Securing the Virtual Environment, Included DVD How to Defend the Enterprise Against Attack

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-05-08
  • Publisher: Wiley
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A step-by-step guide to identifying and defending against attacks on the virtual environment As more and more data is moved into virtual environments the need to secure them becomes increasingly important. This volume, with a foreword by famed security expert Bruce Schneier, provides recipes for detecting and defending against a variety of attacks. Useful for service providers as well as enterprise and small business IT professionals the book offers a broad look across virtualization used in various industries as well as a narrow view of vulnerabilities unique to virtual environments. A companion CD is included with recipes and testing scripts. Examines the difference in a virtual model versus traditional computing models and the appropriate technology and procedures to defend it from attack Dissects and exposes attacks targeted at the virtual environment and the steps necessary for defense Covers information security in virtual environments: building a virtual attack lab, finding leaks, getting a side-channel, denying or compromising services, abusing the hypervisor, forcing an interception, and spreading infestations Accompanying CD includes all the recipes plus valuable tools for penetration testing This how-to guide arms IT managers, vendors, and architects of virtual environments with the tools they need to protect against common threats.

Author Biography

Davi Ottenheimer is president of flyingpenguin and a security/compliance consultant to VMware. He was previously responsible for security at Barclays Global investors and at Yahoo! He also has helped secure Cisco, U S DoD, BM, Intel, State, Farm, and the University of California. Matthew Wallace is a solutions architect at VMware and was the founding engineer of Exodus Communications Managed Security Services.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. xxi
Virtualized Environment Attacksp. 1
A Brief Introduction to the Cloudp. 1
Flavors of "Cloud"p. 3
Powering the Cloudp. 3
Why the Cloud Is Here to Stayp. 4
Managing Cloud Securityp. 5
Principles of Information Securityp. 6
Information Assetsp. 7
Potential Threatsp. 8
Potential Vulnerabilitiesp. 8
Potential Consequencesp. 8
Incremental Risk Mitigationp. 9
Deny by Defaultp. 9
Never Trust Input; Assume the Worstp. 11
Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availabilityp. 12
The Human Factorp. 13
Managing Cloud Risksp. 14
Asset Managementp. 20
Vulnerability Assessmentp. 22
Communicationp. 22
Authentication and Authorizationp. 23
Softwarep. 25
Managing Cloud Compliancep. 31
Defining Compliance and Securityp. 33
Making Use of Warningsp. 34
Cloud and the PKIp. 35
Summaryp. 36
Attacking from the Outsidep. 41
Who Is an Outsider?p. 41
HR Policies and Proceduresp. 42
Contracting and Outsourcing Talentp. 44
Friends and Family Discountp. 45
Configuring Cloud Audit Logsp. 46
Keeping Tabs on Accountsp. 50
Extending and Trusting Communicationp. 50
Delegating and Spreading Roles in Order to Scalep. 62
Novice Users Empowered by Cloud Environmentsp. 62
Outsourced and Offshored Resourcesp. 62
SaaS Software Development at "Cloud Speed"p. 63
The Needs of Bespoke Solutionsp. 63
Ensuring Continuityp. 64
Underspecializationp. 65
How to Piggyback on Fixesp. 66
Sudo and Shell Loggingp. 70
Spoofing a Certificatep. 73
Summaryp. 74
Making the Complex Simplep. 77
Looking Around Without Getting Caughtp. 78
Checking to See If Anyone Is Watchingp. 78
Checking for Gaps in Awarenessp. 79
Checking for Responsivenessp. 80
Complexity and the Cloudp. 81
Choosing a Spot with a Viewp. 83
The Hypervisorp. 83
The Director/Orchestrator/Managerp. 88
Assessing the Risk from Assessorsp. 93
Slicing and Dicing Datap. 94
Detecting Layers of Virtualization Technologyp. 94
Identifying and Targeting Assetsp. 96
Versionsp. 102
Supporting Infrastructurep. 103
Mail Serversp. 103
Web Serversp. 103
Domain Name Servicep. 104
Databases and Directory Servicesp. 104
Timing an Attackp. 104
Long-versus Short-Term Objectivesp. 104
How Long before You Are Ready to Attack?p. 104
How Long before You Can Attack Again?p. 105
Summaryp. 106
Denial of Servicep. 109
Finding Signal in Noisep. 109
Improving Denialp. 111
Distributing Denialp. 112
Defining Successp. 113
Finding Service Vulnerabilitiesp. 115
Scanning and Validating Service Levelsp. 115
Abstracting and Overcommittingp. 115
Validating Complexityp. 118
Limits of Penetration Testingp. 120
Denial of Testingp. 120
Speed Attacksp. 125
Abusing Proximity of Services: Step Attacks and Speed Attacksp. 125
Exploiting Service Vulnerabilitiesp. 127
Breaking Connections Between Servicesp. 127
