Sedimentary Rocks in the Field

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-03-30
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Sediments and sedimentary rocks cover 70% of the Earth's surface, and make up a significant portion of the geological record. Understanding the processes (physical, chemical and biological) that lead to formation of sedimentary material is key in disciplines ranging from geology to environmental science to archaeology. But before interpretation must come observation and identification: Stow's Field Guide is a must-have for this distinctly visual process Professor Stow has culled his extensive research experience into a succinct guide designed for students and professionals in geophysics, geochemistry, paleontology, soil sciences, environmental sciences and more. Sections on field techniques and reader-friendly descriptions also make this guide accessible to amateur geologists. * More than 400 color photographs and diagrams * Extensive cross-referencing for ease of use in the field * Examples from more than 30 countries * Focus on economic applications

Table of Contents

Prefacep. 6
Acknowledgmentsp. 7
Overviewp. 8
About this bookp. 8
Classification of sedimentary rocksp. 9
Economic studiesp. 10
Field Techniquesp. 12
Safety in the fieldp. 12
Field equipmentp. 13
General approach and field notebookp. 14
Basic measurements and data recordsp. 14
Field sketches and logsp. 18
Paleocurrent and paleoslope analysisp. 23
Stratigraphic procedure and way-up criteriap. 25
Other techniquesp. 27
Principal Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocksp. 28
Introduction and facies conceptp. 28
Bedding and laminationp. 29
Field photographsp. 31
Erosional structuresp. 34
Field photographsp. 36
Depositional structuresp. 41
Field photographs: parallel lamination and stratificationp. 43
Field photographs: wavy and lenticular lamination, cross-lamination and stratificationp. 47
Field photographs: graded beds and structural sequencesp. 61
Post-depositional deformation and dewatering structuresp. 68
Field photographs: slides, slumps, and chaoticap. 70
Field photographs: deformed bedding and shale clastsp. 79
Field photographs: water escape and desiccation structuresp. 82
Biogenic sedimentary structuresp. 86
Field photographs: bioturbation and biogenic structuresp. 92
Chemogenic sedimentary structuresp. 100
Field photographsp. 104
Sediment texture and fabricp. 109
Sediment compositionp. 115
Hand-lens photographsp. 118
Fossilsp. 120
Sediment colourp. 121
Conglomeratesp. 126
Definition and range of typesp. 126
Principal sedimentary characteristicsp. 127
Classification of conglomeratesp. 130
Occurrencep. 130
Field photographsp. 130
Sandstonesp. 138
Definition and range of typesp. 138
Principal sedimentary characteristicsp. 139
Classification of sandstonesp. 141
Occurrencep. 142
Field photographsp. 143
Mudrocksp. 150
Definition and range of typesp. 150
Principal sedimentary characteristicsp. 151
Classification of mudrocksp. 153
Occurrencep. 155
Field photographsp. 155
Carbonate Rocksp. 164
Definition and range of typesp. 164
Principal sedimentary characteristicsp. 165
Classification of carbonate rocksp. 169
Principal characteristics of dolomitesp. 170
Occurrencep. 170
Field photographsp. 171
Cherts and Siliceous Sedimentsp. 184
Definition and range of typesp. 184
Principal sedimentary characteristicsp. 185
Occurrencep. 186
Field photographsp. 187
Phosphoritesp. 192
Definition and range of typesp. 192
Principal sedimentary characteristicsp. 193
Occurrencep. 194
Field photographsp. 194
Coal and Oilp. 198
Definition and range of typesp. 198
Principal sedimentary characteristicsp. 199
Occurrencep. 202
Field photographsp. 203
Evaporitesp. 208
Definition and range of typesp. 208
Principal sedimentary characteristicsp. 209
Occurrencep. 211
Field photographsp. 211
Ironstonesp. 218
Definition and range of typesp. 218
Principal sedimentary characteristicsp. 219
Occurrencep. 221
Field photographsp. 221
Soils, Paleosols, and Duricrustsp. 230
Definition and range of typesp. 230
Principal sedimentary characteristicsp. 231
Field photographsp. 233
Volcaniclastic Sedimentsp. 238
Definition and range of typesp. 238
Principal sedimentary characteristicsp. 239
Occurrencep. 242
Field photographsp. 243
Interpretations and Depositional Environmentsp. 254
Building blocksp. 254
Facies characteristics and modelsp. 255
Facies sequences and cyclesp. 257
Lateral trends and geometryp. 258
Architectural elements and facies associationsp. 259
Sequence stratigraphy and bounding surfacesp. 259
Field photographs: cycles, geometry, and unconformitiesp. 263
Sediment interpretation in coresp. 272
Core photographsp. 270
Controls, rates, and preservationp. 272
Depositional environmentsp. 273
Field photographs: alluvial-fluvial environmentsp. 274
Field photographs: desert-eolian environmentsp. 275
Field photographs: glacial environmentsp. 276
Field photographs: deltaic environmentsp. 277
Field photographs: volcaniclastic environmentsp. 279
Field photographs: shallow marine clastic environmentsp. 279
Field photographs: marine evaporites and carbonatesp. 281
Field photographs: deep marine environmentsp. 283
Tables: diagnostic featuresp. 287
References and Key Textsp. 298
Metric-Imperial Conversionsp. 300
Indexp. 301
Stratigraphic timescalep. 314
Mapping symbolsp. 317
Grain-size comparator chartp. 318
Sediment description checklistp. 318
Wulff stereonetp. 319
Lambert equal-area projectionp. 320
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