. 13
Curriculum Integrationp. 13
Curriculum Integrationp. 14
Curriculum Integrationp. 14
Curriculum Integrationp. 14
Integrated Curriculum in a Standards-Based Environmentp. 14
Key Reasons for Science in Grades K-8p. 14
Building Positive Attitudes Is Importantp. 14
Building Foundations for Understandingsp. 15
Summaryp. 16
Questions for Class Discussionp. 16
Goals and Objectives for K-8 Sciencep. 17
Goals for K-8 Sciencep. 18
To Become Scientifically Literatep. 19
Terms That Are Basic to Understanding Science and Attaining the Goal of Scientific Literacyp. 19
To Solve Problems by Thinking Critically and Creativelyp. 20
To Understand Our Environment and the Problems of Preserving It and Making It Betterp. 20
To Understand How Science, Technology, and Society Are Inextricably Interconnectedp. 21
To Live Successfully and Productively in a Constantly Changing Worldp. 21
To Grow Intellectually, Emotionally, and Socially According to Individual Abilities, Interests, and Needsp. 22
Objectives for K-8 Sciencep. 22
Aims, Goals, and Objectives and their Roles in Planning for Science Instructionp. 22
Learning Targets and Goal Indicatorsp. 23
Overt and Covert Performance Outcomesp. 23
Balance of Behaviorism and Constructivismp. 23
Teaching Toward Multiple Objectives, Understandings, and Appreciationsp. 23
Preparing Instructional Objectivesp. 24
Components: The ABCDs of Writing Objectivesp. 24
Classification of Learning Objectivesp. 24
The Domains of Learning and the Developmental Needs of Childrenp. 25
Using the Taxonomiesp. 28
Learning That Is Not Immediately Observablep. 29
Summaryp. 29
Questions for Class Discussionp. 30
Understanding the Nature of Science and Sciencingp. 31
Understanding the Nature of Sciencep. 33
Understanding Children and How They Learnp. 34
Styles of Learning and Implications for Science Teachingp. 34
Understanding Sciencingp. 37
Understanding That the Process of Sciencing Is Cyclicp. 37
Pedagogy for Sciencing: The Learning Cyclep. 39
Understanding the Sciencing Cycle Processesp. 39
Sciencing Cycle and the Learning Cyclep. 39
The Processes: Thinking Skillsp. 40
Teaching Thinking for Intelligent Behavior: Developing a Sense of "I Can" and the Feeling of "I Enjoy"p. 41
Characteristics of Intelligent Behaviorp. 41
Understanding the Origin and Nature of Misconceptionsp. 43
Summaryp. 44
Questions for Class Discussionp. 44
Questioning and Other Behaviors That Provide the Foundation for Active Science Learningp. 45
Teacher Behaviors That Facilitate Student Learningp. 47
Facilitating Behaviors and Instructional Strategies: A Clarificationp. 47
Structuring the Learning Environmentp. 47
Accepting and Sharing Instructional Accountabilityp. 48
Demonstrating Withitness and Overlappingp. 49
Providing a Variety of Motivating and Challenging Activitiesp. 50
Modeling Appropriate Behaviorsp. 50
Facilitating Student Acquisition of Datap. 50
Creating a Psychologically Safe Environmentp. 50
Clarifying Whenever Necessaryp. 52
Using Periods of Silencep. 52
Questioning Thoughtfullyp. 53
Questioning: The Foundation for Sciencingp. 54
Purposes for Using Questionsp. 54
Questions to Avoid Askingp. 55
Types of Cognitive Questionsp. 55
Levels of Cognitive Questions and the Relationship to Student Thinkingp. 56
Guidelines for Using Questioningp. 58
Preparing Questionsp. 58
Implementing Questioningp. 58
Questions from Students: The Question-Driven Science Classroomp. 60
Summaryp. 61
Questions for Class Discussionp. 61
Strategies for Helping Children Learn Sciencep. 62
Modes of Instructionp. 63
Multilevel Teaching: A Blend of Modesp. 64
Inquiry Teaching and Discovery Learningp. 64
Problem Solvingp. 64
Inquiry versus Discoveryp. 65
Problem Solving and Decision Making in the Real World Is an Integrated and Interdisciplinary Inquiry Activityp. 68