Exhausting Resourcesp. 130
CPUp. 130
Memoryp. 131
Disk Space and IOPSp. 132
The Dangers of Overcommitmentp. 131
Locking Out Othersp. 132
Summaryp. 137
Abusing the Hypervisorp. 141
Replacing Hardware Layers with Softwarep. 142
Relating Physical to Virtualp. 142
Displaysp. 144
Memoryp. 145
Diskp. 147
Networkp. 147
Compromising the Kernelp. 148
Low-Level Interceptionp. 148
Real-World Example: Duqup. 150
Classification and Defensep. 151
Breaking Out of KVMp. 161
Attacking Virtual CPU and Memoryp. 162
The Cup Is Half Securep. 162
Taking Plato's Shadow Pillp. 162
Demonstrating the Risksp. 163
Qualifying Fear and Uncertaintyp. 164
Measuring Failure Ratesp. 165
Focusing on the Shortcomings of New technologyp. 166
Finding the Different Yet Old Attack Surfacesp. 167
Networkp. 168
Systemsp. 171
Databasesp. 172
Escaping Jails, Sandboxes, and Buffersp. 174
What Is the Purpose of Root, Anyway?p. 176
Breaking Away from Identifiersp. 177
Every Door Is the Front Doorp. 178
Summaryp. 180
Finding Leaks and Obtaining a Side Channelp. 185
Peeping Tomsp. 186
Working Around Layer 2 and Layer 3 Controlsp. 187
Becoming a Regular Man in the Middlep. 189
VMware vmKernel, vMotion, and Management Trafficp. 190
Xen and Live Migrationp. 190
Mayhem with Certificatesp. 191
Eliciting a Response by Manipulating Statep. 193
Noisy Neighborsp. 194
Working on Shared Pathsp. 195
Risk of Co-Tenancyp. 195
Detecting Co-Tenancyp. 197
IP-Based Detectionp. 197
Timestamp Fingerprintingp. 198
Latency Testingp. 198
Cache-Based Detectionp. 199
Conclusionp. 199
Forcing Co-Tenancyp. 199
Avoiding Co-Tenancyp. 200
Summaryp. 201
Logging and Orchestrationp. 205
Logging Eventsp. 205
Virtualization and Cloud Logsp. 208
Multitenancyp. 210
Collating, Archiving, and Protectingp. 216
What to Look for in a SIEM Solutionp. 217
Safety and Reliabilityp. 219
Sampling, or Getting Ready for the Auditorsp. 219
Testing Incident Responsivenessp. 220
Tampering with Infrastructurep. 220
Adding, Duplicating, Deleting, and Modifying VMsp. 226
Modifying Logs: Hiding from SIEMp. 234
Orchestration: Good and Evilp. 236
Solving Business Challengesp. 237
Why Orchestrate?p. 237
The Power of Elasticity and Agilityp. 238
Devops and the Cloudp. 238
Risks Resulting from Orchestrationp. 239
Outdated Images or Templatesp. 239
Archived Exploitsp. 241
Runaway Infrastructure Intelligencep. 242
Exploiting Orchestration Directlyp. 243
Tarnishing Gold Imagesp. 243
Exploiting Image Customization to Modify VMsp. 246
Attacks Against Backups and Snapshotsp. 248
P2Vp. 249
Summaryp. 249
Forcing an Interceptionp. 251
Mapping the Infrastructurep. 251
Finding and Exploiting the Middle Groundp. 258
Abuse of Management Interfacesp. 259
APIs and System Communicationp. 261
Getting around API Blockadesp. 264
Playing Games with Management Toolsp. 265
Elastic Nightmares: Moving Data in the Clearp. 265
Finding Secure Boundariesp. 266
Summaryp. 270
Abusing Software as a Servicep. 273
When All You Are Is a Nail, Everything Wants to Be a Hammerp. 274
Managing Identitiesp. 277
Centralizing and Federatingp. 278
Finding Integrity Bugsp. 279
Finding Confidentiality Bugsp. 282
Trusting Authoritiesp. 285
Secure Developmentp. 287
Data Entropyp. 290
The Ubiquity of the Browserp. 299
Average Users and the Pain of Software Evolutionp. 301
Stuck on JavaScriptp. 303
The Risks of SaaSp. 305
The Attackers Have Your Environmentp. 310
Homogeneity and the Rate of Infectionp. 312
Summaryp. 313
Building Compliance into Virtual and Cloud Environmentsp. 319
Compliance versus Securityp. 319
Virtualization Securityp. 322
Brokeringp. 326
Proxiesp. 327
Federationp. 329
Virtualization Compliancep. 330
Working with Auditors and Assessorsp. 335
Using Checklists and a Master Matrixp. 339
Should Do versus How Top. 341
ISO27001/SAS7D/and SOC2p. 341
Managing Expectationsp. 342
Service Organization Controlsp. 344
Automating Scope Assessmentsp. 347
Managing Changep. 348
HTPAAp. 351
FISMA, NET, and FedRAMPp. 353
Summaryp. 356
Building a Virtual Attack Test Labp. 361
Components of the Virtual Penetration Testing Labp. 362
Physical versus Virtualp. 362
Hungry for RAMp. 363
Installation Orderp. 363
Bill of Materialsp. 364
Building the Gatewayp. 364
Building the ESXi Hypervisor Systemp. 367
Configuring Shared Client Networkingp. 372
Adding a Secondary D? Address to Windows 7p. 372
Adding a Secondary D? Address to a Macp. 374
Adding a Secondary LP Address to a Linux Systemp. 375
Building Xenp. 376
Building KVMp. 383
Using Your Virtual Environments: Virtual Attacksp. 392
Adding Vulnerable Virtual Machinesp. 392
Setting Up Backtrackp. 396
Where to Go from Herep. 398
Build the Cloud Stackp. 398
Eucalyptusp. 399
VMware v Cloudp. 399
OpenStackp. 399
Amazon AWSp. 399
Start Building an Archivep. 400
About the Mediap. 401
Indexp. 403
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