9789004114173

And Scripture Cannot Be Broken

by
  • ISBN13:

    9789004114173

  • ISBN10:

    9004114173

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-06-01
  • Publisher: Brill Academic Pub
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Summary

This work argues that many early Christian quotations of the Old Testament derive not from scriptural manuscripts, but rather from authoritative written testimonia collections developed to support basic Christian beliefs. Combining recent patristic studies (notably on Justin and Barnabas) and evidence from Qumran with detailed examination of quotations in the New Testament, the book builds a fresh case for a neglected scholarly hypothesis.After reviewing the scholarly literature and analogous Jewish and Greco-Roman literary collections, the book presents a comprehensive overview of extant testimonia traditions from the second to the fourth century C.E. The final chapters argue for the use of written testimonia collections in the New Testament. This study offers solid evidence for a remarkably unified early Christian scriptural tradition that extended throughout the Mediterranean world.

Author Biography

Martin C. Albl, Ph.D. is Professor of Religious Studies and English at Presentation College in Aberdeen, South Dakota.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction 1(6)
Review of the Scholarly Literature on the Testimonia Hypothesis
7(63)
Overview of the Chapter
7(1)
Modern Scholarly Investigations of Scriptural Quotations in the New Testament
8(1)
Nineteenth Century German Roots of Testimonia Hypotheses
9(1)
Edwin Hatch's ``Excerpta Collections'' and German Reaction
10(3)
An Alternative to Written Collections: ``Traditional'' Scriptural Proof-Texts
13(3)
British Support for Hatch's Proposal
16(2)
Papias's λoγια and the Testimonia Hypothesis
18(1)
J. Rendel Harris and Testimonies
19(4)
Reactions to Harris
23(2)
Testimonia and Early Anti-Jewish Literature
25(1)
Testimonia and Messianic Debates
26(1)
C.H. Dodd: Recovering the ``Sub-structure'' of the Kerygma
27(5)
Barnabas Lindars: The Apologetic Life-Setting of the Testimonia
32(5)
Testimonia Collections and Other Intermediate Sources of Quotations
37(1)
Philip Carrington and E.G. Selwyn: Catechetical Patterns in the New Testament
37(1)
Testimonia and Jewish Exegetical Techniques
38(8)
Testimonia and Midrash
38(4)
Testimonia and Jewish Homiletical Forms
42(1)
Testimonia and the Dead Sea Scrolls
43(3)
Patristic Studies: Barnabas, Justin, and Testimonia Collections
46(8)
Pierre Prigent and Barnabas
46(4)
Jean Danielou's Testimonia Studies
50(2)
Oskar Skarsaune: Justin's Use of Testimonia Collections
52(2)
Robert Hodgson and the Testimonia Hypothesis
54(2)
Testimonia and Recent Discussion on the Nature of Christian-Jewish Relations and Messianic Debates
56(6)
Jewish-Christian Conflict: Reality or Literary Fiction?
56(1)
Testimonia and Messianic Debates Revisited
57(2)
Donald Juel and Messianic Exegesis
59(3)
Transmission of Tradition in Early Christianity
62(3)
Sayings Traditions
62(1)
Miracle Traditions
63(1)
Passion Traditions
64(1)
Conclusions: Central Issues Raised by the Testimonia Hypothesis
65(5)
The Literary Background to Christian Testimonia Collections: Ancient Greco-Roman and Jewish Extract Collections and Their Functions
70(27)
Overview of the Chapter
70(1)
Functions of Extracts within Classical Rhetorical Categories
70(3)
Extract Collections in Ancient Greco-Roman Literature
73(8)
The Didactic Anthology
73(2)
Other Didactic Collections
75(1)
The Epitome
75(1)
The Philosophical Handbook
75(1)
The Doxography
76(1)
Rhetorical Source Books and Handbooks
76(1)
Greek Sayings Collections (Gnomologia)
77(1)
Oracle Collections
78(1)
Admonitions on Proper Conduct: Ps.-Isocrates To Demonicus
78(1)
Multi-author Thematic Collections
78(1)
Chreiai Collections
78(1)
The Cento: Composition from Extracts
79(1)
Private Excerpt Collections (Notebooks)
79(1)
Greek Examples
80(1)
Latin Examples
