Since 1500, Chapters 15-30 Vol. 2 : The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History

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  • Edition: 3rd
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  • Copyright: 2006-01-01
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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The Earth and Its Peoples Brief Edition is a compact presentation of world history with a comparative approach and a global, balanced perspective. The themes of "Environment and Technology" and "Diversity and Dominance" unite the regions of the world. The Earth and Its Peoples Brief Edition offers a high level of scholarship with a supportive, student-friendly format.

Table of Contents

Mapsp. xiii
Environment and Technologyp. xiv
Diversity and Dominancep. xiv
Issues in World Historyp. xiv
Prefacep. xv
About the Authorsp. xxi
Note on Spelling and Usagep. xxiii
Introduction: The World Before 1500p. xxiv
The Maritime Revolution, to 1550p. 337
Global Maritime Expansion Before 1450p. 338
The Pacific Oceanp. 338
The Indian Oceanp. 340
The Atlantic Oceanp. 341
Iberian Expansion, 1400-1550p. 342
Background to Iberian Expansionp. 342
Portuguese Voyagesp. 343
Spanish Voyagesp. 345
Encounters with Europe, 1450-1550p. 348
Western Africap. 348
Eastern Africap. 352
Indian Ocean Statesp. 353
The Americasp. 354
Patterns of Dominancep. 356
Conclusionp. 357
Key Termsp. 357
Suggested Readingp. 357
Notesp. 358
Diversity and Dominance: Kongo's Christian Kingp. 350
Issues in World History: Climate and Population, to 1500p. 359
The Globe Encompassed, 1500-1800p. 361
Transformations in Europe, 1500-1750p. 364
Culture and Ideasp. 365
Religious Reformationp. 365
Traditional Thinking and Witch-Huntsp. 369
The Scientific Revolutionp. 370
The Early Enlightenmentp. 372
Social and Economic Lifep. 372
The Bourgeoisiep. 373
Peasants and Laborersp. 375
Women and the Familyp. 377
Political Innovationsp. 378
State Developmentp. 379
Religious Policiesp. 379
Monarchies in England and Francep. 380
Warfare and Diplomacyp. 382
Paying the Piperp. 383
Conclusionp. 385
Key Termsp. 385
Suggested Readingp. 386
Notesp. 386
Environment and Technology: Mapping the Worldp. 376
The Americas, The Atlantic, and Africa, 1530-1770p. 387
Spanish America and Brazilp. 388
State and Churchp. 388
Colonial Economiesp. 391
Society in Colonial Latin Americap. 392
English and French Colonies in North Americap. 396
The Southp. 396
New Englandp. 397
Middle Atlantic Regionp. 398
French Americap. 398
Plantations in the West Indiesp. 399
Sugar and Slavesp. 399
Technology and Environmentp. 401
Creating the Atlantic Economyp. 403
Capitalism and Mercantilismp. 403
The Great Circuit and the Middle Passagep. 404
Africa and the Atlanticp. 405
The Gold Coast and the Slave Coastp. 406
The Bight of Biafra and Angolap. 406
The Columbian Exchangep. 407
Transfers to the Americasp. 407
Transfers from the Americasp. 408
Conclusionp. 409
Key Termsp. 410
Suggested Readingp. 410
Notesp. 410
Diversity and Dominance: Race and Ethnicity in the Spanish Colonies: Negotiating Hierarchiesp. 394
Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean, 1500-1750p. 411
The Ottoman Empirep. 412
Expansion and Frontiersp. 412
Central Institutionsp. 415
Crisis of the Military State, 1585-1650p. 416
Economic Change and Growing Weaknessp. 417
The Safavid Empirep. 420
Safavid Society and Religionp. 421
Isfahan and Istanbulp. 421
Economic Crisis and Political Collapsep. 424
The Mughal Empirep. 424
Political Foundationsp. 425
Hindus and Muslimsp. 425
Central Decay and Regional Challengesp. 426
Trade Empires in the Indian Oceanp. 427
Muslims in the East Indiesp. 427
Muslims in East Africap. 429
The Coming of the Dutchp. 430
Conclusionp. 430
Key Termsp. 431
Suggested Readingp. 431
Notesp. 431
Diversity and Dominance: Islamic Law and Ottoman Rulep. 418
Northern Eurasia, 1500-1800p. 432
Japanese Reunificationp. 433
Civil War and the Invasion of Korea, 1500-1603p. 433
The Tokugawa Shogunate, to 1800p. 434