The Critical Thinking Skills (Processes) of Discovery and Inquiryp. 68
General Rule in Selecting Learning Activitiesp. 69
The Classroom as a Learning Laboratoryp. 70
Guidelines for Doing Exploratory Investigationsp. 70
Teacher Talk: Formal and Informalp. 73
Teacher Talk: Cautions and General Guidelinesp. 74
Teacher Talk: Specific Guidelinesp. 75
Grouping Children for Instructionp. 77
Mastery Learning and Personalized Instructionp. 77
Today's Emphasis: Quality Learning for Each Childp. 77
Learning Alonep. 78
Learning in Pairsp. 78
The Learning Centerp. 79
Learning in Small Groupsp. 80
Cooperative Learningp. 80
The Cooperative Learning Groupp. 80
Whole-Class Discussionp. 83
Equality in the Classroom: Ensuring Equityp. 84
Demonstrationsp. 84
Guidelines for Using a Demonstrationp. 84
Learning from Assignments and Homeworkp. 85
Purposes for Assignmentsp. 85
Guidelines for Using Assignmentsp. 86
Opportunities for Recoveryp. 87
Project-Centered Learningp. 88
Guiding Students in Project-Centered Learningp. 88
Student Journalsp. 90
Integrating Strategies for Integrated Learningp. 90
Summaryp. 92
Questions for Class Discussionp. 92
Selecting and Using Media and Other Instructional Aids and Resourcesp. 94
Printed Materials, the Internet, and Visual Displaysp. 95
Student Textbooksp. 95
The Internetp. 98
Professional Journals and Periodicalsp. 99
The ERIC Information Networkp. 99
Copying Printed Materialsp. 99
The Classroom Writing Boardp. 100
The Classroom Bulletin Boardp. 101
The Community as a Resourcep. 101
Home and School Connectionsp. 101
Service Learningp. 102
Professional Resources Filep. 102
Telecommunications Networksp. 102
Guest Speakersp. 103
Field Tripsp. 104
Media Toolsp. 105
When Equipment Malfunctionsp. 105
The Overhead Projectorp. 106
Multimedia Programp. 108
Computers and Computer-Based Instructional Toolsp. 108
The Placement and Use of Computersp. 109
Using Copyrighted Video, Computer, and Multimedia Programsp. 110
Summaryp. 111
Questions for Class Discussionp. 111
Planning the Instructionp. 113
Unit Planningp. 114
Steps for Planning and Developing a Unit of Instructionp. 115
Unit Format, Inclusive Elements, and Durationp. 117
Developing the Learning Activities: The Heart and Spirit of Any Unit Planp. 117
Lesson Planningp. 118
Assumptions about Lesson Planningp. 118
A Continual Processp. 119
Well Planned but Subject to Changep. 119
The Problem of Timep. 119
Format, Components, and Samplesp. 120
Personalizing the Unit and Lessons: Celebrating, Planning for, and Teaching with Student Diversityp. 130
Developmentally Appropriate Practicep. 131
The Challengep. 131
Instructional Practices That Provide for Student Differences: General Guidelinesp. 132
Recognizing and Working with Students with Special Needsp. 132
Recognizing and Working with Students of Diversity and Differencesp. 134
Recognizing and Working with Students Who Are Giftedp. 136
Meaningful Curriculum Options: Multiple Pathways to Successp. 137
Summaryp. 138
Questions for Class Discussionp. 138
Assessing and Reporting Student Achievementp. 140
Purposes and Principles That Guide the Assessment Programp. 143
Terms Used in Assessment: A Clarificationp. 144
Assessment and Evaluationp. 144
Measurement and Assessmentp. 144
Validity and Reliabilityp. 144
Authentic Assessmentp. 144
Diagnostic, Formative, and Summative Assessmentp. 145
Assessing Student Learning: Three Avenuesp. 145
Assessing What a Student Says and Doesp. 145
Assessing What a Student Writesp. 147
Assessment for Affective and Psychomotor Domain Learningp. 148
Student Participation in Assessmentp. 149
Using Student Portfoliosp. 149
Portfolio Assessment: Knowing and Dealing with Its Limitationsp. 149
Using Checklistsp. 149
Guidelines for Using Portfolios for Assessmentp. 149
Maintaining Records of Student Achievementp. 152