80(1)
Function of Extracts within Jewish Literary Categories
81(1)
The Compositional Use of Scripture
82(2)
``Re-written Bible''
82(1)
Use of Scriptural Allusions, Implicit Quotations, and Models
83(1)
Scriptural Excerpt Collections in Second Temple Jewish Literature
84(2)
Hebrew and Near Eastern Instruction, Proverb, and Sentence Collections
84(1)
A Didactic Sayings Collection: Ps.-Phocylides
84(1)
Scriptural Exempla Collections
85(1)
Scriptural Excerpt Collections at Qumran
86(6)
Selection of Passages: 1QIsaiaha Scroll
86(1)
Liturgical Collections: Phylacteries; 4QDeuteronomyn
86(2)
A Harmonizing Collections: 4QOrdinancesa and 11QTemple Scroll
88(1)
Halakhic Collections: 4QOrdinancesa and 11QTemple Scroll
88(1)
Thematic Collection on the Eschatological Struggle: 4QTestimonia
89(1)
Thematic Collection on ``Consolation'': 4QTanhumim
90(1)
Prophetic Testimonia on the Future Struggle and the Commuity's Past History
90(1)
Midrash on Eschatological Scriptures: 4QEschatological Midrash (= 4QFlorilegium and 4QCatenaa)
90(1)
Thematic Collection on the Eschatological Jubilee Year and Melchizedek: 11QMelchizedek
91(1)
Proof-texts on the Community's History: Damascus Document 6--7
92(1)
Private Collections (Notebooks)
92(1)
Christian Use of Non-biblical Excerpt Collections: Poetic Anthologies and Secondary Philosophical Sources
93(2)
Conclusions
95(2)
Christian Testimonia Collections in the Patristic Era
97(62)
Overview of the Chapter
97(1)
Early Christian Use of Scriptural Extract Collections: Practical Considerations
98(2)
Excursus on the LXX-deviant Criterion
100(1)
Early Greek Testimonia Collections (Second Century)
101(24)
Justin First Apology and Dialogue with Trypho
101(5)
Epistle of Barnabas: Anti-Jewish School Testimonia
106(3)
Dialogue of Jason and Papiscus: A Testimonia Source for Justin, Irenaeus, and the Latin Testimonia Tradition?
109(1)
Melito of Sardis Paschal Homily and Selections: Passion Testimonia and the First Explicit Reference to a Testimonia Collection
110(2)
Irenaeus Against Heresies
112(2)
Irenaeus Proof of the Apostolic Preaching
114(5)
Clement of Alexandria Stromateis, Hypotyposeis, Prophetic Selections
119(1)
Preaching of Peter
120(1)
Acts of Peter 24
121(1)
Dialogue of Timothy and Aquila
122(1)
Dialogue of Athanasius and Zacchaeus
123(1)
Apocryphon of Ezekiel
124(1)
The Latin Testimonia Tradition
125(14)
Early Latin Scriptural Translations
125(1)
5 Ezra
125(1)
Ps.-Cyprian Against the Jews
126(1)
Tertullian Against the Jews, Against Marcion, Against Praxeas
126(5)
Dream of Nero
131(1)
Cyprian to Quirinus
132(1)
Lactantius Divine Institutes 4
133(3)
Commodian Apologetical Song
136(1)
Novatian On the Trinity
137(1)
Testimonia Traditions in Latin Dialogues
138(1)
Later Greek Tradition (200--400)
139(5)
Papyrus Rylands Greek 460
139(1)
Ps.-Epiphanius Testimonies
140(1)
Eusebius Prophetic Selections and Proof of the Gospel
141(1)
Athanasius On the Incarnation
142(1)
Ps.-Gregory of Nyssa Selected Testimonies from the Old Testament against the Jews
142(2)
A ``Gnostic'' Testimonia Collection: The Exegesis on the Soul
144(2)
Syriac Writers: Aphrahat and Bar Salibi
146(2)
Case Study: An Anti-Cultic Testimonia Collection
148(7)
Evidence of a Written TC
148(6)
Original Form and Life-Setting of the Testimonia Source
154(1)
Excursus: Wood/Tree/Cross Collections in Patristic Literature
155(2)
Conclusions
157(2)
Testimonia in the New Testament: Paul's Writings; Matthew's Formula Citations; Speeches in Acts; and Hebrews 1--2
159(49)
Overview of the Chapter
159(1)
Paul and Testimonia
159(20)
Evidence for Paul's Use of Testimonia Collections and Traditions
159(1)
D.A. Koch and Christopher Stanley: Paul's Personal Anthology
159(1)
1 Cor 15:3--4: The Meaning of κατα ταζ γραϕαζ
160(5)
Traditional Scriptural Formulas in Romans (Rom 1:3--4; 3:24--26; 4:25; 11:25--27; 15:12)
165(3)
Parenetic Use of Scripture (Rom 12:19; 13:9; 2 Cor 13:1)
168(3)
Paul's Use of a Jewish Psalms Collection (Rom 3:10--18)
171(6)