Japan and the Europeansp. 434
Elite Decline and Social Crisisp. 437
The Later Ming and Early Qing Empiresp. 438
The Ming Empire, 1500-1644p. 438
Ming Collapse and the Rise of the Qingp. 439
Trading Companies and Missionariesp. 440
Emperor Kangxip. 440
Chinese Influences on Europep. 443
Tea and Diplomacyp. 444
Population and Social Stressp. 445
The Russian Empirep. 445
The Drive Across Northern Asiap. 445
Russian Society and Politics to 1725p. 446
Peter the Greatp. 449
Consolidation of the Empirep. 450
Comparative Perspectivesp. 451
Political Comparisonsp. 451
Cultural, Social, and Economic Comparisonsp. 451
Conclusionp. 452
Key Termsp. 452
Suggested Readingp. 453
Notesp. 454
Environment and Technology: East Asian Porcelainp. 436
Issues in World History: The Little Ice Agep. 455
Revolutions Reshape the World, 1750-1870p. 457
Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750-1850p. 460
Prelude to Revolution: War and the Enlightenmentp. 461
The American Revolutionp. 462
Frontiers and Taxesp. 462
The Course of Revolutionp. 464
New Republican Institutionsp. 464
The French Revolutionp. 465
French Society and Fiscal Crisisp. 465
Protest Turns to Revolutionp. 466
Reaction and Dictatorshipp. 468
Retrenchment, Reform, and Revolutionp. 469
Revolution in Haiti and Latin Americap. 469
The Haitian Revolutionp. 469
Latin American Revolutionsp. 471
Mexicop. 473
Economic and Social Liberation Movementsp. 475
The Abolition of Slaveryp. 475
Equal Rights for Women and Blacksp. 477
Conclusionp. 478
Key Termsp. 478
Suggested Readingp. 478
Environment and Technology: Constructing the Port of Buenos Aires, Argentinap. 476
The Early Industrial Revolution, 1760-1851p. 480
Causes of the Industrial Revolutionp. 481
Preconditions for Industrializationp. 481
Britain's Advantagesp. 482
The Technological Revolutionp. 484
Mass Production and Mechanizationp. 484
The Iron Industryp. 486
The Steam Enginep. 487
Railroadsp. 488
Communication over Wiresp. 489
The Impact of the Industrial Revolutionp. 489
The New Industrial Citiesp. 490
Rural Environmentsp. 490
Working Conditionsp. 491
Changes in Societyp. 492
New Economic and Political Ideasp. 493
Laissez Fairep. 493
Positivism and Utopian Socialismp. 493
Protests and Reformsp. 494
Emigrationp. 494
Industrialization and the Nonindustrial Worldp. 495
Conclusionp. 496
Key Termsp. 497
Suggested Readingp. 497
Notesp. 497
Environment and Technology: The Origin of Graphsp. 484
Africa, India, and the New British Empire, 1750-1870p. 498
Changes and Exchanges in Africap. 499
New African Statesp. 499
Modernization in Egypt and Ethiopiap. 500
European Penetrationp. 500
Secondary Empires in Eastern Africap. 504
India Under British Rulep. 504
Company Menp. 504
Raj and Rebellion, 1818-1857p. 506
Political Reform and Industrial Impactp. 507
Rising Indian Nationalismp. 509
Britain's Eastern Empirep. 510
Colonies and Commercep. 510
Imperial Policies and Shippingp. 511
Colonization of Australia and New Zealandp. 512
New Labor Migrationsp. 513
Conclusionp. 516
Key Termsp. 517
Suggested Readingp. 517
Notesp. 517
Environment and Technology: Whalingp. 514
Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism, 1800-1870p. 518
The Ottoman Empirep. 519
Egypt and the Napoleonic Example, 1798-1840p. 519
Ottoman Reform and the European Model, 1807-1853p. 520
The Crimean War and Its Aftermath, 1853-1877p. 527
The Russian Empirep. 529
Russia and Europep. 529
Russia and Asiap. 531
Cultural Trendsp. 531
The Qing Empirep. 532
Economic and Social Disorder, 1800-1839p. 533
The Opium War and Its Aftermath, 1839-1850p. 533
The Taiping Rebellion, 1850-1864p. 536
Decentralization at the End of the Qing Empire, 1864-1875p. 539
Conclusionp. 540
Key Termsp. 541
Suggested Readingp. 541
Diversity and Dominance: The French Occupation of Egyptp. 522
Issues in World History: State Power, the Census, and the Question of Identityp. 542
Global Dominance and Diversity, 1850-1949p. 545
The New Power Balance, 1850-1900p. 548
New Technologies and the World Economyp. 549