Teacher's Log with a Caution about Anecdotal Commentsp. 152
Grading and Marking Student Achievementp. 152
Criterion-Referenced versus Norm-Referenced Gradingp. 153
Determining Gradesp. 153
About Makeup Workp. 154
Testing for Achievementp. 155
Standardized and Nonstandardized Testsp. 155
Purposes for Testingp. 155
Frequency for Testingp. 155
Test Constructionp. 156
Administering Testsp. 156
Controlling Cheatingp. 157
Determining the Time Needed to Take a Testp. 157
Preparing Assessment Itemsp. 157
Classification of Assessment Itemsp. 158
General Guidelines for Preparing for Assessment of Student Learningp. 159
Attaining Content Validityp. 159
Types of Assessment Items: Descriptions, Examples, and Guidelines for Preparing and Usingp. 160
Arrangementp. 160
Completion Drawingp. 161
Completion Statementp. 161
Correctionp. 161
Essayp. 161
Guidelines for Using Essay Itemsp. 162
Groupingp. 162
Identificationp. 162
Matchingp. 163
Multiple Choicep. 164
Guidelines for Using Multiple-Choice Itemsp. 164
Performancep. 165
Short-Explanationp. 165
True-Falsep. 166
Guidelines for Using True-False Itemsp. 169
Reporting Student Achievementp. 169
The Grade Reportp. 169
Teacher Parental/Guardian Connectionsp. 169
Summaryp. 171
Questions for Class Discussionp. 171
Basic Science Information, Learning Activities, and Other Resources: An Introduction to Inquiry
The Universe and Earthp. 173
The Universep. 174
The Sunp. 175
The Solar Systemp. 178
The Effects of the Sun on the Earthp. 186
Earth's Moonp. 189
Beyond the Solar Systemp. 195
Space Exploration Programsp. 199
Student Books and Other Resources for "The Universe"p. 203
The Earthp. 205
The Composition of the Earthp. 206
Airp. 212
Forces that Shape and Change the Earth's Surfacep. 220
Soilp. 228
Geologic History of the Earthp. 231
Water, Weather, and Climatep. 241
Waterp. 242
The Earth's Seap. 250
Windsp. 256
Water in the Airp. 259
Weatherp. 265
Meteorology and Climatologyp. 270
Living Thingsp. 289
Plantsp. 290
Classification and Composition of Living Thingsp. 291
The Plant Kingdomp. 296
The Bryophytesp. 296
The Tracheophytesp. 298
Ferns, Horsetails, and Club Mossesp. 299
Rootsp. 300
Stemsp. 302
Leavesp. 305
Flowersp. 309
Fruits and Seedsp. 311
Caring for Earth's Plantsp. 314
Neither Plant nor Animalp. 319
Classification of Organisms That Are Neither Plant nor Animalp. 320
Virusesp. 320
Bacteriap. 323
Fungip. 328
Slime Moldsp. 330
Lichensp. 330
Algaep. 331
Protozoansp. 334
Animalsp. 339
Classification of Animalsp. 340
Sponges and Coelenteratesp. 340
Wormsp. 343
Echinoderms and Mollusksp. 348
Arthropodsp. 351
Vertebratesp. 361
Fishp. 361
Amphibiansp. 365
Reptilesp. 368
Birdsp. 372
Mammalsp. 375
The Human Bodyp. 384
Makeup of the Human Bodyp. 385
Integumentary Systemp. 385
Skeletal Systemp. 388
Muscular Systemp. 389
Nutrientsp. 391
Digestive Systemp. 394
Cardiovascular Systemp. 396
Lymphatic Systemp. 400
Respiratory Systemp. 400
Urinary Systemp. 403
Nervous Systemp. 404
Reproductive Systemp. 410
Endocrine Systemp. 412
Matter, Energy, and Technologyp. 417
Changes in Matter and Energyp. 418
The Structure of Matterp. 419
Energyp. 429
Nuclear Energyp. 431
Friction and Machinesp. 438
Frictionp. 439
Machinesp. 440
Heat, Fire, and Fuelsp. 456
The Nature of Heatp. 457
Temperaturep. 460
Methods of Heat Travel and Their Effectsp. 462
Firep. 466
Fuelsp. 471
Soundp. 476
Producing and Transmitting Soundp. 477
Musical Instrumentsp. 480
Lightp. 486
The Nature of Lightp. 487
Visible Lightp. 488
The Reflection of Lightp. 490
The Refraction of Lightp. 492
Colorp. 494
Magnetism and Electricityp. 499
Magnetismp. 500
Static Electricityp. 503
Current Electricityp. 508
Electronics and Integrated Circuitsp. 515
Bibliographyp. 525
Indexp. 541
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