A Temple Testimonia Collection in 2 Cor 6:16--7:1
177(1)
Paul and Other NT Testimonia
178(1)
Conclusions
178(1)
The Formula Citations in Matthew
179(11)
Overview of the Formula Citations in Matthew
180(2)
Evidence for a Testimonia Collection Behind Matthew's Formula Citations
182(1)
Matt 2:6 (Mic 5:1/2 Sam 5:2)
182(2)
Matt 2:23 (Unknown Quotation)
184(1)
Matt 12:18--21 (Isa 42:1--4)
185(5)
Conclusions
190(1)
Testimonia in the Speeches in Acts
190(11)
Traugott Holtz: Luke's Limited Knowledge of the LXX and Use of Testimonia
190(1)
Evidence for Luke's Use of Testimonia Collections in the Speeches of Acts
191(1)
Acts 3:22--25: A Testimonia Collection on the Day of Atonement
191(4)
Acts 13:16b--41: A Review of Scriptural History
195(4)
Common Early Christian Testimonia in Acts
199(1)
Rhetorical Functions of Luke's Testimonia
200(1)
Conclusions
201(1)
Christ's Superiority to the Angels: A Testimonia Collection in Heb 1:5--2:8
201(7)
Overview of the Catena in Heb 1:5--2:8
201(2)
Evidence for Hebrews's Use of a Previous Testimonia Collection: Parallel with 1 Clem 36:2--6
203(1)
Original Form and Function of the Testimonia Collection in Heb 1:5--2:8
204(3)
Conclusions
207(1)
Five Testimonia Traditions in the New Testament
208(78)
Overview of the Chapter
208(1)
New Testament Use of Jewish Messianic Testimonia
208(8)
Second Temple Interpretations of Gen 49:10; Num 24:17; and Isa 11:1, 10
208(3)
New Testament Interpretation of Gen 49:10--11; Num 24:17; and Isa 11:1, 10
211(3)
Patristic Interpretation of Gen 49:10--11; Num 24:17; and Isa 11:1, 10
214(1)
Conclusions on the Messianic Testimonia
215(1)
Psalm 110:1 as an Early Christian Testimonium
216(21)
Overview of Early Christian Use of Ps 110:1
217(4)
Second Temple Jewish Use of Ps 110:1
221(1)
Christian Interpretation of Ps 110:1 with Ps 8:6
222(1)
Paul's Use of Ps 110:1; 1 Cor 15:25--27 and Rom 8:34
222(3)
Polycarp Phil. 2.lb
225(1)
1 Pet 3:22
226(1)
Heb 1:13--2:8
226(1)
Eph 1:20--23
226(1)
Mark 12:36 (par. Matt 22:44)
227(1)
Christian Interpretation of Ps 110:1 with Dan 7:13
228(3)
Psalm 110:1 and the High Priest Typology
231(1)
Psalm 110:1 and ``Two Powers'' Testimonia
232(1)
Psalm 110:1 and the Two Advents Pattern
233(1)
Psalm 110:1 and the Substructure of New Testament Theology
234(2)
Conclusions on Ps 110:1 as a Testimonium
236(1)
Isaiah 6:9--10 and the Hardening Tradition
237(16)
Isaiah 6:9--10 in the MT, Qumran, and Greek Translations
237(4)
Hardening Traditions in the Hebrew Scriptures
241(1)
The Hardening Tradition in Paul
242(3)
The Hardening Tradition and the Gospel of John
245(2)
Carol Stockhausen: The ``Exegetical Substructure'' to Paul and John
247(1)
Later Pauline Traditions
248(1)
The Hardening Tradition in Mark
249(2)
Patristic Use of the Hardening Tradition
251(1)
Conclusions on the Hardening Tradition: Form and Function
251(2)
Zechariah 12:10 and The Two Advents Testimonia
253(12)
MT Zechariah 12:10 and the Versions
253(1)
A Christian Adaptation of Zech 12:10 in Matt 24:30; Rev 1:7; and John 19:37
254(4)
Zechariah 12:10 in Didache and Justin
258(1)
Barnabas 7: Two Advents and Two Goats on the Day of Atonement
259(2)
The Two Goats/Two Advents Tradition in Justin and Tertullian
261(1)
Conclusions on Zech 12:10 and the Two Advents Tradition: Form and Function
262(2)
Excursus on Crossan's Interpretation of Barnabas 7
264(1)
Stone Testimonia in the New Testament
265(21)
Second Temple Jewish Background to the Stone Testimonia
266(3)
New Testament Uses of Stone Testimonia
269(1)
Jesus as the Rejected (but Ultimately Vindicated) Cornerstone
269(2)
The Stumbling Stone Set in Zion (Rom 9:33; 1 Pet 2:6--8)
271(4)
Stone Testimonia, the Community, and the Temple
275(1)
Jesus, the Temple, and Stone Testimonia
276(2)
Peter and the Stone Testimonia (Matt 16:18)
278(1)
The Patristic Stone Testimonia
279(4)
Conclusions on the Stone Testimonia: Form and Function
283(3)
Conclusions 286(5)
Bibliography 291(20)
Indices 311

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