The Steel and Chemical Industriesp. 549
Electricityp. 549
Shipping and Telegraph Cablesp. 550
Railroadsp. 550
World Trade and Financep. 550
Social Transformationsp. 550
Population and Migrationsp. 552
Urbanization and Social Structuresp. 552
Labor Movements and Socialist Politicsp. 552
Working-Class Women and Menp. 553
The Victorian Age and Women's "Separate Sphere"p. 553
Nationalism and the Unification of Germanyp. 557
National Identity Before 1871p. 557
The Unification of Germanyp. 558
Nationalism After 1871p. 558
The Great Powers of Europe, 1871-1900p. 560
Germany at the Center of Europep. 560
The Liberal Powers: France and Great Britainp. 560
The Conservative Powers: Russia and Austria-Hungaryp. 560
New Great Powers: The United States and Japanp. 562
The United States, 1865-1900p. 562
The Crisis of the Tokugawa Shogunatep. 563
The Meiji Restoration and the Modernization of Japan, 1868-1894p. 564
The Birth of Japanese Imperialism, 1894-1905p. 565
Conclusionp. 567
Key Termsp. 567
Suggested Readingp. 567
Diversity and Dominance: Marx and Engels on Global Trade and the Bourgeoisiep. 554
The New Imperialism, 1869-1914p. 569
The New Imperialism: Motives and Methodsp. 570
Political Motivesp. 570
Cultural Motivesp. 572
Economic Motivesp. 574
The Tools of the Imperialistsp. 574
Colonial Agents and Administrationp. 575
The Scramble for Africap. 577
Egyptp. 577
Western and Equatorial Africap. 579
Southern Africap. 580
Political and Social Consequencesp. 581
Cultural Responsesp. 582
Asia and Western Dominancep. 583
Central Asiap. 583
Southeast Asia and Indonesiap. 583
Hawaii and the Philippines, 1878-1902p. 587
Imperialism in Latin Americap. 589
Railroads and the Imperialism of Free Tradep. 590
American Expansionism and the Spanish-American War, 1898p. 591
American Intervention in the Caribbean and Central America, 1907-1914p. 591
The World Economy and the Global Environmentp. 592
Expansion of the World Economyp. 592
Transformation of the Global Environmentp. 593
Conclusionp. 594
Key Termsp. 594
Suggested Readingp. 594
Notesp. 595
Diversity and Dominance: Two Africans Recall the Arrival of the Europeansp. 584
The Crisis of the Imperial Order, 1900-1929p. 596
Origins of the Crisis in Europe and the Middle Eastp. 597
The Ottoman Empire and the Balkansp. 597
Nationalism, Alliances, and Military Strategyp. 597
The "Great War" and the Russian Revolutionsp. 601
Stalemate, 1914-1917p. 601
The Home Front and the War Economyp. 603
The Ottoman Empire at Warp. 603
Double Revolution in Russia, 1917p. 604
The End of the War in Western Europe, 1917-1918p. 605
Peace and Dislocation in Europep. 605
The Impact of the Warp. 605
The Peace Treatiesp. 606
Russian Civil War and the New Economic Policyp. 606
An Ephemeral Peacep. 607
China and Japan: Contrasting Destiniesp. 608
Revolution in Chinap. 608
Japan and World War Ip. 609
China in the 1920sp. 609
The New Middle Eastp. 610
The Rise of Modern Turkeyp. 610
Arab Lands and the Question of Palestinep. 612
Society, Culture, and Technology in the Industrialized Worldp. 612
Class and Genderp. 613
Revolution in the Sciencesp. 614
The New Technologies of Modernityp. 614
Technology and the Environmentp. 615
Conclusionp. 617
Key Termsp. 617
Suggested Readingp. 617
Environment and Technology: Cities Old and Newp. 598
The Collapse of the Old Order, 1929-1949p. 619
Stalin's Revolutionp. 620
Five-Year Plansp. 620
Collectivization of Agriculturep. 620
Terror and Opportunitiesp. 622
The Depressionp. 623
Economic Crisisp. 623
Depression in Industrial Nationsp. 623
Depression in Nonindustrial Regionsp. 623
The Rise of Fascismp. 626
Mussolini's Italyp. 626
Hitler's Germanyp. 627
The Road to War, 1933-1939p. 628
East Asia, 1931-1945p. 629
The Manchurian Incident of 1931p. 629
The Chinese Communists and the Long Marchp. 629
The Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1945p. 630
The Second World Warp. 631
The War of Movementp. 631
War in Europe and North Africap. 631
War in Asia and the Pacificp. 632
The End of the Warp. 634
Chinese Civil War and Communist Victoryp. 634
The Character of Warfarep. 635
The War of Sciencep. 635
Bombing Raidsp. 637
The Holocaustp. 637
The Home Frontp. 638
War and the Environmentp. 638
Conclusionp. 639
Key Termsp. 639
Suggested Readingp. 639
Diversity and Dominance: Women, Family Values, and the Russian Revolutionp. 624
Striving for Independence: Africa, India, and Latin America, 1900-1949p. 641
Sub-Saharan Africa, 1900-1945p. 642
Colonial Africa: Economic and Social Changesp. 642
Religious and Political Changesp. 644
The Indian Independence Movement, 1905-1947p. 646
The Land and the Peoplep. 646
British Rule and Indian Nationalismp. 647
Mahatma Gandhi and Militant Nonviolencep. 648
India Moves Toward Independencep. 649
Partition and Independencep. 651
The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1940p. 652
Mexico in 1910p. 652
Revolution and Civil War, 1911-1920p. 654
The Revolution Institutionalized, 1920-1940p. 654
Argentina and Brazil, 1900-1949p. 656
The Transformation of Argentinap. 657
Brazil and Argentina, to 1929p. 657
The Depression and the Vargas Regime in Brazilp. 658
Argentina After 1930p. 659
Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil: A Comparisonp. 660
Conclusionp. 660
Key Termsp. 661
Suggested Readingp. 661
Notesp. 661
Environment and Technology: Gandhi and Technologyp. 650
Issues in World History: Famines and Politicsp. 662
The Perils and Promises of a Global Community, 1945 to the Presentp. 665
The Cold War and Decolonization, 1945-1975p. 668
The Cold Warp. 669
The United Nationsp. 669
Capitalism and Communismp. 670
West Versus East in Europe and Koreap. 672
U.S. Defeat in Vietnamp. 673
The Race for Nuclear Supremacyp. 674
Decolonization and Nation Buildingp. 675
New Nations in Southern Asiap. 675
The Struggle for Independence in Africap. 675
The Quest for Economic Freedom in Latin Americap. 678
Challenges of Nation Buildingp. 679
Beyond a Bipolar Worldp. 679
The Third Worldp. 679
Japan and Chinap. 683
The Middle Eastp. 684
The Emergence of Environmental Concernsp. 687
Conclusionp. 687
Key Termsp. 687
Suggested Readingp. 687
Diversity and Dominance: Race and the Struggle for Justice in South Africap. 680
Crisis, Realignment, and the Dawn of the Post-Cold War World, 1975-1991p. 689
Postcolonial Crises and Asian Economic Expansion, 1975-1991p. 690
Revolutions, Repression, and Democratic Reform in Latin Americap. 690
Islamic Revolutions in Iran and Afghanistanp. 693
Asian Transformationp. 696
The End of the Bipolar World, 1989-1991p. 699
Crisis in the Soviet Unionp. 699
The Collapse of the Socialist Blocp. 700
The Persian Gulf War, 1990-1991p. 702
The Challenge of Population Growthp. 703
Demographic Transitionp. 703
The Industrialized Nationsp. 704
The Developing Nationsp. 705
Unequal Development and the Movement of Peoplesp. 706
The Problem of Growing Inequalityp. 706
Internal Migration: The Growth of Citiesp. 706
Global Migrationp. 707
Technological and Environmental Changep. 708
New Technologies and the World Economyp. 708
Conserving and Sharing Resourcesp. 709
Responding to Environmental Threatsp. 709
Conclusionp. 710
Key Termsp. 710
Suggested Readingp. 711
Notesp. 711
Diversity and Dominance: The Struggle for Women's Rights in an Era of Global Political and Economic Changep. 694
Globalization at the Turn of the Millenniump. 712
Global Political Economiesp. 714
The Spread of Democracyp. 714
Global Politicsp. 716
Arms Control and Terrorismp. 717
The Global Economyp. 718
Managing the Global Economyp. 720
Trends and Visionsp. 722
A New Age?p. 722
Militant Islamp. 722
Universal Rights and Valuesp. 723
Women's Rightsp. 725
Global Culturep. 726
The Media and the Messagep. 727
The Spread of Pop Culturep. 729
The Emerging Global Elite Culturep. 730
Enduring Cultural Diversityp. 731
Conclusionp. 732
Key Termsp. 732
Suggested Readingp. 733
Notesp. 733
Environment and Technology: Global Warmingp. 726
Glossaryp. G-1
Indexp. I-1
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